Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability. Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program. 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L. 1926.450 Scope and Application 1926.451 General Requirements 1926.452 Additional Requirements 1926.453 Aerial Lifts 1926.454 Training Requirements
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Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program
A significant percentage of personnel in construction (65) work from scaffolds routinely
There are approximately 50 fatalities related to scaffolds each year.
There are approximately 4500 employee injuries each year as a result of using scaffolds.
For the period 1980-1985 falls from scaffolds accounted for 17% of the fatalities for falls from elevations.National Statistics
Requirement for over hang based on length: work from scaffolds routinely
10 ft or less platform not to exceed 12 inches
More than 10 ft not to exceed 18 inches
For extended platforms overlap over supports by 12 inches (unless secured)
Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes.
Components (different) shall not be mixed unless they fit (integrity maintained).Platform Construction
When scaffold platforms are 2 feet above or below a point of access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Cross braces can not be climbed.
Ladders set up so not to tip scaffold.
Stairway type ladders can be used in 1926.451(e)(3)
Railing has to be provided
Rails over 6 feet
No slope greater than 20 degreesScaffold Access, 29 CFR 1926.451(e)
Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Designed and constructed as ladder rungs
Rung length of 8 inches
Direct Access shall only be used when scaffold is not more than 14” horizontal and 24” vertical away.
Safe means of access shall be provided during erecting or dismantling as determined by competent person.Scaffold Access
Scaffolds shall not be excessively loaded access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Inspection by competent person before each shift
Damaged scaffold immediately repaired or replaced.
Maintain adequate distance from power lines (3 ft for less than 300 V and 10 ft for greater than 300)
Must not work on slippery platforms, debris or during high winds.
Standing on objects to increase height prohibited.
Ladder may be used on wide area scaffold.Scaffold Use 1926.451(f)
Required on all scaffolds greater than 10 feet. access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Boatswains chair,float scaffold or similar require fall arrest.
Suspension scaffold requires rails and fall arrest system (independent life line).
Rail system design:
Top rail installed between 38 and 45 inches
mid rail between top and working surface
Finished components must with stand:
A force 200 pounds for top rail
150 pounds for mid railFall Protection, 29 CFR 1926.451(g)
Guardrails must be free of sharp edges. access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Ends of rails must be constructed so it does overhang the terminal posts
Steel or plastic bands are not acceptable as railing
Cross brace may be used as a mid rail if it meets the height requirement (cross between 20-30 inches)
Falling object requirements are:
Employees on scaffold(in addition to hard hats) must be protected by toe boards, debris nets or canopy
Area below must be protected by barricades, canopies, toe boards on scaffolds over 10 feet
Toe boards- withstand 50 pounds of force and be 3.5 inches wide.Fall Protection
Tube and coupler: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
The existing platform shall not be moved until bearers are set
X bracing installation
Couplers have to made of structural steel
Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer
The existing platform shall remain until the frames are set/braced
Frames and panels shall be braced (joined with stack pin
Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineerAdditional Scaffolds-Supported, 29 CFR 1926.452
Horse scaffolds: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Limited to two tiers (10 ft.)
Horses arranged directly over each other
Legs nailed down and tiers braced
Extend from peak to eaves and secured to roof by ridge hooks or equivalent
Pump jack scaffolds:
Bracket must have two positive grips
Poles secured at the top and bottom
Work bench is not a platform
Continuous length poles joined at seam parallel to bracket
Mending plates must be installed at 2X4 splices for strengthAdditional Scaffold-Supported
Ladder jack scaffolds: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Not to exceed 20 feet
Ladder meet requirement of part X
No bridging of platform
Ladders must be provided with device to prevent slipping
Constructed to bear on side rails and rungs or rungs (if rungs at length of 10 inches)
Window jack scaffold:
Attached to window opening and not used to place planks between scaffolds
Step, trestle, and ladder scaffolds:
Platform not placed higher than second highest rung and ladder secured
Ladders designed to part XAdditional Scaffolds-Supported
Swing Stages: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Platform limited to 36”
Platform must be securely fastened to hangars
Platforms shall be of the ladder, plank, or beam type
Two point scaffolds shall not be bridged together unless bridged and hoist is appropriately sized
Multi level scaffolds:
Equipped with independent support lines (equal to number of suspension points) and not attached to the same point as suspension ropes
Supports for platform attached to stirrup onlyAdditional Requirements-Suspended
Requirements for mobile scaffolds: access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Adequately plumbed, braced, level and squared
Must have means to lock wheels/casters
Force to move scaffold no higher than 5 feet above support surface
Power system must be designed for scaffold
Stabilized to prevent tip
Platform must not extend base support without outriggers
Riding not allowed unless:
surface floor level and free of debris and 2:1 BXH ratio
Outriggers on both sides
No one allowed on extended platformAdditional Requirements-Mobile
Meet the design criteria of ANSI access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.
Aerial ladders must be secured in lower traveling position by a locking device before it is moved.
Boom must be adequately stowed before move
Insulated portion must not be altered
A body belt or harness and lanyard must be used
Employees must stand on floor of basket
Never exceed load capacity
Lift truck shall not be moved with men in basket unless adequately designed (upper controls-personnel carriers)
Brakes set for outrigger use (wheels chock)Requirements for Aerial Lifts29 CFR 1926.453