The treaty governs all nuclear explosions outside TTBT testing grounds. ... Article I prohibits all nuclear explosions, peaceful or military, anywhere. ...
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1. Nuclear Test Ban Treaties Lupei Zhu
2. Topics Significance of nuclear test-ban treaties.
History of test-ban treaty negotiations.
Important nuclear weapon related treaties
1959 Antarctic Treaty
1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty (or Limited Test Ban Treaty, LTB)
1967 Outer Space Treaty
1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
1971 Sea-Bed Treaty
1974 US/USSR Threshold Test Ban Treaty and ABM treaty
1976 US/USSR Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty
1993 US/Russia Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (II)
1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
Effects of test-ban treaties.
US nuclear weapon policy and treaties signed.
3. Significance of test-ban treaties A discontinuance of nuclear-weapon testing would contribute more towards arms control and general disarmament than any other measure.
Limit development in nuclear weapons.
Stop proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Reduce radioactive pollution.
Lead to reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons.
4. History of treaty negotiations First proposal (standstill agreement) by India Prime Minister Nehru in 1954.
In 1955 USSR declared its preparedness to negotiate a test-ban treaty. This was initially denounced by the Western Power.
Negotiation among US, USSR, and UK started in Geneva in 1958. Most early negotiations were done in a subcommittee of the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENDC) which was changed to Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) in 1969.
5. History of treaty negotiations There was fundamental dissent about the verification of a test ban, mostly about on-site inspection.
By the end of 1958 all three parties voluntarily suspended nuclear testing.
However France conducted her first nuclear explosion in 1960.
U-2 spy aircraft was shot down over USSR on May 1, 1960.
The moratorium was broken in 1961 when USSR detonated its 58 Mt “Tsar Bomb”. US soon resumed testing.
6. Number of tests
7. History of treaty negotiations In Oct. 1962 the Cuba missile crisis started. The world was near an all-out nuclear war. After the crisis, both sides realized a need for reconciliation. US and USSR signed the “Hot Line” Agreement in June 1963.
Unable to break the impasse over number of on-site inspections, US, UK and USSR agreed upon a partial solution by signing the “Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTB, or LTB)” in Moscow on Aug. 5, 1963. So far 113 countries have signed.
LTB prohibits all nuclear tests except underground.
8. History of treaty negotiations In 1968 the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) was signed by US, UK, USSR and 59 other nations. China and France acceded in 1992. As of 2000 only Cuba, Israel, India, and Pakistan are not members of the NPT.
US and USSR signed the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) in 1974 and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty (PNE) in 1976.
The two also signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in 1974. In 2002 the US withdrew from the treaty to build a national missile defense.
US and USSR/Russia signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I in 1991 and START-II in 1993.
9. History of treaty negotiations Starting in 1991 the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was negotiated among NPT parties. The treaty was opened for signature at UN on Sept. 24, 1996.
So far 182 nations (out of 193) have signed the treaty and 153 of them have ratified it.
But the treaty is currently not in force because North Korea, India, and Pakistan, three of 44 Annex II nations have not signed the treaty and additional 7 Annex II nations, including the US and China, have not ratified it.
10. Antarctic Treaty Negotiated among 12 nations in the wake of the International Geophysical Year in 1957-58. It is the first arms control agreement during the cold war and is attributed largely to the scientific community.
Signed in 1959 and effective since 1961.
To ensure that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purpose only. The treaty prohibits any activities of a military nature in Antarctica (south of latitude 60 S, except for the high sea).
Total number of parties: 46 with 28 consultative (voting) and 18 acceding nations.
To verify the treaty, each contracting party is entitled to designate observers to carry out any inspection with complete freedom of access at any time to all areas of Antarctica. So far only six inspections have been carried out. None revealed any violation.
11. Partial Test Ban Treaty Signed in 1963 and effective in the same year.
PTB prohibits nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in the outer space, and under water. It also bans underground explosions that generate radioactive debris outside the territory where the test is conducted.
PTB does not specify how to verify compliance. Verification has to be carried out by national means.
As of 2001, 113 states had adhered to the PTB. China and France have not joined.
No reports on any remarkable violation of the PTB. There were several cases where leakage of radioactivity from USSR and the US had been detected outside their territories.
The PTB has reduced the number of high-yield tests and slowed down the contamination of the atmosphere/ocean by radioactive particles
12. Outer Space Treaty Entered into force in 1967.
Prohibits the placing in orbit around the Earth objects carrying weapons of mass destruction as well on other celestial bodies. It also prohibits establish of military bases, testing any type of weapons, and conducting military maneuvers on celestial bodies.
