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Parks and Nature Preserves. Outline. Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction. PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES. Origins and History

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Parks and nature preserves

Parks and Nature Preserves

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Outline
Outline

  • Parks and Nature Preserves

    • History

    • Problems

    • Size and Design

  • Wilderness Areas

  • Wildlife Refuges

  • Wetlands

    • Values

    • Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Parks and nature preserves1
PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES

  • Origins and History

    • Sacred groves were set aside for religious purposes, and grounds preserved for royalty.

    • Natural landscaping popular in England in 1700s; created illusion of nature.

    • Aristocrats excluded peasants’ harvesting within hunting estates

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Central park
Central Park

  • New York’s Central Park 1844

    • Provide healthful open space.

      • Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead.

        father of landscape architecture.

        • Became original commissioner of Yosemite in California.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Yellowstone
Yellowstone

  • First US area set aside to protect wild nature.

    • Designated the first National Park in the world in1872.

      • National Park Service founded in 1916.

      • Eliminated evidence of human use.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.



U s national parks
U.S. National Parks

  • US national park system has grown to 376 parks, monuments, historic sites and recreation areas.

    • 300 million visitors annually.

      • State and local parks have 1/16th the area of national parks, yet 2x visitors.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Park problems
Park Problems

  • Islands of nature surrounded and threatened by destructive land uses and growing human populations.

  • Number of visitors increased by 1/3rd in past decade, park budgets decreased by 25%

    • Estimated $6-8 billion for overdue repairs and restoration alone.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Park problems1
Park Problems

  • Air Pollution

    • Acid Rain

    • Photochemical Smog

  • Mining and Oil Interests

  • Incompatible uses.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wildlife
Wildlife

  • Historically, parks killed “bad” animals (wolves) in favor of “good” animals (elk).

    • Unbalanced ecosystems, created false illusion of nature.

  • Today’s policy of “natural regulation.”

    • Bison populations

      • Hunted off park property

      • Brucellosis and domestic cattle

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Buffalo killing at Yellowstone

`

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Buffalo killing at Yellowstone

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


New directions
New Directions

  • Several parks removed facilities that conflict with natural values.

  • Proposals to close a number of parks to tourists to protect ecosystems.

    • Airsheds, watersheds, and animal territories and migration routes often extend far beyond official boundaries.

      • Biogeographical area must be managed as a unit.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


New parks and monuments
New Parks and Monuments

  • Solution to to create new parks.

    • Grand Staircase-Escalante

      • Desert canyonlands in southern Utah.

        • Sits atop potentially trillions of dollars worth on natural resources.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


World parks preserves and refuges
World Parks, Preserves and Refuges

  • 4% of landmass

  • North and Central America have the largest fraction (10% of their land area - 33% of total protected area).

    • Former Soviet Union only has 3% of total.

  • Currently about 300 world biosphere reserves in 75 countries.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Sustainable

Human use

and benefit

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Size and design of nature preserves
Size and Design of Nature Preserves

  • Ideally, a reserve should be large enough

    • To support viable populations of endangered species,

    • To keep ecosystems intact

    • To isolate critical core areas from external forces.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.




Size and design of nature preserves1
Size and Design of Nature Preserves

  • For some species, several small isolated refuges can support viable populations.

    • But cannot support species requiring large amounts of space.

      • Corridors of natural habitat to allow movement of species from one area to another can help maintain genetic exchange in fragmented areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.



Conservation and economic development
Conservation and Economic Development

  • Ecotourism can be more beneficial to over the long-term than extractive industries.

    • Wildlife watching, outdoor recreation can be source of income.

    • But ecotourism can extend impacts into new untouched areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Indigenous Communities and Reserves

  • Areas chosen for nature preservation are often traditional lands of indigenous people.

    • Often hurt traditional economies by restricting access or cultural practices.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Maasai herders and tanzania national parks
Maasai herders and Tanzania national parks

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wilderness areas
WILDERNESS AREAS

  • A belief in wilderness is deeply embedded in our culture.

  • 1964 - Wilderness Act defined wilderness:

    • “An area of undeveloped land affected primarily by the forces of nature, where man is a visitor who does not remain…”

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wilderness areas1
Wilderness Areas

  • Most of areas meeting these standards are in the Western US and Alaska.

    • “Pure” interpretation of area with no history of development, only 1/4th of roadless areas qualify.

      • Prolonged battle has been waged over de-facto wilderness areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wilderness areas2
Wilderness Areas

  • Arguments for preservation:

    • Refuge for endangered wildlife.

    • Solitude and primitive recreation.

    • Baseline for ecological research.

    • Area left in natural state.

  • For many people in developing countries, the idea of pristine wilderness is neither important or interesting.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wildlife refuges
WILDLIFE REFUGES

  • 51 national wildlife refuges in US, 1901. Now 511 refuges in every major biome in NA.

  • Refuge Management

    • Originally intended to be sanctuaries in which wildlife would be protected from hunting or other disturbances.

      • 1948 - Hunting allowed in refuges.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wildlife refuges1
Wildlife Refuges

  • Over the years, a number of other uses have been allowed to operate within wildlife refuge boundaries.

    • Oil and Gas Drilling

    • Cattle Grazing

    • Motor-boating

  • Refuges also face threats from external sources - expanding human populations, water pollution

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetlands
WETLANDS

  • Wetland - Shallow water body or an area where the ground is wet long enough to support plants specialized to grow under saturated soil conditions.

    • Wetland Values

      • Highly productive habitat for wildlife.

      • Occupy 5% of US land, but at least 1/3rd of endangered species use wetlands.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetland values
Wetland Values

  • Storage of flood waters.

  • Natural water purification systems.

  • Coastal Wetlands

    • Used by nearly two-thirds of all marine fish and shellfish.

    • Stabilize shorelines and help reduce flood damage.

    • Recreational Opportunities.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetland destruction
Wetland Destruction

  • Throughout much of history, wetlands have been considered disagreeable and useless.

    • 1850s to 1990s-- governments encouraged wetland drainage.

      • 2/3rds of original wetlands destroyed.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetlands destruction
Wetlands Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetland destruction1
Wetland Destruction

  • Clean Water Act (1972) protected wetlands by requiring discharge permits.

  • Farm Bill (1985) blocked agricultural subsidies to farmers who drain or damage wetlands.

    • These laws are not necessarily effectively enforced.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Wetlands and flood control
Wetlands and Flood Control

  • Floodplains - Low lands along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to periodic inundation.

    • Valuable due to rich soil, level topography, convenient water supply, access to shipping, and recreational potential.

      • River control systems have protected communities, but tend to channelize rivers, speeding flow of water and exacerbating flooding downstream.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.


Summary
Summary

  • Parks and Nature Preserves

    • History

    • Problems

    • Size and Design

  • Wilderness Areas

  • Wildlife Refuges

  • Wetlands

    • Values

    • Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.