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World Bank Joint Client-Staff Learning Seminar on Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education Professor Asha Kanwar Sir John Daniel Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning: Issues for developing countries Professor Asha Kanwar Sir John Daniel QUALITY “Fitness for purpose

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World Bank Joint Client-Staff Learning Seminar on Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education

ProfessorAsha Kanwar

SirJohn Daniel


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

ProfessorAsha Kanwar

SirJohn Daniel


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QUALITY

“Fitness for purpose

at minimum cost

to society”


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QUALITY

“Fitness for purpose

???


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QUALITY

“Fitness ???purpose

at minimum cost

to society”


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Nottingham’s New University

In Nottingham, that dismal town

where I went to school and college

they’ve built a new university

for a new dispensation of knowledge

Built it most grand and cakeily

out of the noble loot

derived from shrewd cash chemistry

by good Sir Jesse Boot

D. H. Lawrence


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CHALLENGES

Age Participation Rates (APRs)

~50% in richer countries<10% in poorer countries


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CHALLENGES

Age Participation Rates (APRs)

~50% in richer countries<10% in poorer countries

More young students + Life Long Learning (L3)



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  • Higher Education in the 21st Century

  • More private, for-profits

  • International Finance Corporation of the World Bank doing a good job 


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  • Higher Education in the 21st Century

  • More private, for-profits

    • They must:

    • Make a profit, and therefore…

    • Attract students, and therefore…

    • Offer useful programmes.


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at minimum cost

to society??



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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

Open learning =

removal of barriers


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

Open learning =

removal of barriers

Distance learning =

separation of learner & institution


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

Distance learning ~ Open learning


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

Open learning =

removal of barriers

Distance learning =

separation of learner & institution

eLearning =

at a computer screen


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

Open learning =

removal of barriers

Distance learning =

separation of learner & institution

eLearning =

at a computer screen (Pure eLearning)


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

eLearning = (sexier) distance learning


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Quality assurance for open, distance and eLearning:

Issues for developing countries

distance learning


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QUALITY

“Fitness for purpose

at minimum cost

to society”


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The Iron Triangle

ACCESS

QUALITY

COST



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The and exclusivityIron Triangle

ACCESS

QUALITY

COST


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ACCESS and exclusivity

QUALITY

COST


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Number and exclusivity

Age


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Number and exclusivity

Age


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and exclusivity200,000 students● Costs 60- 80% of conventional


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BRITAIN’S TOP NINE UNIVERSITIES and exclusivity

Quality Rankings of Teaching

based on all subject assessments 1995-2004(Sunday Times University Guide 2004)

  • 1 CAMBRIDGE 96%

  • 2 LOUGHBOROUGH 95%

  • 3= LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS 88%

  • 3= YORK 88%

  • 5 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY 87%

  • OXFORD 86%

  • IMPERIAL COLLEGE 82%

  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON 77%

  • ESSEX 77%


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BRITAIN’S TOP NINE UNIVERSITIES and exclusivity

Quality Rankings of Teaching

based on all subject assessments 1995-2004(Sunday Times University Guide 2004)

  • 1 CAMBRIDGE 96%

  • 2 LOUGHBOROUGH 95%

  • 3= LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS 88%

  • 3= YORK 88%

  • 5 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY 87%

  • OXFORD 86%

  • IMPERIAL COLLEGE 82%

  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON 77%

  • ESSEX 77%

…and top for student satisfaction


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QUALITY and exclusivity

“Fitness for purpose

at minimum cost

to society”



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SOUTH-SOUTH COLLABORATION and exclusivity

TO DEVELOP OPEN SCHOOLING


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  • Higher Education in the 21 and exclusivityst Century

  • More private, for-profits

  • More distance learning

  • More cross-border education


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  • CROSS-BORDER TERTIARY EDUCATION and exclusivity

  • is facilitated by distance learning

  • can come in under the radar

  • is currently negligible in developing countries


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QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR and exclusivityDISTANCE LEARNING


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  • QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR and exclusivityDISTANCE LEARNING

  • 1970s – quest for parity

  • 1980s – intrinsic quality measures


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  • QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR and exclusivityDISTANCE LEARNING

  • 1970s – quest for parity

  • 1980s – intrinsic quality measures

  • 1990s – DL & F2F same treatment


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BRITAIN’S TOP NINE UNIVERSITIES universities for:

