Limnology 101
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LIMNOLOGY 101 Courtesy of the WI Lakes Partnership Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin Association of Lakes University of Wisconsin Extension Wisconsin Lakes OVERVIEW Unique Properties of Water Lake Types Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

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Limnology 101 l.jpg

LIMNOLOGY 101

Courtesy of the WI Lakes Partnership

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin Association of LakesUniversity of Wisconsin Extension



Overview l.jpg
OVERVIEW

  • Unique Properties of Water

  • Lake Types

  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

  • Technical Aspects


Unique properties of water l.jpg
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER

  • Universal Solvent

  • Chemical Molecular Structure H20

  • Greatest Density at 4º C or 39º F


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UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER

  • Physical Properties

  • 71% Earth’s Surface Covered by Water

  • <1% Water on Earth is Freshwater

  • .009% water on Earth is Freshwater Lakes



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OVERVIEW

  • Unique Properties of Water

  • Lake Types

  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

  • Technical Aspects


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LAKE TYPES

  • Seepage

  • Groundwater Drainage

  • Drainage

  • Impoundments

  • Oxbow


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SEEPAGE LAKE

  • Natural Lake

  • Water Source

    • Groundwater

    • Precipitation

    • Runoff

  • No Stream Outlet/ Inlet


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SEEPAGE LAKE

  • Round Lake, Chippewa County


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GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE

  • Natural Lake

  • Water Source

    • Groundwater

    • Precipitation

    • Limited Runoff

  • Has Stream Outlet


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GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE LAKE

  • Sand Lake, Chippewa County


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DRAINAGE LAKE

  • Water Source

    • Streams

    • Groundwater

    • Precipitation

    • Runoff

  • Stream Drained


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DRAINAGE LAKE

  • Long Lake, Chippewa County


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IMPOUNDMENT

  • A manmade lake

  • Dammed riveror stream


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IMPOUNDMENT

  • Lake Altoona, Eau Claire County


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OXBOW

  • Half Moon Lake, Chippewa County

  • Lake Hallie, Chippewa County


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OVERVIEW

  • Unique Properties of Water

  • Lake Types

  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

  • Technical Aspects


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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Mixing / Stratification

  • Lake Depth

  • Retention Time / Flushing Rate

  • Drainage Basin/ Lake Area Ratio

  • Influence of Watershed Runoff



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LAKE DEPTH MATTERS

  • Deep Lakes

    Stratify

  • Shallow Lakes

    Continuous Nutrient Recycling


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RETENTION TIME/FLUSHING RATE

  • How long would it take to fill a drained lake?

  • Retention Time Matters

  • Long Lake & Altoona

    • Round Lake, 7 years

    • Lake Altoona, 22 days


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DRAINAGE BASIN/LAKE AREA RATIO

  • Seepage Lake- small

  • Drainage Lake- large watershed

    • Seepage Lake w/ drainage area mapped Round Lake



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CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Nutrients

    • P

    • N

  • pH

  • Hardness/ Alkalinity

  • Dissolved Oxygen(optimum 5 ppm)


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LIMITING NUTRIENT PRINCIPLE

…That Nutrient in Least SupplyRelative to Plant Needs

N:P Ratio in plant Tissue 10:1 - 15:1

If the Ratio of N:P in Water is

<10:1 Nitrogen Limited

>15:1 Phosphorus Limited



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BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Viruses/ Bacteria/ Fungi

  • Primary - Producers Algae/ Macrophyte

  • Zooplankton/ Inverts

  • Fish


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ALGAE

  • Primary Energy Sourcefor Invertebrates

  • Can be Nuisance

  • Produce O2


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AQUATIC PLANTS

  • Habitat

  • Energy Dissipation

  • O2 Producers


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ZOOPLANKTON &AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES

Zooplankton

Dragonfly


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FISH

Planktivore

Piscivore

Benthivore



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OVERVIEW

  • Unique Properties of Water

  • Lake Types

  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

  • Technical Aspects





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TROPHIC STATE

  • Nutrients & Productivity

  • Sediment & Accumulation

  • Species Shifts

  • Species Richness


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LAKE LITTORAL ZONE

  • Functions

    • Intercepts Nutrients

    • Refuge from Predators

    • Nursery for Fish

Oligotrophic Northern Lake

Eutrophic Southern Lake


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TOTAL PHOSPHORUS/ CHLOROPHYLL a RELATIONSHIP

  • Phosphoruscauses algaeto grow



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LAKE LITTORAL ZONE

  • Functions

    • Intercepts Nutrients

    • Refuge from Predators

    • Nursery for Fish

Oligotrophic Northern Lake

Eutrophic Southern Lake








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LEAVING A LEGACY

Help Protect Wisconsin’s…

WATER RESOURCES


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