Networking with tcp ip and the internet
Download
1 / 56

Networking with TCPIP and the Internet - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 304 Views
  • Updated On :

Networking with TCP/IP and the Internet Objectives Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files

Related searches for Networking with TCPIP and the Internet

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Networking with TCPIP and the Internet' - JasminFlorian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Discuss additional details of TCP/IP addressing and subprotocols

  • Comprehend the purpose and procedure for subnetting

  • Understand the history and uses of BOOTP, DHCP, WINS, DNS, and host files

  • Employ multiple TCP/IP utilities for network troubleshooting

  • Understand TCP/IP applications, such as Internet browsers, e-mail, and voice over IP


Addressing and name resolution l.jpg
Addressing and Name Resolution

  • IP Addressing

    • An IP address is 32 bits in size

    • Every IP address is grouped into four 8-bit octets

    • Octets are separated by decimal points

    • Valid octet numbers range from 0 to 255 and represent a binary address


Addressing and name resolution4 l.jpg
Addressing and Name Resolution

  • IP Addressing (cont.)

    • Each address consists of two parts: network and host

    • The network portion of an address indicates whether the device belongs to a Class A, B, C, D, or E network

    • Some octet number are reserved for special functions


Addressing and name resolution5 l.jpg
Addressing and Name Resolution

  • Static address

    • IP address that is manually assigned to a device

  • Dynamic address

    • IP address that is assigned to a device through DHCP

  • Dotted decimal notation

    • “Shorthand” convention used to represent IP addresses and make them more easily readable by people


Network classes l.jpg
Network Classes

Figure 11-1: IP addresses and their classes


Network classes7 l.jpg
Network Classes

  • Multicasting

    • Allows one device to send data to a specific group of devices (not the entire network segment)

  • New addressing scheme is being developed

    • IP version 6 (IPV6) will incorporate this new scheme

TABLE 11-1 Three commonly used classes of TCP/IP networks


Subnetting l.jpg
Subnetting

  • Process of subdividing a single class of network into multiple, smaller networks

Figure 11-2: IP address before and after subnets


Subnetting9 l.jpg
Subnetting

  • Extended network prefix

    • The combination of an address’s network and subnet information

  • Subnet mask

    • Special 32-bit number that, when combined with a device’s IP address, informs the rest of the network about the network class to which the device is on


Subnetting10 l.jpg
Subnetting

Figure 11-3: Subnetted IP address and its subnet mask


Subnetting11 l.jpg
Subnetting

Figure 11-4: Subnetted network connected to the Internet


Subnetting12 l.jpg
Subnetting

Figure 11-5: Network with several subnets


Subnetting13 l.jpg
Subnetting

Figure 11-6: Data traveling over subnets


Gateways l.jpg
Gateways

  • Combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data

  • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network has a defaultgateway

    • First interprets its outbound requests to other subnets and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets

  • Core Gateways

    • Gateways that make up the Internet backbone


Gateways15 l.jpg
Gateways

Figure 11-7: Use of default gateways


Network address translation nat l.jpg
Network Address Translation (NAT)

  • Technique in which IP addresses are assigned a public IP address by an IP gateway

Figure 11-8: NAT through an IP gateway


Sockets and ports l.jpg
Sockets and Ports

  • Socket

    • Logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer

    • The socket’s address combines the host computer’s IP address with the port numberassociated with a process

    • Port numbers in the range of 0 to 1023 are called well-known ports


Sockets and ports18 l.jpg
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2a: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers


Sockets and ports19 l.jpg
Sockets and Ports

Table 11-2b: Commonly used TCP/IP port numbers (cont.)


