Forest Management in the PNW - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Forest Management in the PNW A Simple Set of Periods Pre-European Era Early Exploration and Settlement Early Logging Activities The Onset of Industrialization World War II and the Korean War Recent History (post 1973) Pre-European Era

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Forest Management in the PNW

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Forest management in the pnw l.jpg

Forest Management in the PNW

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A Simple Set of Periods

  • Pre-European Era

  • Early Exploration and Settlement

  • Early Logging Activities

  • The Onset of Industrialization

  • World War II and the Korean War

  • Recent History (post 1973)

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Pre-European Era

  • Significant native American use of forests began after ~10,000 years b.c.e. Or < 25,000 years b.c.e.

  • During ice age Siberian land bridge open but N.A. continent closed.

  • At end of ice age bridge closed but continent opened; ice-free corridor

  • Or: hopping between ice free areas, coastal navigation, etc.

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Coastal Route

Mackenzie Corridor

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Early Human Use of Forests

  • Various Forest Products (salal, mushrooms, game, etc.)

  • Extensive use of Cedar and related by-products in wet temperate forests

    • Canoes

    • Shelter

    • Baskets

  • Forest supported many species of importance (e.g. salmon) and vice versa

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Early Human Impacts on Forests

  • Fire (Boyd, 1986)

    • Clearing for Game (habitat, visual)

    • Assisting plants of interest (huckleberry, camas)

    • Reducing problem plants (blackberry)

    • Increasing safe area around habitations (Security)

    • Other similar uses

  • Most other impacts relatively limited

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Early European Exploration

  • Juan Josef Perez Hernandez 1774 (Juan de Fuca)

  • James Cook 1778

  • George Vancouver 1792 takes possession of PNW for England

  • 1804 – 05 Lewis and Clark

  • David Douglas (1826 – 28)

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Early European Settlement

  • Willamette Valley an important draw (early 1840s), settled before forested areas

  • Puget Trough also settled before forested areas

  • Valley bottoms of forested areas settled (often current in holdings in federal lands)

  • Forest cleared for agriculture

  • Initial European migrants were fur traders and explorers – settlements were trading focused

  • Impact(s) on forests limited (although beaver are considered a keystone species)

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Early Logging Activities

  • Limited, local

  • High grading (cedar, old growth Douglas fir)

  • A major product was cedar shake shingles

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Limits to Early Forest Harvesting

Access to markets (transport)

Access to forest interior

Distance to markets (most people on east coast)

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Impact of the California Gold Rush

Sudden nearby demand for timber, lumber, and other materials (food, etc.) that required lumber.

PNW Geography: lowland forests near water (sound, rivers, etc.) provided access, transport, ease of entry.

By 1850 sawmills were opening throughout the Puget Sound Region.

Shipped to CA from ports

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Early forest harvesting techniques

Mule and/or oxen teams

Corduroy roads

River dams/floods

Hand saws and incuts (still visible)

Unpatented lands made access limited to time and material

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The Onset of Industrialization

  • Railroads granted land for capital

  • Often timber companies accessed land (e.g. Hill Traded to Weyerhaeuser) from RRs.

  • Lands started to be claimed (Homestead Act of 1862)

  • 160 – 320 acres per claim

  • Timber companies used stand-ins to claim extensive tracts

  • Mostly claimed lowland, old growth areas

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Harvesting Techniques Mechanized

  • Steam Power and Steam logging (donkey engine)

  • Skidders to pull logs uphill

  • Cable systems and spars

  • Access: railroad logging

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Problems Solved(?)

  • Nearby Market: California

  • Access to East Coast: Northern Rail Routes

  • Access to Interior: Railroad Logging

  • Other techniques: Use of Rivers and Streams (flooding)

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Federal and State Lands

  • Contract logging, but considered less valuable

  • Many US forest lands on “wasteage” as designated in ~ 1880s – 1890s

  • State Lands remains from those not bought from state (section 6 and 16); lesser quality of forest lands, more difficult access.

