Understanding factors that limit yield in corn l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 41

Understanding Factors That Limit Yield in Corn PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Understanding Factors That Limit Yield in Corn R.L. (Bob) Nielsen Agronomy Dept., Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150 ph. (765) 494-4802 Internet: [email protected] http://www.agry.purdue.edu/agronomy/ext/corn/talks/ylf/ Precision Farming: Excitement!

Related searches for Understanding Factors That Limit Yield in Corn

Download Presentation

Understanding Factors That Limit Yield in Corn

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Understanding factors that limit yield in corn l.jpg

Understanding Factors That Limit Yield in Corn

R.L. (Bob) NielsenAgronomy Dept.,Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette, IN 47907-1150ph. (765) 494-4802Internet:[email protected]

http://www.agry.purdue.edu/agronomy/ext/corn/talks/ylf/


Precision farming excitement l.jpg

Precision Farming: Excitement!

  • Color maps are fun to look at!

  • Yield monitors are fun to look at!

  • Hi-tech wizardry is fun to buy and vendors love to sell it to you!

  • Landlords are impressed!

  • Finally, maybe we can finally identify and correct those problem areas in our fields once and for all!

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Precision farming tools l.jpg

Precision Farming: Tools

  • The tools to manage cropland on a site-specific basis are here or are being developed rapidly

    • Yield monitors

    • Grid soil sampling

    • Variable rate applicators & seeders

    • Portable GPS data recorders

    • Software to ‘massage’ the data

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Success with pf technology l.jpg

Success With PF Technology

  • Will depend on your ability to identify and manage those yield limiting factors that are most important in each field.

    • Yield maps alone are not sufficient.

    • Yield maps can clue you in on where to spend your diagnostic efforts.

    • Proactive, intentional season-long crop monitoring will be important.

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Yield limiting factors ylfs l.jpg

Yield Limiting Factors (YLFs)

  • Crop yields are influenced by vast array of yield limiting factors (YLF)

    • Some influence yield directly

    • Some interact with others to influence yield

    • Some occur every year, others do not

    • Some influence different crops differently

    • Weather interacts with most of them

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Major categories of yield limiting factors l.jpg

Major Categories of Yield-Limiting Factors

  • Weather Stress

  • Pest Pressures

  • Soil Characteristics

  • Management Practices of...

    • Farmer

    • Consultant

    • Applicator

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Ylf categories weather stress l.jpg

YLF Categories:Weather Stress...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Bragging rights for top u s corn yields l.jpg

Bragging Rights For Top U.S. Corn Yields?

  • Which states regularly take top honors for state average corn yields?

    • Surely, the answer must lie within the major CornBelt states? Yes or no?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Bragging rights for top u s corn yields 1997 l.jpg

Bragging Rights For Top U.S. Corn Yields, 1997

USDA est’s as of Nov 1

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Bragging rights for top u s corn yields 199710 l.jpg

Bragging Rights For Top U.S. Corn Yields, 1997

USDA est’s as of Nov 1

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Basis for high corn yields l.jpg

Basis for High Corn Yields?

  • Many days of high light intensity

    • Little rain

    • Few cloudy days

    • Little haze

  • Warm days + cool nights

    • Less night respiration >>> less dry matter loss

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Ylf categories pest pressures l.jpg

YLF Categories:Pest Pressures...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Ylf categories soil characteristics l.jpg

YLF Categories:Soil Characteristics...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


E b white farmer poet writer l.jpg

E.B. White, farmer-poet-writer...

“A good farmer is nothing more or less than a handy man with a sense of humus.”

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Ylf categories management practices l.jpg

YLF Categories:Management Practices...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Cultural practices l.jpg

Cultural Practices...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Which ylfs are most important l.jpg

Which YLFs Are Most Important?

Last year?

This field?

Next year?

That field?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Perennial yield limiting factors l.jpg

‘Perennial’ Yield Limiting Factors

  • Some yield limiting factors occur every year

    • Soil fertility or pH patterns

    • Soil drainage patterns

    • Patterns of perennial weed growth

  • These can be identified or attacked with site-specific technology

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Sporadic yield limiting factors l.jpg

‘Sporadic’ Yield Limiting Factors

  • Other yield limiting factors occur sporadically over the years...

    • Diseases & insects, even fertility problems are greatly dependent on weather

  • Site-specific technology can help identify these sporadic problems when they occur, but not necessarily prevent their reoccurrence

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Identifying ylfs is difficult l.jpg

Identifying YLFs Is Difficult

  • Requires season-long monitoring

    • Includes both field observations and crop diagnostics

    • For precision farming, will require monitoring on site-specific basis

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Identifying ylfs is difficult21 l.jpg

Identifying YLFs Is Difficult

  • Requires season-long monitoring

  • Requires good note-taking skills

    • You think you’ve got reams of data from the yield monitor now? Wait until you receive the data from season-long site-specific crop monitoring!