Sockets and ports20 l.jpg
Sockets and Ports

Figure 11-9: Virtual circuit for the Telnet service


Host names and domain name system dns l.jpg
Host Names and Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Host name

    • Symbolic name that describes a TCP/IP device

  • Domain

    • Group of computers that belong to the same organization and have part of their IP addresses in common


Host files l.jpg
Host Files

  • Text file that associates TCP/IP host names with IP addresses

  • Alias

    • Nickname for a node’s host name

Figure 11-10: An example of a host file


Host files23 l.jpg
Host Files

  • On a UNIX-based computer a host file is:

    • Called hosts

    • Located in the /etc directory

  • On a Windows 9x computer, a host file:

    • Is called lmhosts

    • Must be located in the c:\windows directory in order to be recognized by the operating system


Domain name system dns l.jpg
Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s

Figure 11-11: DNS server hierarchy by geography


Domain name system dns25 l.jpg
Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Resolvers

    • Hosts on the Internet that need to look up domain name information

  • Name servers

    • Servers that contain databases of names and their associated IP addresses

    • Each name server manages a group of device, collectively known as a zone


Configuring dns l.jpg
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-12: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box in Windows 2000


Configuring dns27 l.jpg
Configuring DNS

Figure 11-13: DNS Configuration properties tab


Dns name space l.jpg
DNS Name Space

  • Name space

    • Refers to the actual database of Internet IP addresses and their associated names

    • Every name server holds a piece of the DNS name space

    • At the highest level of the hierarchy sit the root servers


Dns name space29 l.jpg
DNS Name Space

  • Resource record

    • Element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses

    • Address resource record

      • Type of resource record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name


Bootstrap protocol bootp l.jpg
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)

  • Service that simplifies IP address management

Figure 11-14: The BOOTP process


Bootstrap protocol bootp31 l.jpg
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)

  • Thanks to BOOTP, a client does not have to remember its own IP address

    • Therefore, network administrators do not have to go to each workstation on a network and manually assign its IP address

  • This situation is ideal for diskless workstations


Dynamic host configuration protocol dhcp l.jpg
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

  • Automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network

  • Reasons for implementing DHCP

    • Reduce the time and planning spent on IP address management

    • Reduce the potential for errors in assigning IP addresses

    • Enable users to move their workstations and printers without having to change their TCP/IP configuration

    • Make IP addressing transparent for mobile users


Dhcp leasing process l.jpg
DHCP Leasing Process

  • Lease

    • Agreement between DHCP server and client on how long the client will borrow a DHCP-assigned IP address

Figure 11-15: DHCP lease agreement


Terminating a dhcp lease l.jpg
Terminating a DHCP Lease

  • A DHCP lease may expire based on the period established for it in the server configuration

  • A DHCP lease may be manually terminated at any time from either the client’s TCP/IP configuration or the server’s DHCP configuration

  • In some instances, a user must terminate a lease

  • Release

    • The act of terminating a DHCP lease


Windows internet naming service wins l.jpg
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

  • Provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses

  • WINS offers several advantages

    • Guarantees a unique NetBIOS name is used for each computer on a network

    • Support for DHCP

    • Better network performance


Windows internet naming service wins36 l.jpg
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)

Figure 11-16: Advanced TCP/IP Settings dialog box in Windows 2000


Simple mail transfer protocol smtp and post office protocol pop l.jpg
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP)

  • SMTP

    • Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another

  • POP

    • Provides centralized storage for e-mail messages


Internet mail access protocol imap l.jpg
Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) (POP)

  • Mail storage and manipulation protocol that depends on SMTP’s transport system

    • Developed as a more sophisticated alternative to POP

    • Most current version is version 4 (IMAP4)

      • Biggest advantage of IMAP4 over POP relates to the fact users can store messages on the mail server


Additional features of imap4 l.jpg
Additional Features of IMAP4 (POP)

  • Users can retrieve all or only a portion of any mail message

  • Users can review their messages and delete them while the messages remain on the server

  • Users can create sophisticated methods of organizing messages on the server

  • Users can share a mailbox in a central location

  • IMAP4 can provide better security than POP because it supports authentication


Hypertext transport protocol http l.jpg
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) (POP)

  • Language that Web clients and servers use to communicate

  • Forms the backbone of the Web

  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

    • Language that defines formatting standards for Web documents


Hypertext transport protocol http41 l.jpg
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) (POP)