91 nations adhered (from www.state.gov).
13. Treaty of Tlatelolco Originally proposed by Mexico; Signed in 1967.
The treaty prohibits “testing, use, manufacture, production or acquisition by any means as well as receipt, storage, deployment, and any form of possession of nuclear weapons in Latin America.
The parties shall safeguard their peaceful nuclear activities, as laid down by the IAEA.
The nuclear-weapon states undertake to respect the military denuclearization of Latin America and should not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons of the parties of the treaty.
31 nations have signed. Cuba is the only state out of the treaty in the major Latin states.
14. Non-Proliferation Treaty In force since 1970, it was for a duration of 25 years. It has been extended indefinitely in 1995.
The NPT aims at stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and limiting the number of nuclear countries to those five nations having manufactured and exploded a nuclear device prior to Jan. 1, 1967.
It prohibits the transfer of nuclear weapons and technology from a nuclear-weapon state to any non-nuclear-weapon state (Article I).
A non-nuclear-weapon state party undertakes not to receive or to manufacture nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices (Article II).
15. Non-Proliferation Treaty All parties have a right to use nuclear energy for peaceful purpose and to exchange equipment and technological information for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, following safeguards stipulated in special agreements with the IAEA (Articles III, IV, and V).
Nuclear-weapon state parties pursue in good faith negotiations to stop nuclear arms race and to a nuclear disarmament (Article VI).
A party can withdraw from the treaty if extraordinary events jeopardize its supreme interests (Article X).
16. Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT is the most widely-adhered to arms control treaty in history. China and France acceded NPT in 1992. So far, only India, Israel, and Pakistan have not signed the treaty. North Korean withdrew from NPT in Jan. 2003.
It is one of the great success stories of arms control and has made major contribution to global security and economic well-being.
Today there are 442 nuclear power plants in 31 countries (104 in the US).
17. Threshold Test Ban Treaty A bilateral agreement between the US and USSR. Enter into force on March 31, 1976.
The treaty prohibits underground nuclear test with yields exceeding 150 kt. Tests must also be confined to defined test sites.
Each party uses national means of verification. A protocol specifies exchange of data to facilitate verification. The yields of two explosions in each geophysically distinct test area were provided for calibration.
18. PNE treaty A US/USSR bilateral treaty signed in 1976. A companion to TTBT.
The treaty governs all nuclear explosions outside TTBT testing grounds. It prohibits any explosions exceeding 150 kt and group explosions exceeding 1500 kt.
In additional to national means of verification, the treaty also provides bilateral procedures involving observers on-site.
19. CTBT Negotiation started in 1993 and the treaty was adopted by UN on Sept. 10, 1996. It was opened for signature at UN on Sept. 24, 1996, when it was signed by 71 States. The treaty is of unlimited duration.
Article I prohibits all nuclear explosions, peaceful or military, anywhere.
Article II establishes CTBTO in Vienna to ensure the treaty implementation as well as providing a forum.
Article III focuses on national implementation measures.
Article IV elaborates on the global verification regime (IMS, IDC in Vienna, consultation process, on-site inspection)
Other parts deal with compliance, disputes, amendments, entry to force, etc.
21. Effects of Test Ban Treaties
22. Effects of Test Ban Treaties
23. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy US has a stockpile of ~12,000 (half deliverable)
Objectives: to deter the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly nuclear weapons, and to serve as a hedge against the emergence of an overwhelming conventional threat.
US pledged not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States of NPT except in the case of an invasion or any other attack on the United States, its territories, its armed forces or other troops, its allies, or on a state towards which it has a security commitment, carried out or sustained by such a non-nuclear-weapon state in association or alliance with a nuclear-weapon state (Clinton, 1995).
US believes that nuclear weapons are playing a smaller role than in cold-war time and it requires a much smaller nuclear arsenal (1995 review).
In his 2009 Prague speech, President Obama reaffirmed the US commitment to a world free of nuclear weapons, but “As long as these weapons exist, the US will maintain a safe, secure and effective arsenal to deter any adversary, and guarantee that defense to our allies”.
24. Nuclear Treaties Joined by U.S.
25. Current US Position on CTBT The treaty failed to get 2/3 votes to be ratified in the Senate in Sept. 1999 (48-51 along party lines with Reps voting “No” and Dems voting “Yes”)
The feeling that it was “unverifiable”
Worries over maintaining the integrity of the US nuclear arsenal
In his 2009 Prague speech, president Obama announced that the administration will “immediately and aggressively pursue U.S. ratification of the CTBT”.