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The Real History of The GUI Introduced By Lior Ur & Efrat Carmi What is GUI? Many of us may think of gooey GUI - Graphical User Interface

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The real history of the gui l.jpg

The Real History of The GUI

Introduced By

Lior Ur

&

Efrat Carmi


What is gui l.jpg
What is GUI?

Many of us may think of

gooey


Gui graphical user interface l.jpg
GUI - Graphical User Interface

An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing a pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and activates graphical images on a monitor.


Why do we need gui l.jpg
Why do we need GUI?

  • The idea of GUI derives from cognitive psychology – the study of how the brain deals with communication

  • Our brain works more efficiently with graphical icons & displays than with words


Why do we need gui5 l.jpg
Why do we need GUI?

For example:


Gui history the mythology l.jpg
GUI history – The Mythology

December 1979:

  • The Apple team, Steve Jobs and his friends, enter Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) labs

  • They tour the place with childh like admiration while… memorizing schematics and taking notes


Gui history the mythology7 l.jpg
GUI history – The Mythology

Jobs and cohort Steve Wozniak go back to their garage and stuff every idea and process they can remember from the Xerox tour into their new product:

The Macintosh!!!


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GUI history – The Mythology

Apple amazes the world with the GUI thing, and everyone wants to get their own computer

Xerox is confused and Microsoft’s Bill Gates is enraged!


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GUI history – The Mythology

Gates takes Job’s thievery one step further and brings out Apple-clone, Windows.

Microsoft succeeds to dodge an Apple lawsuit, And so Apple falls behind.

And…


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GUI history – The Mythology

Windows takes over the world…


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GUI history – The Mythology

Well … not exactly

The true story is quite different



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The real history of GUI

1940-1975: The early years

“The best way to predict the future is to invent it”

Alan Kay and an informal PARC slogan


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1945 – Bush invents the “memex”

Vannevar Bush, a visionary scientist, invents the “memex”:

  • Acts as an external memory

  • Would make use “hyperlink” technology (items retrieved rapidly through indexing, keywords, cross references)

  • Reflected the idea of hypertext (where documents are linked to related documents)

  • Was never constructed



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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1962 – The first “mouse”

Douglas Engelbart, a scientist at Stanford Research Laboratory (now SRI), invented the first “mouse”, a wooden box on wheels that moves around the desktop, and takes the cursor with it on the display.


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

He called it:

“x-y position indicator”


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

First graphical video game -

Space War (1962)

  • MIT project

  • Including the first computer joystick


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1963 - The “sketchpad”

Ivan Sutherland, a grad student at MIT, submits as his thesis a program named “sketchpad”, that supported manipulation of objects on screen using a light pen, including:

  • Grabbing objects

  • Moving objects

  • Changing size


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Sutherland and his sketchpad


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

1968 - Engelbart creates NLS (oNLine System)

A hypermedia groupware system that featured:

  • Use of mouse for graphics

  • Multiple tiled windows

  • Object addressing

  • Extensive use of linking

  • Videoconferencing

  • E-mail


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

The place GUI was born

PARC - Palo Alto Research Center

a computing “think tank”, where brilliant minds crank out ideas and implement them


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Main ideas that came from PARC

  • Development of icons

  • Extension of ‘desktop metaphor’ into ‘office metaphor’– collection of data will be known as files, that can be organized into folders

  • Implementation of object concept

  • Cursor changes to show system mode and context

  • Overlapped and tiled windows


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Main ideas that came from PARC – cont.

  • Popup menus

  • Scroll bar

  • Push buttons

  • Check boxes

  • Dialog boxes

  • Multiple fonts & style in text

  • Move / copy / delete


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Early 70’s at PARC

  • Failing project called “Dynabook” :

    hand held, notebook-sized device (early laptop), where a person can touch the screen to access information

  • Alan Kay and others (from PARC) developed the Smalltalk programming language,with influences from “Logo” “Lisp” and the Sketchpad


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Smalltalk features

  • Object orientation

  • A multi platform virtual machine

    GUI features

  • Overlapping “windows”

  • Hierarchical menus

  • Bit-blt or “bit-blitting” - The protocol by which objects on the screen can be manipulated

  • Model-View-Controller


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Pygmalion –

  • The first program to be written under Smalltalk

  • Demonstrating that computer programming can be graphically based and not restricted to text

  • Attempts to provide the programmer visual and intuitive programming

  • Coined the term “icons”



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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Xerox’s Alto computer (1974)

  • First useable GUI

  • A “smaller”, portable replacement of mainframes

  • Started its life showing an image of Sesame Street’s “Cookie Monster”

  • Was not marketed


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Alto computer - cont.