Figure 11-18: Web client/server transmission using HTTP


Packet internet groper ping l.jpg
Packet Internet Groper (PING) (POP)

  • Troubleshooting utility that can verify TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network

  • An echo request is a signal sent out to another computer

  • An echo reply is the other computer’s response signal

  • Process of sending this signal back and forth is known as pinging


Packet internet groper ping43 l.jpg
Packet Internet Groper (PING) (POP)

Figure 11-19: Example of successful and unsuccessful PING


Netstat l.jpg
Netstat (POP)

  • Netstat utility display TCP/IP statistics and details about TCP/IP components and connections on a host

Figure 11-20: Output of a simple netstat command


Nslookup l.jpg
Nslookup (POP)

  • Allows you to look up the DNS host name of a network node by specifying its IP address, or vice versa

Figure 11-21: Output of a simple ns lookup command


Traceroute l.jpg
Traceroute (POP)

  • Uses ICMP to trace path from one networked node to another

  • Also known as tracert on Windows machines

Figure 11-22: Output of a traceroute command


Ipconfig l.jpg
Ipconfig (POP)

  • TCP/IP administration utility for use with Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems

Figure 11-23: Output of an ipconfig command on a Windows 2000 workstation


Ifconfig l.jpg
Ifconfig (POP)

  • TCP/IP configuration and management utility used on UNIX systems

Figure 11-26: Detailed information available through ifconfig


Internet services l.jpg
Internet Services (POP)

  • World Wide Web (WWW, or Web)

    • Collection of internetworked servers that share resources and exchange information according to specific protocols and formats

    • Browser

      • Software that provides clients with a simple, graphical interface to the Web


World wide web l.jpg
World Wide Web (POP)

  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

    • Standard means of identifying every Web page

  • Unqualified host name

    • Host name minus its prefix and suffix


  • E mail and file transfer protocol ftp l.jpg
    E-mail and (POP)File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • E-mail

      • Currently, e-mail is most relied-upon Internet service you will manage

    • FTP

      • Manages files transfers between TCP/IP hosts

    Figure 11-27: FTP login screen


    Trivial file transfer protocol tftp and gopher l.jpg
    Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and Gopher (POP)

    • TFTP

      • TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers

    • Gopher

      • Text-based utility that allows you to navigate through a series of menus to find and read specific files


    Newsgroups and e commerce l.jpg
    Newsgroups and E-commerce (POP)

    • Newsgroups

      • Provides means of conveying messages in which information is distributed to a wide group of users at once

      • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)

        • Supports process of reading newsgroup messages, posting new messages, and transferring news files between news servers

    • E-commerce

      • Means of conducting business over the Web


    Chapter summary l.jpg
    Chapter Summary (POP)

    • Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique IP address to ensure reliable data delivery

    • In addition to Class A, B, and C networks, Class D and E networks exist, although consumers and companies do not use them

    • To use IP addresses more efficiently, the concept of subnetting was applied to the Internet in the mid-1980s

    • Gateways are a combination of software and hardware that enable two different network segments to exchange data

    • A socket is a logical address assigned to a specific process running on a host computer


    Chapter summary55 l.jpg
    Chapter Summary (POP)

    • The use of port numbers simplifies TCP/IP communications

    • Every host belongs to a domain

    • In the mid-1980s, the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute devised a hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, called the Domain Name System (DNS)

    • To ease IP address management, a service called Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) was developed in the mid-1980s

    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an automated means of assigning a unique IP address to every device on a network


    Chapter summary56 l.jpg
    Chapter Summary (POP)

    • Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) provides a means of resolving NetBIOS names with IP addresses

    • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, commonly called subprotocols

    • TCP/IP carries the highest potential of causing problems because it requires the most planning and post-installation configuration

    • TCP/IP comes with a complete set of troubleshooting tools that can help you to track down most TCP/IP-related problems

    • There are numerous Internet services, including the World Wide Web, e-mail, File Transfer Protocol, gopher, newsgroups, e-commerce, and VoIP


    ad