Forest management in the pnw
Download
1 / 53

Forest Management in the PNW - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 218 Views
  • Updated On :

Forest Management in the PNW A Simple Set of Periods Pre-European Era Early Exploration and Settlement Early Logging Activities The Onset of Industrialization World War II and the Korean War Recent History (post 1973) Pre-European Era

Related searches for Forest Management in the PNW

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Forest Management in the PNW' - JasminFlorian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

A simple set of periods l.jpg
A Simple Set of Periods

  • Pre-European Era

  • Early Exploration and Settlement

  • Early Logging Activities

  • The Onset of Industrialization

  • World War II and the Korean War

  • Recent History (post 1973)


Pre european era l.jpg
Pre-European Era

  • Significant native American use of forests began after ~10,000 years b.c.e. Or < 25,000 years b.c.e.

  • During ice age Siberian land bridge open but N.A. continent closed.

  • At end of ice age bridge closed but continent opened; ice-free corridor

  • Or: hopping between ice free areas, coastal navigation, etc.


Slide4 l.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gifhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gif


Slide5 l.jpg

Coastal Routehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gif

Mackenzie Corridor


Early human use of forests l.jpg
Early Human Use of Forestshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gif

  • Various Forest Products (salal, mushrooms, game, etc.)

  • Extensive use of Cedar and related by-products in wet temperate forests

    • Canoes

    • Shelter

    • Baskets

  • Forest supported many species of importance (e.g. salmon) and vice versa


Slide7 l.jpg

http://209.206.175.157/images/Historic04Longhouse.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Beringia_land_bridge-noaagov.gif

http://www.spirasolaris.ca/rcc1.gif

http://www.nativevillage.org/Messages%20from%20the%20People/12%20Haida%20Days%20of%20Christmad/BlackRedCedar%20bsket.jpg


Slide8 l.jpg

http://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Graphics/Nootka%20Articles.jpghttp://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Graphics/Nootka%20Articles.jpg


Early human impacts on forests l.jpg
Early Human Impacts on Forestshttp://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Graphics/Nootka%20Articles.jpg

  • Fire (Boyd, 1986)

    • Clearing for Game (habitat, visual)

    • Assisting plants of interest (huckleberry, camas)

    • Reducing problem plants (blackberry)

    • Increasing safe area around habitations (Security)

    • Other similar uses

  • Most other impacts relatively limited


Early european exploration l.jpg
Early European Explorationhttp://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Graphics/Nootka%20Articles.jpg

  • Juan Josef Perez Hernandez 1774 (Juan de Fuca)

  • James Cook 1778

  • George Vancouver 1792 takes possession of PNW for England

  • 1804 – 05 Lewis and Clark

  • David Douglas (1826 – 28)


Early european settlement l.jpg
Early European Settlementhttp://www.washington.edu/uwired/outreach/cspn/Website/Graphics/Nootka%20Articles.jpg

  • Willamette Valley an important draw (early 1840s), settled before forested areas

  • Puget Trough also settled before forested areas

  • Valley bottoms of forested areas settled (often current in holdings in federal lands)

  • Forest cleared for agriculture

  • Initial European migrants were fur traders and explorers – settlements were trading focused

  • Impact(s) on forests limited (although beaver are considered a keystone species)


Slide13 l.jpg

http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gifhttp://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif


Early logging activities l.jpg
Early Logging Activitieshttp://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif

  • Limited, local

  • High grading (cedar, old growth Douglas fir)

  • A major product was cedar shake shingles


Limits to early forest harvesting l.jpg
Limits to Early Forest Harvestinghttp://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif

Access to markets (transport)

Access to forest interior

Distance to markets (most people on east coast)


Impact of the california gold rush l.jpg
Impact of the California Gold Rushhttp://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif

Sudden nearby demand for timber, lumber, and other materials (food, etc.) that required lumber.

PNW Geography: lowland forests near water (sound, rivers, etc.) provided access, transport, ease of entry.

By 1850 sawmills were opening throughout the Puget Sound Region.

Shipped to CA from ports


Early forest harvesting techniques l.jpg
Early forest harvesting techniqueshttp://content.cdlib.org/xtf/data/13030/9z/ft5z09p09z/figures/ft5z09p09z_00006.gif

Mule and/or oxen teams

Corduroy roads

River dams/floods

Hand saws and incuts (still visible)

Unpatented lands made access limited to time and material


Slide19 l.jpg

http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPGhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG


The onset of industrialization l.jpg
The Onset of Industrializationhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Railroads granted land for capital

  • Often timber companies accessed land (e.g. Hill Traded to Weyerhaeuser) from RRs.

  • Lands started to be claimed (Homestead Act of 1862)

  • 160 – 320 acres per claim

  • Timber companies used stand-ins to claim extensive tracts

  • Mostly claimed lowland, old growth areas


Harvesting techniques mechanized l.jpg
Harvesting Techniques Mechanizedhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Steam Power and Steam logging (donkey engine)

  • Skidders to pull logs uphill

  • Cable systems and spars

  • Access: railroad logging


Problems solved l.jpg
Problems Solved(?)http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Nearby Market: California

  • Access to East Coast: Northern Rail Routes

  • Access to Interior: Railroad Logging

  • Other techniques: Use of Rivers and Streams (flooding)


Federal and state lands l.jpg
Federal and State Landshttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Contract logging, but considered less valuable

  • Many US forest lands on “wasteage” as designated in ~ 1880s – 1890s

  • State Lands remains from those not bought from state (section 6 and 16); lesser quality of forest lands, more difficult access.


Federal bureaucracy developing l.jpg
Federal Bureaucracy Developinghttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Forest Reserve Act 1891 (General Land Office, USDI)

  • US Forest Service 1905 (USDA)

  • 1907 US Forest Reserves renamed US National Forests.

  • Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt key players

  • “Wise Use”


Business as usual l.jpg
Business as Usualhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Frequently the connected few gained much from federal largess

  • Demand for Spruce during WWI led to logging in the Olympic National Monument

  • Attempts to set aside areas as preserves were fought by timber interests

  • 1930s Depression reduced timber demand overall


Wwii and korean war l.jpg
WWII and Korean Warhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • War increased demand for all resources

  • Post War: Increased consumerism

  • Increased demand for wood products (GI Bill and home loans)

  • New technologies for logging, especially road building, use of trucks, and yarding of logs to landings at roads

  • More areas opened up, especially public lands


Post 1951 l.jpg
Post-1951http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Timber companies overharvesting

  • Federal lands becoming more and more accessible, open to logging

  • Political and institutional issues (e.g. revolving door) affect forest management policies

  • “Get out the cut” an important political tool


Musy act of 1960 l.jpg
MUSY Act of 1960http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Multiple Use Sustained Yield

  • Addressed other forest uses

  • Fiber production and removal still primary

  • Considered an environmental law, fought by timber industry (but used by them later)


Management approach l.jpg
Management Approachhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Dispersed cuts of 40 acres (~10 ha)

  • Supposed to provide more edge  more ecotones  more diversity

  • Really provides more forage for game

  • Drastically altered patterns and related processes in forest ecosystems


Wilderness act of 1964 l.jpg
Wilderness Act of 1964http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Set aside roadless areas

  • Initially rock and ice

  • Restrictive, especially due to size of area (decreased with amendments)

  • RARE (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) I and RARE II indicative of reluctance of bureaucracy to accept wilderness (remnant of G. Pinchot)

  • Both reviews challenged by Sierra Club


Recent history important laws l.jpg
Recent History: Important Lawshttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, with EIA and EIS)

  • Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)

  • National Forest Management Act of 1976 (NFMA)


Early 1980s l.jpg
Early 1980shttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Reagan Administration appoints industry executive to run timber management portion of the US Forest Service

  • Changes in regulations regarding cuts increase timber volume removed from forests significantly

  • Related to several factors:

    • Closing out of private old growth holdings

    • Mills outdated, mostly able to handle and mill large logs

    • Public forests seen as an enormous untapped resource to keep mills running until retooling occurs


Late 1980s l.jpg
Late 1980shttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Spotted Owl becomes an issue

  • 1988 Forest Service releases guidelines for logging in spotted owl habitat

  • Sued by Seattle Audubon Society and other environmental groups

  • NEPA, ESA, NFMA laws that applied

  • Initial responses included adaptive management


Slide42 l.jpg

Northern Spotted Owlhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

Strix occidentalis caurina

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Northern_Spotted_owl.JPG


Interagency science committee l.jpg
Interagency Science Committeehttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Jack Ward Thomas, head biologist at USFS led 17 member committee

  • ISC recommended large habitat conservation areas

  • USFS stated it would operate in a manner “not inconsistent” with ISC without following normal rule making procedures

  • Audubon sued again, won in Dwyer court


The god squad l.jpg
The God Squadhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • USFWS lists Spotted Owl threatened

  • USDI/BLM asks for exemption for 44 timber sales based on ruling by Dwyer on their activities based on exemption from section 7 of ESA (Fed agencies must consult with FWS)

  • God squad advises exemption for some sales in exchange for a comprehensive plan to address habitat needs of the spotted owl


The gang of four l.jpg
The Gang of Fourhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Scientific Panel on Late-Successional Forest Ecosystems

  • Conclusion: No alternative to conservation to follow laws (NEPA, ESA, NFMA)

  • Larger areas of conservation for NSO needed than ISC report indicated

  • Forest Service ignored the report, Audubon sued


1992 dwyer decision l.jpg
1992 Dwyer Decisionhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Sued again, the US Forest Service and BLM (USDI) lost in a staggering decision by Judge Dwyer

  • All timber sales on federal lands cancelled until guidelines, regulations, plans and rules regarding NEPA, ESA, and NFMA adopted and enacted


Femat l.jpg
FEMAThttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Clinton campaign promise

  • Forestry conference of 1993

  • Designation of Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team

  • Plan in 60 days (extended to 90 days)

  • Emphasis shifted from a PLAN to options the president would select

  • 10 Options presented along a continuum, #9 recommended and selected

  • Sued by both sides of debate


Ecosystem management l.jpg
Ecosystem Managementhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Developed here in the PNW “first?”

  • FEMAT looked at very broad spatial and temporal scales (100+ years, Watershed and greater)

  • Incorporated disturbance, other processes into planning

  • As best as possible, attempted to reconcile resource use with habitat conservation

  • 50 – 100 year planning outlook

  • First hand experience with lack of data, modeling into the future, and making decisions based on these situations


Femat matrix approach l.jpg
FEMAT Matrix Approachhttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Concepts of landscape ecology and island biogeography

  • Within the matrix of forest resources, large patches of conserved, used, roaded, unroaded areas.

  • Connectivity, contagion important concepts.

  • Time scale and the 150 year-old cohort (Late Successional Reserves).


Healthy forests initiative l.jpg
Healthy Forests Initiativehttp://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

  • Bush plan to address fire-prone landscape

  • Seen by environmentalists as a means to road and log unsuitable/closed areas

  • Donato controversy (Biscuit Fire Regen Study)

  • Recent timber sale planning of old growth by BLM on O and C lands in Oregon (2.2 million acres)


Slide53 l.jpg

Salmon…..http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/Haulman/Pictures/Vashon%20History/OV257_Horse_logging.JPG

ICBEMP


ad