  • Extensive use of the mouse

  • Pioneered the bitmapped display

  • Featured graphical driven apps.

  • Iconic representations for programs

  • Popup menus


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

Alto’s Software

  • Word processor -“Gypsy”

    • The ability to cut/copy/paste with a mouse

  • Text editor - “Bravo”

    • Supported multiple fonts & style in text

  • First drawing program - “Markup”

  • First Painting program - “Superpaint”

  • WYSIWYG through bitmapping for “Gypsy” and “Bravo”


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The real history of GUI (1940-1975)

WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get

  • Pronounced "wizzy-wig“.

  • Refers to displaying text and graphics on screen, the same as they will print.

  • To have WYSIWYG text, there must be an equivalent screen font for each printer font used




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The real history of GUI

1975-1985: The origins of pc

“ There is no reason why anyone would want a computer in their home”

Kan Olson, President, Chairman & founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977


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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

“So we went to Atari and said: hey, we’ve got this amazing thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do you think about funding us? …and they said ‘No’.

So then we went to Hewlett-Packard,

and they said, ‘Hey, we don’t need you. You haven’t got through college yet’ “.

Apple founder Steve Jobs on attempts to get Atari and HP interested in his and Steve Wozniak’s personal computer


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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple

Jobs and Wozniak met at HP. Their careers begun by building (Wozniak) and selling (Jobs) “blue boxes” : illegal devices that scammed free phone calls from Ma Bell


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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple

  • Jobs envisioned building personal desktop-size computers for the masses

  • 3/76 – Wozniak builds the first Apple

  • Apple  - a wooden boxed machine with LED display


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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

The beginning of Apple

  • 1976 – Apple is founded in Job’s garage

  • About 200 units of Apple ’s are sold

  • The team uses the money from Apple ’s sales to start the work on the Apple 



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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

Apple  (1977)

  • Featuring:

    • Color graphics

    • Video display

    • Inboard floppy disk

    • Game paddles

    • First spreadsheet – VisiCalc


The real history of gui 1975 198542 l.jpg
The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

…Followed by Apple 

(which was unsuccessful)

Apple III


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The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

1979 – Apple’s visit to PARC

  • Apple negotiated a deal with Xerox:

    • 12/79 - Xerox allows Jobs and team to tour the place, take notes and make use of the ideas in their own creations

  • In exchange, Xerox got a block of Apple shares

  • The Apple team returned and started to work on Apple “Lisa”


  • The real history of gui 1975 198544 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    First computer desktop – Xerox Star (1981)

    • First true GUI driven PC featured:

      • Concept of desktop metaphor

      • Overlapping resizable windows

      • Extensive usage of icons

      • Sophisticated PARC mouse, that used laser beams

    • Star’s interface known as –WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus & Pointers)


    The real history of gui 1975 198545 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    “ The [Lisa] user will be able to carry out many functions, simply by pointing to a picture of what he wants done, rather than typing instructions.”

