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Jerusalem-The Holy Land Presented By- Nick Antonelli, Connor Laughlin, Joe Nally, and Ben Thompson for Section 2 of Religions of the Book. Contents History of Jerusalem Significance of the Holy Land in: The Hebrew Bible The New Testament The Qur’an Terms to know

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Jerusalem-The Holy Land

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Jerusalem-The Holy Land

Presented By-

Nick Antonelli, Connor Laughlin, Joe Nally, and Ben Thompson for Section 2 of Religions of the Book.


Contents

  • History of Jerusalem

  • Significance of the Holy Land in:

    • The Hebrew Bible

    • The New Testament

    • The Qur’an


Terms to know

  • Holy Land- refers to the land of Israel/ the Promised Land.

  • Jerusalem- A city in the Holy Land. Holiest city to Jews and Christians, highly regarded for Muslims

  • Temple Mount- Holy site in Jerusalem. Site of Abrahams sacrifice, 1st and 2nd Temples, future site of 3rd Temple, Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque.


Pre Jewish Jerusalem

  • Settlements in Jerusalem date as far back as the 4th millennium BCE

  • Earliest written records are as far back as the 19th century BCE

  • Was inhabited by a Canaanite tribe called the Jebusites until the 11th century BCE


First Temple Jerusalem

  • King David conquered the city in the 10th century and gave the city its name of Jerusalem or Yerushalayim

  • David’s reign ended around 970 BCE

  • Solomon took over at this point and built the first temple

  • The sight of this first temple is a sacred place for Muslims, Jews and Christians as the last known resting place of the Ark of the Covenant

  • Soon after Solomon died the kingdom split into two parts

  • Jerusalem remained the capitol of the Kingdom of Judea

  • 586 BCE the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judea and destroyed its temple


538 BCE the Jews were allowed to return to Judea

In 19 BCE the Temple Mount was elevated and work began on an expansion of the second temple under Herod the Great

The Temple Mount is one of the most contested spots in the world

In 6 CE the city came under the direct control of the Romans

Roman rule was challenged with the Great Jewish Revolt

led to the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE

Second Temple Jerusalem


Jerusalem in the Hebrew Bible

  • Spiritual center for Jewish world.

  • Located in land God promised to Abraham (Canaan).

  • Site of Abrahams sacrifice of Isaac, as well as sight of 1st and 2nd Temples (where Dome of the Rock is).


*Gen 12:1-9, *15:18-21- God’s Covenant with Abraham (about 1800 BCE).

*Gen 22:1-3- The sacrifice of Isaac (in land of Moriah, also thought to be site of Dome of the Rock).

The Holy Land and Abraham


1030 BCE- Saul becomes 1st ruler of a united Kingdom of Israel.

*2 Sam 5:6-12-David becomes king after Saul’s death. In 1000 BCE he takes over Jebusite city of Jerusalem and claims it as the capitol

Conquest of Jerusalem


Solomon’s Temple and the Babylonian Exile

  • *2 Sam 7:1-17- God tells David that his heir will build a house in His name, the 1st Temple (actually built 970 BCE).

  • *2 Kings 25:1-12- King Nebuchadnezzar, of Babylon, destroys city of Jerusalem along with 1st Temple in 587.


Zec 1:14-17- God forgives the people of Jerusalem and chooses them (again) to be his people and Jerusalem to be his city.

*Neh 2:11-20- Nehemiah begins rebuilding Jerusalem so it will “no longer be an object of derision” between 520 and 515 BCE.

Rebuilding Jerusalem


Jerusalem in the New Testament-Luke 21

  •  Destruction of the temple is foretold    -Nation will rise against nation    -Kingdom against Kingdom    -Earthquakes    -Famines    -Plagues•   The kingdom of God will come•   Luke 21:29-33- Story of the fig tree


Resurrection of Jesus•   Appearance to the two travelers•   Meeting with the disciples in Jerusalem•   Appearance to the group

Luke 24:33-35


Found people who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, as well as money-changers

Made a whip to drive them out

Keeping clean the holy place of God

John 2:13-25


Going to Jerusalem to purify themselves

•   Expecting Jesus to come purify them

John 11:55-57


Islam precedes all religions, according to tradition, and shares roots in Judaism and Christianity, with all three having strong religious ties to the city of Jerusalem.

Jerusalem is said to be the third holiest city in the Islamic faith, behind the cities of Makkah and Madinah, respectively.

Jerusalem and the Islamic Faith


Jerusalem is home to two major Islamic holy sites: Al-Aqsa Mosque, or the Temple Mount, and the Dome of the Rock.

Al-Aqsa Mosque & The Dome of the Rock


The Temple Mount (Masjid al-Aqsa)

Known as “The Farthest Mosque”, it is located in East Jerusalem.

Has progressively expanded over time, but is still constructed over the original mosque that Muhammad worshipped.

Al-Aqsa Mosque


Al-Aqsa Mosque

  • The Mi’raj

    • During Muhammad’s Mi’raj, he was first taken to the Al-Aqsa Mosque by the angel Gabriel.

      • Qur’an, Surah 17:1

    • Some scripture in the Qu’ran has been interpreted to mean that the journey was only a divine dream.

      • Qu’ran, Surah 17:60


Al-Aqsa Mosque

  • The First Qibla

    • Before Muslims began facing Makkah, they first directed their prayer at the Al-Aqsa Mosque.

      • Qu’ran, Surah 2:142-150


Dome of the Rock

  • A holy site built around the rock where it is believed that Muhammad was taken into heaven by the angel Gabriel during his Mi’raj.

    • Muslims believe that Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Ishmael, not Isaac, in what is now the stretch of desert in Saudi Arabia, called Mina.


Second Jewish Revolt 132-135

led by Bar Kokhba

Romans sacked the city and destroyed the temple

Massive Roman reconstruction of Jerusalem in 135 CE under Emperor Hadrian

Under Constantine I Jerusalem became a center for Christianity

Built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the sight of Calvary (previously a temple to Venus there)

Roman/Byzantine Jerusalem


Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattāb conquered Jerusalem in 638 CE

Allowed Jews and Christians to live there in return for a tax

Caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned and completed the Dome of the Rock by the end of the 7th century

Muslim Control


In 1099 Jerusalem was taken by the First Crusade

The Crusaders slaughtered most of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants

Saladin conquered Jerusalem in 1187

Was much more peaceful in his conquest, killed no civilians after the battle

Various powers controlled the city in the next few centuries

The Crusades


British/Israeli Control

  • The British Army captured the city after the Battle of Jerusalem in 1917

  • 1922 the League of Nations entrusted the British Empire to help establish a State of Israel

  • 1947 the UN partition plan recommended that certain sites remain internationally governed

    • Big controversy to this day about this

    • Never went into effect and so the State of Israel and Jordan took half of the city each

  • In 1967 Israel captured the other half of the city in the Six-Day War


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