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Globalization and Global Poverty. Alan V. Deardorff Ford School of Public Policy and Department of Economics University of Michigan. The Big Issues. Does Globalization make for more poverty or less poverty? If poor countries resist globalization, does it help or hurt?

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Globalization and global poverty

Globalization and Global Poverty

Alan V. Deardorff

Ford School of Public Policy

and

Department of Economics

University of Michigan


The big issues
The Big Issues

  • Does Globalization make for more poverty or less poverty?

  • If poor countries resist globalization, does it help or hurt?

  • How do policies of rich countries matter for global poverty?


Why this matters
Why This Matters

  • A large part of the world is poor.


China (1134) + India (850)

Chart 4:

1990 Population Distribution of Per Capita National Income

Excluding China and India

350

Pakistan (112)

Bangladesh (108)

Indonesia (178)

300

US

(250)

250

France (57)

Iran (56)

Nigeria (96)

Thailand (56)

Japan (124)

200

W. Germany (63)

Turkey (56)

1990 Population, Millions

Brazil (149)

150

Mexico (82)

UK

100

(57)

Philippines (61)

Italy (58)

50

0

1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

47

49

2-Percentiles of 1990 Per Capita National Income


Why this matters1
Why This Matters

  • A large part of the world is poor.

  • Poverty is not just low income; it is also high child mortality, low life expectancy, adverse working conditions, etc.

  • Opinions differ on

    • The role of globalization as cause or cure for poverty.

    • The desirability of particular policies


What is globalization
What Is Globalization?

  • Increased trade in goods and services

  • Increased international movement of capital

  • Increased international migration

    All of which imply:

  • Increased economic interdependence among countries


Does globalization help or hurt the poor
Does Globalization Help or Hurt the Poor

  • There is no single answer

    • The poor in many countries benefit from

      • Increased jobs

      • Cheaper consumption

      • Opportunity for education, savings, entrepreneurship

    • In other cases

      • Workers are displaced by imports and lose jobs

      • Poor consumers pay more, not less, for what they need


Does globalization help or hurt the poor1
Does Globalization Help or Hurt the Poor

  • On average

    • Countries that have embraced globalization have done better, on the whole, than those who have not

    • Within those countries, economic growth has raised incomes at all levels, including the poor

    • Some countries have done especially well by exporting

      • S. Korea

      • Other Asian countries


Does globalization help or hurt the poor2
Does Globalization Help or Hurt the Poor

  • In general

    • Globalization alone is never enough to cure poverty

    • Other things needed

      • Investment in capital and infrastructure

      • Education

      • Good governance


Does resisting globalization help or hurt
Does Resisting Globalization Help or Hurt?

  • Countries that have cut themselves off from the world (or been cut off by others) have done poorly

    • China under Mao

    • Cuba

    • N. Korea

    • Burma (Myanmar)


Does resisting globalization help or hurt1
Does Resisting Globalization Help or Hurt?

  • Experience with “Import Substitution” versus “Export Promotion”

    • Import substitution (limiting trade) was popular and respectable during 1950s & 1960s.

      • Pursued by Latin American, India, etc.

      • Economic growth was slow

    • Export promotion (free trade and/or subsidizing exports) was used by only a few

      • The Asian Tigers – Hong Kong, S. Korea, Singapore, Taiwan

      • They prospered

    • In 1980s, more and more countries switched from IS to EP


Does resisting globalization help or hurt2
Does Resisting Globalization Help or Hurt?

  • Many poor countries chose not to participate in global trade liberalization

    • Joined the GATT/WTO, but were exempted from lowering their own import tariffs.

    • Result was that rich country tariffs remained high on their exports


Does resisting globalization help or hurt3
Does Resisting Globalization Help or Hurt?

  • Current trade negotiations in the WTO (The “Doha Round”) is stalled

    • Reason is (only partly) resistance by group of large developing countries (Brazil, S. Africa, India, China)

    • Trend instead is toward bilateral trade agreements



Does resisting globalization help or hurt4
Does Resisting Globalization Help or Hurt?

  • Bilateral Agreements are worse for poor countries than multilateral liberalization

    • Smallest, poorest countries likely to be excluded

    • Terms of agreements slanted toward interests of rich countries


Rich country policies
Rich-Country Policies

  • Don’t import goods produced in “sweatshops” and/or by child labor

    • Motive is (said to be) to improve conditions of poor-country workers and children

    • Effect is likely to make them worse off

    • Much better to use positive policies, like financial assistance

      • To make factories safer

      • To put children in school


Rich country policies1
Rich-Country Policies

  • Subsidies to agriculture in rich countries

    • These are common, and large, due to

      • Political power of farmers (& agribusiness)

      • Sympathy of public for farmers

    • Policy lowers the world price of farm goods (food, cotton, etc.)

      • Cheaper food benefits the poor in some countries

      • Destroys the livelihoods of poor in others


Rich country policies2
Rich-Country Policies

  • High Tariffs on Poor-Country Exports

    • Rich countries lowered tariffs most on exports of each other

    • Tariffs remain highest on exports of poor countries

      • Textiles and apparel

      • Many agricultural products

    • When poor-country exports expand, rich world sometimes responds with protection


Rich country policies3
Rich-Country Policies

  • Trade Policies Meant to Help

    • US: African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) of 2000

      • Lowers tariffs on many products if exported by eligible African countries (38 as of May 2007)

      • Trade of Africa has not, in fact, grown since 2000

    • EU: Everything but Arms (EBA) initiative of 2001

      • Eliminates all tariffs and quotas on all but arms and munitions from 49 Least Developed Countries

      • Immediate implementation except for bananas, sugar, and rice


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Globalization is not the cure for poverty

  • Openness to globalization

    • Is more often (but not always) a help than a hurt

    • Does make poor countries more vulnerable to ill-advised policies (their own and others’)


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