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U.S. Maritime Administration A National Port Gateway & Freight Corridor Strategy American Waterways Operators, Inc. July 23, 2008 Why a National Strategy? The Marine Transportation System is a Story of Success The System is Facing Serious Challenges

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U.S. Maritime AdministrationA National Port Gateway & Freight Corridor Strategy

American Waterways Operators, Inc.

July 23, 2008

Draft - For Discussion Only


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Why a National Strategy?

  • The Marine Transportation System is a Story of Success

  • The System is Facing Serious Challenges

  • We Need to Change Our Approach to Face Future Challenges

  • The National Port Gateway and Freight Corridor Strategy

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The Marine Transportation System (MTS) Success Story

  • The MTS: Channels, gateway ports, near-port connectors & interstate corridors that move our freight and passengers.

  • The MTS is the U.S. engine for International Trade

  • International Trade and GDP (Prosperity) are directly proportional.

  • Until now, the MTS has successfully supported America’s Prosperity and International Trade.

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The System is Facing Serious Challenges

  • Existing Landside Congestion is already a serious problem:

    • Congestion costs us as much as $ 200 Billion each year and climbing.

    • We waste 2.3 billion gallons and 3.7 billion hours each year.

    • Congestion slows freight, reduces reliability and increases cost.

  • Experts project a doubling of international freight by 2015.

  • Transportation Routes and Trends are changing:

    • Panama Canal Expansion

    • Ships are getting larger and deeper

    • Manufacturing centers are shifting

    • Environmental and community pressures influence freight choices

    • Energy costs are soaring

    • Exports are on the rise

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We Need to Change Our Approach

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Highways & Transit

Railroads

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We Need to Change Our Approach

WATER ACCESS

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Highways & Transit

Maintenance

Deepening

Railroads

Navigation

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We Need to Change Our Approach

WATER ACCESS

PORTS

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Highways & Transit

Maintenance

Deepening

Railroads

Navigation

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We Need to Change Our Approach

WATER ACCESS

PORTS

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Highways & Transit

Maintenance

Near-Port Connectors

Deepening

Railroads

Navigation

Marine Highways

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We Need to Change Our Approach

The Marine Transportation System

WATER ACCESS

PORTS

INTERSTATE CORRIDORS

(Surface Transportation)

Highways & Transit

Maintenance

Near-Port Connectors

Deepening

Railroads

Navigation

Marine Highways

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The National Port Gateway and Freight Corridor Strategy

Views the Marine Transportation System as a single system with the ports at the nexus

Objective: Ensure the MTS develops and shifts capacity in concert, maximizing reliability and minimizing congestion

The Marine Transportation System and its Institutional Challenges

Water Access

Ports, Terminals and Landside Access

Interstate Rail, Road and Marine Highway Links

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Balancing Capacity and Demand

Capacity

Demand

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Strategy Development to Date

  • Maritime Administration met with stakeholders:

    • Ports

    • Shippers and Carriers

    • Railroads

    • Trucking Interests

    • Industry Associations

  • Developed initial draft Strategy

  • Briefed American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) leadership, Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council (MTSNAC)

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The Marine Transportation System and its Institutional Challenges

  • Overview

  • Governance

  • Funding

  • Port Infrastructure Development

  • National Defense

  • Findings

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Overview Challenges

  • Recent and Future Increase in Intermodal Cargo

  • Highway and Rail Challenges

  • Obstacles to Port Infrastructure Development

    • Time to Build

    • Cost

    • Permitting

    • Land Use

    • Intermodal Road and Rail Links

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Governance Challenges

  • 18 Federal Agencies Play a Role in MTS

    • Dredging

    • Regulation

    • Environmental

    • Role of the CMTS

  • State and Local Government Roles

    • State DOT

    • County, City, MPOs

  • Ports and the Private Sector

    • Landlord/tenant

    • Owner/operator

    • Role of MTSNAC

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Funding Challenges

  • Declining Federal Fund Sources

  • Federal Funding through States and MPOs

  • Public/Private Partnerships

  • Obstacles to PPP

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Port Infrastructure Development Challenges

  • Trend in Port Infrastructure Investment

    • Since 1946 - $465 Million Annually

    • Since 1999 - $1.5 Billion Annually

  • Future Growth is Impeded

    • Regulation

    • Environmental Review Obstacles and Community Concerns

    • Access to Land for Port Use

  • Intermodal Connectors

  • Water Access

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National Defense Challenges

  • Department of Defense relies on the commercial transportation system to deploy and support military operations

  • As ports near capacity, there is less space for

DOD surge operations and unit staging areas

  • Designation as a Strategic Port does not provide funding to develop or maintain surge space

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Findings Challenges

  • Finding: The Federal government is fragmented in the governance, financing and operation of the marine transportation system.

  • Finding: Federal policy must encourage increased private sector investment in marine transportation system infrastructure.

  • Finding: Strategic Ports must retain the non-containerized surge capacity necessary to meet military deployment needs.

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Water Access Challenges

  • Overview – Current State and Future Trends

  • Maintenance Dredging

  • Channel Deepening

  • Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund

  • Findings

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Maintenance Dredging Challenges

  • Current State

  • Implications of Deferred Dredging

  • Encroachment on Waterways (bridges & piers)

  • Impediments to Maintenance Dredging

    • Shortage of Appropriated Funding

    • Environmental Review

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Channel Deepening Challenges

  • Current State

  • Implications of Deferred Deepening

  • Impediments to Successful Channel Deepening

    • Federal Share Difficult to Obtain

    • Environmental Review Process

    • Federal Funding and Delays Discourage PPP

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Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Challenges

  • How the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Works

  • Skyrocketing Fund Balance

  • Access to the funding

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Findings Challenges

  • Finding: Maintenance dredging must keep existing channels and ports operating efficiently.

