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Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet Objectives Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files

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Networking with tcp ip and the internet l.jpg

Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet


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Objectives

  • Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols

  • Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting

  • Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files

  • Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network troubleshooting

  • Understand TCP/IP applications, such as Internet browsers, e-mail, and voice over IP


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Addressing and Name Resolution

  • IP Addressing

    • An IP address is 32 bits in size

    • Every IP address is grouped into four 8-bit octets

    • Octets are separated by decimal points

    • Valid octet numbers range from 0 to 255 and represent a binary address


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Addressing and Name Resolution

  • IP Addressing (cont.)

    • Each address consists of two parts: network and host

    • The network portion of an address indicates whether the device belongs to a Class A, B, C, D, or E network

    • Some octet number are reserved for special functions


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Addressing and Name Resolution

  • Static address

    • IP address that is manually assigned to a device

  • Dynamic address

    • IP address that is assigned to a device through DHCP

  • Dotted decimal notation

    • “Shorthand” convention used to represent IP addresses and make them more easily readable by people


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Network Classes

Figure 11-1: IP addresses and their classes


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Network Classes

  • Multicasting

    • Allows one device to send data to a specific group of devices (not the entire network segment)

  • New addressing scheme is being developed

    • IP version 6 (IPV6) will incorporate this new scheme

TABLE 11-1 Three commonly used classes of TCP/IP networks


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Subnetting

  • Process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller networks

Figure 11-2: IP address before and after subnets


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Subnetting

  • Extended network prefix

    • The combination of an address’s network and subnet information

  • Subnet mask

    • Special 32-bit number that, when combined with a device’s IP address, informs the rest of the network about the network class to which the device is on


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Subnetting

Figure 11-3: Subnetted IP address and its subnet mask


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Subnetting

Figure 11-4: Subnetted network connected to the Internet


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Subnetting

Figure 11-5: Network with several subnets


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Subnetting

Figure 11-6: Data traveling over subnets


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Gateways

  • Combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data

  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network has a defaultgateway

    • First interprets its outbound requests to other subnets and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets

  • Core Gateways

    • Gateways that make up the Internet backbone


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Gateways

Figure 11-7: Use of default gateways


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Network Address Translation (NAT)

  • Technique in which IP addresses are assigned a public IP address by an IP gateway

Figure 11-8: NAT through an IP gateway


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Sockets and Ports

  • Socket

    • Logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer

    • The socket’s address combines the host computer’s IP address with the port numberassociated with a process

    • Port numbers in the range of 0 to 1023 are called well-known ports


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Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2a: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers


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Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2b: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers (cont.)


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Sockets and Ports

Figure 11-9: Virtual circuit for the Telnet service


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Host Names and Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Host name

    • Symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device

  • Domain

    • Group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common


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Host Files

  • Text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses

  • Alias

    • Nickname for a node’s host name

Figure 11-10: An example of a host file


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Host Files

  • On a UNIX-based computer a host file is:

    • Called hosts

    • Located in the /etc directory

  • On a Windows 9x computer, a host file:

    • Is called lmhosts

    • Must be located in the c:\windows directory in order to be recognized by the operating system


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Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s

Figure 11-11: DNS server hierarchy by geography


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Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Resolvers

    • Hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information

  • Name servers

    • Servers that contain databases of names and their associated IP addresses

    • Each name server manages a group of device, collectively known as a zone


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Configuring DNS

Figure 11-12: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box in Windows 2000


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Configuring DNS

Figure 11-13: DNS Configuration properties tab


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DNS Name Space

  • Name space

    • Refers to the actual database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names

    • Every name server holds a piece of the DNS name space

    • At the highest level of the hierarchy sit the root servers


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DNS Name Space

  • Resource record

    • Element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses

    • Address resource record

      • Type of resource record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name


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Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)

  • Service that simplifies IP address management

Figure 11-14: The BOOTP process


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Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)

  • Thanks to BOOTP, a client does not have to remember its own IP address

    • Therefore, network administrators do not have to go to each workstation on a network and manually assign its IP address

  • This situation is ideal for diskless workstations


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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

  • Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network

  • Reasons for implementing DHCP

    • Reduce the time and planning spent on IP address management

    • Reduce the potential for errors in assigning IP addresses

    • Enable users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their TCP/IP configuration

    • Make IP addressing transparent for mobile users


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DHCP Leasing Process

  • Lease

    • Agreement between DHCP server and client on how long the client will borrow a DHCP-assigned IP address