    Time Magazine, 1983


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Apple “Lisa” (1983)

    • Lisa – Local Integrated Software Architecture

    • Development started at 1979, after the trip to PARC

    • First of a new GUI-based PC family

    • developed for business use

    • Eventually failed because of the high cost and lack of software


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Apple Lisa

    • Lisa featured:

      • Click-and-drag capability

      • Pull-down menu

      • 7\7 – integrated software including word processor, spreadsheet, drawing program, chart builder and more

    • Desktop manager taken from PARC (the original plan didn’t have any icons)

    • Smalltalk influence


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Apple LISA - Desktop and 7/7



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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    After Lisa

    • Apple worked with psychologists, artists and ordinary users to improve Lisa’s interface

    • Also provided California

    • schools with free LISA’s in order to enhance software and GUI


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Macintosh(Mac) – 1984

    • Apple wanted to produce a computer with GUI that would be smaller and cheaper than LISA

    • First popular PC to feature GUI

    • Cost 2500$ (compared to the 10,000$ of Lisa)


    The real history of gui 1975 198552 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Mac Toolbox (for Mac)

    • Developed by Apple after Lisa’s failure

    • Allowed third-party companies to produce software for the Mac

    • Contained example programs and Mac interface guidelines so software would be written in similar style to house software


    The real history of gui 1975 198553 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Macintosh(Mac) – cont.

    • The Mac came with:

      • MacPaint – art design to the average user

        • Had the ability to drag and select shapes

      • MacWrite – a simple word processor that was the first WYSIWYG product in the market

        1984 Super Bowl commercial


    The real history of gui 1975 198554 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    “The future lies with graphical windowing interface. Mouse cursor control, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and the like are destined to take over the IBM PC and compatible world as well.”

    W.F Zachmann, 1987


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Microsoft joins the game

    “640K ought to be enough for anybody”

    Bill Gates, 1981


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    The beginning of Microsoft

    • 1974 – Bill Gates and Paul Allen start up Microsoft

    • 1975 – producing BASIC 1.0 interpreter for the MITS Altair, first programming language written specifically for a PC

    • 1975 – BASIC 2.0 for new versions of Altair


    The real history of gui 1975 198557 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    1977 - Microsoft and Apple team up

    • Microsoft writes “Apple BASIC” for Apple. their fee: 21,000$

    • Apple sells over a million computers with Apple BASIC


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    The real history of GUI (1975-1985)

    Early 80’s

    • 1980: Microsoft buys DOS from Seattle Computer Products

    • 1981: Jobs visits Microsoft, and invites them to develop apps. for Apple’s new GUI-based system - the Mac



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    The real history of GUI

    GUI wars

    “No Steve, I think it’s more like we both have a rich neighbor named Xerox, and you broke in to steal the TV set, and you found out I’d been there first, and you said, ‘Hey, that’s not fair!, I wanted to steal the TV set!”

    Bill Gates


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    1985 computer market

    • Many platforms debuted in the early 80’s (visiOn, Gem and others)

    • The only one with significant influence was Commodore’s Amiga


    The real history of gui gui wars62 l.jpg
    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    Commodore’s Amiga (1985)

    • Amiga developed a GUI called “Intuition”, where directories were shown as filing cabinet drawers

    • It also featured:

      • Advanced sound and video capabilities

      • Sophisticated GUI-driven OS

      • Multitasking

      • Shared libraries

      • Right click


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    Windows 1.0 (1985)

    • 11/83 – Microsoft announcing that it is working on its own GUI-based OS, to be known as “Windows”

    • Gates tries to interest IBM in Windows, with no success

    • Apple-like drop-down menus, tiled windows and mouse support


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    The Apple-Microsoft agreement

    • In an ingenious move, when the two companies began their cooperation on the Mac, Microsoft signed a licensing agreement with Apple that stated:

      • MS would not employ Apple technology In win 1.0

      • No agreement was made for further versions of windows

    • Apple realized that the contract they signed with Microsoft only prevents them from using features of the Mac in win1.0


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    Windows 2.0 (1987)

    • Looks like Mac more than ever

    • Featuring:

      • Iconsto represent

        files, folders and programs

      • Cascading overlapping windows

    • Apple’s lawsuit vs. MS, claiming that Windows stole the Mac’s “look and feel”

    • Win 2.0 fails as well


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    The big GUI lawsuit

    • Apple sues MS for stealing the Mac’s “look and feel”

    • Apple: “Windows had illegally copied the Mac GUI”

    • Microsoft: “Both systems “borrowed” liberally from the original Xerox concepts”

    • In fact, Window’s interface design looked more like the old Alto GUI than the Mac design

    • Microsoft won in 1993


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    The real history of GUI (GUI wars)

    Mutual agreement to end the GUI dispute

    • 1997 – Jobs announced a formal partnership with MS

    • Microsoft buys $150 million of Apple shares



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    The real history of GUI

    1990 and on: The Windows Era

    “I think Windows 3.0 will get a lot of attention; people will check it out, and before long they will all drift back to raw DOS. Once in a while they’ll boot Windows for some specific purpose, but many will put it in the closet with the commodore 64.”