  • Finding: Deepening projects, including new starts, should be accelerated to meet the demands of anticipated increases in trade and larger vessels.

  • Finding: Expedited, streamlined environmental processes support the development of infrastructure to increase capacity.

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Ports, Terminals, and Landside Access Challenges

2018

2008

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Challenges: Ports & Terminals Challenges

  • Anticipated Growth in Traffic

    • Infrastructure Requirements

  • Capacity vs. Demand

    • Lifts/Hour

    • Velocity of Cargo through System

  • Productivity

    • Throughput / Acre

  • Landside Access (Road, Rail)

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Landside Access Challenges

  • Port Land Use

    • Limited space to expand

    • Competition with other uses - Gentrification

  • Near Port Intermodal Connectors

    • MPOs not always linked to ports

    • Residential and urban limitations

    • Stove-piped (modal) funding structure and sources.

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Small & Medium Ports & ChallengesBulk Cargoes

Small & Medium Ports:

  • Play a vital role in system of ports in the United States

  • Serve niche markets – Single essential commodity

  • Serve specific populations/regions

  • Provide redundancy and resiliency in emergencies

    Bulk Cargoes:

  • More tonnage moves in bulk and liquid than containers, and corridors that serve them differ

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Overarching Limitations & Opportunity Challenges

  • Environmental Impact

    • Green modernization & expansion

  • Financing & Private Investment in Ports & Terminals

    • To date, private equity mainly in existing facilities

  • Innovative Technology & Intermodal Systems

    • Agile Port

    • Agile Intermodal Networks

  • Land use & the community

    • San Diego

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Findings Challenges

  • Finding: Current modal statutes and proposed legislation impose constraints and barriers to multi-modal, and system-wide transportation policies and funding.

  • Finding: There is a need for expanded use and flexibility of public-private partnerships through national policy and statutory authority.

  • Finding: There is a need for streamlined environmental processes that reduce the cost and time to complete major transportation projects. This need exists at the federal, state and local governmental levels.

  • Finding: Federal leadership in the development of critical port and terminal infrastructure can assist in expediting the management and completion of marine transportation projects.

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Findings (Continued) Challenges

  • Finding: Increasing velocity of cargo through the transportation system has the potential to reduce congestion and environmental impacts in and around densely populated port/terminal areas.

  • Finding: Public sector collaboration with the private sector is essential as private entities implement initiatives to increase cargo throughput at ports and terminals.

  • Finding: Legacy equipment and associated highly polluting engine technology need to be replaced with more modern and environmentally sound equipment.

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Interstate Rail, Road and Challenges

Marine Highway Links

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Container Ports at Major U.S. Gateways and Their Distribution Hubs

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Draft - For Discussion Only Distribution Hubs


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Draft - For Discussion Only Distribution Hubs


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Draft - For Discussion Only Distribution Hubs


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Draft - For Discussion Only Distribution Hubs


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Draft - For Discussion Only Distribution Hubs


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Major Freight Truck Bottlenecks Distribution Hubs

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North American Rail Network Distribution Hubs(Bottlenecks & Congestion Areas)

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America’s Marine Highway Distribution HubsSurface Transportation’s Third dimension

  • The U.S. has 25,000 miles of under-utilized navigable waterways

  • The Marine Highway can provide relief to landside congestion

  • The 2007 EnergyBill establishes aMarine Highwayprogram withinthe Maritime Administration

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Marine Highway Benefits Distribution Hubs

MARINE HWY

1 Barge = 456 40’ Containers

ENERGY

228 Railcars DBL Stacked = 456 40’ Containers

RAIL

TRUCK

456 Trucks = 456 40’ Containers

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= 15 Barrels


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Findings Distribution Hubs

  • Finding: Empirical analysis of the intermodal system is essential to determining and identifying chokepoints impeding the flow of cargo.

  • Finding: Shipper incentives can have a major impact on the movement of cargo around chokepoints.

  • Finding: The U.S. needs to increase and maximize capacity across all available surface transportation modes (rail, road and marine highway) on major domestic surface transportation corridors.

  • Finding: Critical interstate waterway corridor infrastructure, including locks, needs to be modernized to meet growing demands for the use of inland waterways and to mitigate landside congestion.

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Findings Distribution Hubs

  • Finding: Port connector road and rail projects need to be expedited.

  • Finding: Maximizing use of America’s Marine Highway can reduce landside traffic and environmental impacts of freight movement.

  • Finding: Harbor Maintenance Tax is a Disincentive to Marine Highway expansion.

  • Finding: Short line railroads can increase capacity and the flow of cargo between the waterside terminal and inland terminal and other satellite points.

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Appendices to the National Port Gateway & Freight Corridor Strategy

A – Gateway and Corridor Projects

B – Port Terminal Intermodal Information

C – Deep Draft & Shallow Draft Navigation Projects

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A National Port Gateway & Freight Corridor Strategy Strategy

Questions?

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Ports & Terminals Strategy

  • Productivity & Efficiency (existing infrastructure):

    • Lifts/Hour

    • Velocity of Cargo through System

    • Throughput / Acre

  • Increased Capacity through infrastructure development:

    • PPP Challenges

    • Environmental Review Process

Draft - For Discussion Only


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