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Identifying ylfs is difficult22 l.jpg

Identifying YLFs Is Difficult

  • Requires season-long monitoring

  • Requires good note-taking skills

  • Requires good agronomic skills

    • Esp. crop diagnostic skills

    • Ability to integrate layers of agronomic information and relate to yield

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Field observations crop diagnostics l.jpg

Field Observations & Crop Diagnostics

  • Do your homework!

    • Educate yourself.

      • Meetings, seminars, demo. plots

      • Publications, books, magazines, video

      • CD-ROM programs

        • Purdue’s Corn Diagnostics CD

      • World Wide Web

        • Corn Growers Guidebook

http://www.agry.purdue.edu/agronomy/ext/corn/

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Field observations crop diagnostics24 l.jpg

Field Observations & Crop Diagnostics

  • Do your homework!

  • Use “hired gun” expertise

    • Professional crop consultants

    • Industry agronomists

    • County Extension educators

    • University specialists

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Field observations crop diagnostics25 l.jpg

Field Observations & Crop Diagnostics

  • Do your homework!

  • Use “hired gun” expertise

  • Identify and diagnose crop problems as early as you can, not at the end of the season!

    • Postmortem diagnoses are difficult, if not impossible!

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations planting to emergence l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Planting to Emergence...

  • Uneven or poor stand establishment

    • Hybrid weaknesses?

    • Seed zone stresses?

    • Insect damage?

    • Disease damage?

    • Planter problems?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations emergence to knee high l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Emergence to Knee-High...

  • Uneven plant growth?

    • Soil tilth, pests?

  • Poor plant color or vigor?

    • Hybrid, fertility?

  • Poor weed control?

    • Herbicide appl’n?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations knee high to tasseling l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Knee-High to Tasseling...

  • Poor or uneven plant growth?

    • Nutrient deficiencies?

    • Soil tilth?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations tasseling silking l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Tasseling & Silking...

  • Uneven pollination success?

    • Heat/moisture stress?

    • Insect pests?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations tasseling to maturity l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Tasseling to Maturity...

  • Aborted kernels or malformed ears?

    • Nutrient deficiencies?

    • Excessive plant populations?

    • Leaf disease(s)

    • Drought stress

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations maturity to harvest l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Maturity to Harvest...

  • Root and stalk rots?

    • Hybrid weaknesses?

    • Excessive plant population?

    • Nutrient deficiencies?

    • Earlier defoliation?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Examples of field observations harvest l.jpg

Examples of Field Observations:Harvest...

  • Yield variability across field?

    • Role of yield monitors

  • Excessive harvest losses?

    • Hybrid weaknesses?

    • Combine adjustments?

    • Grain moisture or harvest date?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Beware of the hazards of correlations l.jpg

Beware of theHazards of Correlations

  • As you gather more and more information about potential YLFs, be aware that apparent relationships with yield may simply be random chance events…...

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Ex of hazardous correlation l.jpg

Ex. of Hazardous Correlation

  • Every single person who ate asparagus prior to 1865 is now dead, therefore…..

  • Eating asparagus is hazardous to your health!

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Real life example 1 l.jpg

Real-Life Example #1

“That patch of foxtail sure cut the yield of those soybeans.”

Maybe that area of the field was also a low spot that ponded last spring, killed off some of the soybean stand, and the foxtail took advantage of the extra sunlight.

So, stand loss rather than foxtail could have been the real culprit.

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Real life example 2 l.jpg

Real-Life Example #2

“My best yields came from an area with twice Purdue’s recommended soil K levels.”

Occurred during 1995 drought. Best yielding area was also low, poorly drained area of field.

So, maybe the yield response was more due to soil moisture availability differences than to soil potassium levels?

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Without season long monitoring yield map interpretation can be very difficult l.jpg

Without Season-Long Monitoring, Yield Map Interpretation Can Be Very Difficult

DrainageSoil typeInsectDiseaseFertilityPrev. cropVarietyCompactionetc.

Source: Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’lhttp://www.pioneer.com/xweb/usa/txt/restech/precision/i971219.htm

Purdue University Agronomy Department


My advice l.jpg

My Advice?

  • Hire a good agronomist to be your Sherlock Holmes!

  • You’ll need the season-long expertise to help with the Precision Farming puzzle.

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Precision farming challenge l.jpg

Precision Farming: Challenge

  • It may be that we’ll only be able to fine-tune our crop production to a limited extent with site-specific technology

    • Identify and correct perennial yield limiting factors such as soil fertility, pH, drainage

    • Identify and attack certain sporadic yield limiting factors ‘on the go’

      • e.g., developing pest or disease problems

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Precision farming challenge40 l.jpg

Precision Farming: Challenge

  • But, we may be limited when trying to site-specifically manage those yield limiting factors that interact heavily with seasonal weather patterns

    • At least, until we can better predict next year’s weather!

Purdue University Agronomy Department


Let s remember l.jpg

Let’s Remember...

“Farming is a kind of continual miracle wrought by the hand of God.”

  • -- Benjamin Franklin

Purdue Agriculture

Purdue University Agronomy Department


  • Login