    John Dvorak, 1990


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Windows 3.0 (1990)

    • Launched with:

      • Dozens of Windowscompatible applications

      • “sculpted buttons” made by an icon designer

      • Win-compatible versions of Word and Excel

      • Support for sixteen colors

      • Improved speed and reliability

      • Selling over 3 million copies in the first year


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Windows 3.1 (1992)

    • TrueType font support

    • Enhanced multimedia

    • Outselling Mac for the first time

      Followed by -

      Windows 3.1.1

    • Called “Windows for workgroups”

    • A version for enterprises

    • added no new features


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Win NT (1993)

    • Started as a Microsoft-IBM cooperation

    • New stable kernel

    • Was more useful for business usage, but not marketed as such

    • Many users converted from Unix to NT

    • Had no backward DOS compatibility (problem for the gamers)


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    IBM’s OS/2 warp (1994)

    • Originally a Microsoft/IBM joint venture

    • IBM’s Warp featured a windows like GUI

    • Failed to compete with Windows


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Microsoft Bob (1995)

    • “Bob” – software program that Microsoft released , designed to replace the desktop of Win 3.1 and 95

    • Interface designed to simplify use

    • Despite of the big advertising campaign it failed due to:

      • PC’s of the day didn’t meet the minimum requirements

      • Not useful enough to justify its cost

      • Was too “cute” for the average PC user

      • People who wanted ease of use got a Macintosh

      • Win 95 was about to be released and take all attention



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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Windows 95 (1995)

    • First MS GUI integrated OS

    • Very user-friendly

    • Had the new Windows Explorer interface

    • Win NT 4.0 boosts NT popularity with integrated Win 95 GUI


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Apple’s products

    • Apple tries to redeem itself with:

      • Mac OS 8 “Platinum” – a popular and stable OS

      • OS9 (1999) – an upgrade to the “Platinum” system

      • iMac (1998)

        • comes with either OS 9 or OS X installed

        • Great color scheme

        • User-friendly design

    • None of which seem to makes the difference


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    The real history of GUI (1990 and on)

    Microsoft’s products

    • 1998 - Microsoft launches the Win98, an upgrade for 95 with:

      • "Internet Explorer 4" built in

      • Active Desktop allowing to setup a desktop as a personal web page

    • Followed by Windows Millennium, minor upgrade for 98

    • Windows 2000 or Win 2K – Last iteration of the NT line

    • 2002 – Windows XP, uniting the Win9X and NT series


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    The real history of GUI

    The GUI today

    • No significant changes were made since Lisa, desktop became only faster, smoother and nicer

    • Latest UI innovations:

      • Touch screens (usually for business use)

      • voice recognition

      • Retinal and fingerprint scans for security

      • Holographic representations

    • Some of which exist but too expensive for common use

    • New attempts – win3d (cont of Bob)



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    The real history of GUIAbout the writer -

    Mike Tuck

    An educator, freelance writer, and self-taught PC user. Expert in Microsoft product optimization

    and usage.

    Written 5 articles for SitePoint.

    His hobbies include basketball, politics and spoiling his cats.


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    The real history of GUI

    Article critique

    Good:

    • Written in a friendly manner (language and structure)

    • Has an objective view

    • Gives good overview

      Bad:

    • Missing specific information about various GUI features

    • Tends to drift away from the main topic

    • Missing future prospect of GUI


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    Discussion - The future of the GUI

    • What are Apple, MS and others planning ?

    • Do you think the mouse\keyboard will be replaced, by what ?

    • How will VR come in to play ?

    • How can GUI become more intuitive ?



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