Figure 11-15: DHCP lease agreement


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Terminating a DHCP Lease

  • A DHCP lease may expire based on the period established for it in the server configuration

  • A DHCP lease may be manually terminated at any time from either the client’s TCP/IP configuration or the server’s DHCP configuration

  • In some instances, a user must terminate a lease

  • Release

    • The act of terminating a DHCP lease


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Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

  • Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses

  • WINS offers several advantages

    • Guarantees a unique NetBIOS name is used for each computer on a network

    • Support for DHCP

    • Better network performance


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Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

Figure 11-16: Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box in Windows 2000


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Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP)

  • SMTP

    • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another

  • POP

    • Provides centralized storage for e-mail messages


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Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)

  • Mail storage and manipulation protocol that depends on SMTP’s transport system

    • Developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP

    • Most current version is version 4 (IMAP4)

      • Biggest advantage of IMAP4 over POP relates to the fact users can store messages on the mail server


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Additional Features of IMAP4

  • Users can retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message

  • Users can review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server

  • Users can create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server

  • Users can share a mailbox in a central location

  • IMAP4 can provide better security than POP because it supports authentication


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Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)

  • Language that Web clients and servers use to communicate

  • Forms the backbone of the Web

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

    • Language that defines formatting standards for Web documents


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Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)

Figure 11-18: Web client/server transmission using HTTP


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Packet Internet Groper (PING)

  • Troubleshooting utility that can verify TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network

  • An echo request is a signal sent out to another computer

  • An echo reply is the other computer’s response signal

  • Process of sending this signal back and forth is known as pinging


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Packet Internet Groper (PING)

Figure 11-19: Example of successful and unsuccessful PING


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Netstat

  • Netstat utility display TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host

Figure 11-20: Output of a simple netstat command


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Nslookup

  • Allows you to look up the DNS host name of a network node by specifying its IP address, or vice versa

Figure 11-21: Output of a simple ns lookup command


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Traceroute

  • Uses ICMP to trace path from one networked node to another

  • Also known as tracert on Windows machines

Figure 11-22: Output of a traceroute command


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Ipconfig

  • TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems

Figure 11-23: Output of an ipconfig command on a Windows 2000 workstation


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Ifconfig

  • TCP/IP configuration and management utility used on UNIX systems

Figure 11-26: Detailed information available through ifconfig


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Internet Services

  • World Wide Web (WWW, or Web)

    • Collection of internetworked servers that share resources and exchange information according to specific protocols and formats

    • Browser

      • Software that provides clients with a simple, graphical interface to the Web


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World Wide Web

  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

    • Standard means of identifying every Web page

  • Unqualified host name

    • Host name minus its prefix and suffix


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    E-mail andFile Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • E-mail

      • Currently, e-mail is most relied-upon Internet service you will manage

    • FTP

      • Manages files transfers between TCP/IP hosts

    Figure 11-27: FTP login screen


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    Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and Gopher

    • TFTP

      • TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers

    • Gopher

      • Text-based utility that allows you to navigate through a series of menus to find and read specific files


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    Newsgroups and E-commerce

    • Newsgroups

      • Provides means of conveying messages in which information is distributed to a wide group of users at once

      • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)

        • Supports process of reading newsgroup messages, posting new messages, and transferring news files between news servers

    • E-commerce

      • Means of conducting business over the Web


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    Chapter Summary

    • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique IP address to ensure reliable data delivery

    • In addition to Class A, B, and C networks, Class D and E networks exist, although consumers and companies do not use them

    • To use IP addresses more efficiently, the concept of subnetting was applied to the Internet in the mid-1980s

    • Gateways are a combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data

    • A socket is a logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer


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    Chapter Summary

    • The use of port numbers simplifies TCP/IP communications

    • Every host belongs to a domain

    • In the mid-1980s, the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute devised a hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, called the Domain Name System (DNS)

    • To ease IP address management, a service called Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) was developed in the mid-1980s

    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network


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    Chapter Summary

    • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses

    • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, commonly called subprotocols

    • TCP/IP carries the highest potential of causing problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration

    • TCP/IP comes with a complete set of troubleshooting tools that can help you to track down most TCP/IP-related problems

    • There are numerous Internet services, including the World Wide Web, e-mail, File Transfer Protocol, gopher, newsgroups, e-commerce, and VoIP


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