Quality Rankings of Teaching

based on all subject assessments 1995-2004(Sunday Times University Guide 2004)

  • 1 CAMBRIDGE 96%

  • 2 LOUGHBOROUGH 95%

  • 3= LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS 88%

  • 3= YORK 88%

  • 5 THE OPEN UNIVERSITY 87%

  • OXFORD 86%

  • IMPERIAL COLLEGE 82%

  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON 77%

  • ESSEX 77%


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  • Teaching Quality Assessment universities for:

  • Criteria: (4 points each)

  • Curriculum design, content and organisation

  • Teaching, learning and assessment

  • Student progression and achievement

  • Student support and guidance

  • Learning resources

  • Quality management and enhancement


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Distance learning uses the well-tried industrial principles of division of labour and specialisation


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  • QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR of division of labour and specialisationDISTANCE LEARNING

  • 1970s – quest for parity

  • 1980s – intrinsic quality measures

  • 1990s – DL & F2F same treatment

  • 2000s – towards a culture of quality


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DISTANCE LEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

student

a three-legged stool


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DISTANCE LEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

student

materials

a three-legged stool


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  • LEARNING MATERIALS of division of labour and specialisation

  • Use media that allow:

  • Economies of scale

  • Quality of scale


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DISTANCE LEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

student

support

materials

a three-legged stool


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DISTANCE LEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

student

support

materials

logistics

a three-legged stool


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The challenge for developing countries: of division of labour and specialisation

To invent quality assurance arrangements that are fit for purpose at minimum cost to society


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  • QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR of division of labour and specialisationDISTANCE LEARNING

  • 1970s – quest for parity

  • 1980s – intrinsic quality measures

  • 1990s – DL & F2F same treatment

  • 2000s – towards a culture of quality


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Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda of division of labour and specialisationTeacher Education by Distance Learning


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  • Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda of division of labour and specialisationTeacher Education by Distance Learning

  • Scarce funds and human resources, poor infrastructure

  • Internal and/or external assessment too expensive

  • Quality = care shown to students

  • Culture of Quality = attitude and ethos

  • Focus onmaterials & learner support


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The Indira Gandhi National Open University of division of labour and specialisationTraining the elected members of local councils


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  • The Indira Gandhi National Open University of division of labour and specialisationTraining the elected members of local councils

  • QUALITY =

  • Planning

  • Design

  • Media choice

  • Training

  • Evaluation strategy: Capabilities developed?


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  • Towards a Culture of Quality of division of labour and specialisation

  • ELEMENTS

  • Core dimension: study materials, instructional design, learner support and assessment, systemic research.


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DISTANCE LEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

student

support

materials

logistics

based on research with a learner focus


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  • Towards a Culture of Quality of division of labour and specialisation

  • ELEMENTS

  • Core dimension: study materials, instructional design, learner support and assessment, systemic research.

  • Systemic dimension: state policy, participatory governance, institutional leadership/management, planning.


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  • Towards a Culture of Quality of division of labour and specialisation

  • ELEMENTS

  • Core dimension: study materials, instructional design, learner support and assessment, research.

  • Systemic dimension: state policy, participatory governance, institutional leadership/management, planning.

  • Resource dimension: academic/technical expertise, learning resources, networking, ICTs.


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External Assessment of division of labour and specialisation

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Culture of Quality


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eLEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

(open course content, open source software & tools)


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eLEARNING of division of labour and specialisation

OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

(open course content, open source software & tools)

ARE DYNAMIC AND EVOLVINGLEARNING RESOURCES


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2000-03: of division of labour and specialisationExtensive peer review.|24 articles; 74 in progress

2003-Dynamic editing and quality assurance1,175,807 articles; ~ 1 million in progress


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HYPOTHESIS: of division of labour and specialisation

…a self-organising system in which division of labour and specialisation happen spontaneously…


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"It is advisable to follow not just of division of labour and specialisationbest practices, but to develop next practices to blaze a trail and stay ahead of the pack!"

C. K. Prahalad


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  • CONCLUSIONS of division of labour and specialisation

  • Rapid expansion of tertiary education in developing world

  • Distance learning is fit for purpose

  • Evolve towards a culture of quality

  • Emphasise capacity building


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Thank you! of division of labour and specialisation

ProfessorAsha Kanwar

SirJohn Daniel


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