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Federal Bureaucracy Developing

  • Forest Reserve Act 1891 (General Land Office, USDI)

  • US Forest Service 1905 (USDA)

  • 1907 US Forest Reserves renamed US National Forests.

  • Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt key players

  • “Wise Use”

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Business as Usual

  • Frequently the connected few gained much from federal largess

  • Demand for Spruce during WWI led to logging in the Olympic National Monument

  • Attempts to set aside areas as preserves were fought by timber interests

  • 1930s Depression reduced timber demand overall

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WWII and Korean War

  • War increased demand for all resources

  • Post War: Increased consumerism

  • Increased demand for wood products (GI Bill and home loans)

  • New technologies for logging, especially road building, use of trucks, and yarding of logs to landings at roads

  • More areas opened up, especially public lands

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  • Timber companies overharvesting

  • Federal lands becoming more and more accessible, open to logging

  • Political and institutional issues (e.g. revolving door) affect forest management policies

  • “Get out the cut” an important political tool

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MUSY Act of 1960

  • Multiple Use Sustained Yield

  • Addressed other forest uses

  • Fiber production and removal still primary

  • Considered an environmental law, fought by timber industry (but used by them later)

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Management Approach

  • Dispersed cuts of 40 acres (~10 ha)

  • Supposed to provide more edge  more ecotones  more diversity

  • Really provides more forage for game

  • Drastically altered patterns and related processes in forest ecosystems

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Wilderness Act of 1964

  • Set aside roadless areas

  • Initially rock and ice

  • Restrictive, especially due to size of area (decreased with amendments)

  • RARE (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) I and RARE II indicative of reluctance of bureaucracy to accept wilderness (remnant of G. Pinchot)

  • Both reviews challenged by Sierra Club

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Recent History: Important Laws

  • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, with EIA and EIS)

  • Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)

  • National Forest Management Act of 1976 (NFMA)

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Early 1980s

  • Reagan Administration appoints industry executive to run timber management portion of the US Forest Service

  • Changes in regulations regarding cuts increase timber volume removed from forests significantly

  • Related to several factors:

    • Closing out of private old growth holdings

    • Mills outdated, mostly able to handle and mill large logs

    • Public forests seen as an enormous untapped resource to keep mills running until retooling occurs

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Late 1980s

  • Spotted Owl becomes an issue

  • 1988 Forest Service releases guidelines for logging in spotted owl habitat

  • Sued by Seattle Audubon Society and other environmental groups

  • NEPA, ESA, NFMA laws that applied

  • Initial responses included adaptive management

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Northern Spotted Owl

Strix occidentalis caurina

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Interagency Science Committee

  • Jack Ward Thomas, head biologist at USFS led 17 member committee

  • ISC recommended large habitat conservation areas

  • USFS stated it would operate in a manner “not inconsistent” with ISC without following normal rule making procedures

  • Audubon sued again, won in Dwyer court

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The God Squad

  • USFWS lists Spotted Owl threatened

  • USDI/BLM asks for exemption for 44 timber sales based on ruling by Dwyer on their activities based on exemption from section 7 of ESA (Fed agencies must consult with FWS)

  • God squad advises exemption for some sales in exchange for a comprehensive plan to address habitat needs of the spotted owl

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The Gang of Four

  • Scientific Panel on Late-Successional Forest Ecosystems

  • Conclusion: No alternative to conservation to follow laws (NEPA, ESA, NFMA)

  • Larger areas of conservation for NSO needed than ISC report indicated

  • Forest Service ignored the report, Audubon sued

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1992 Dwyer Decision

  • Sued again, the US Forest Service and BLM (USDI) lost in a staggering decision by Judge Dwyer

  • All timber sales on federal lands cancelled until guidelines, regulations, plans and rules regarding NEPA, ESA, and NFMA adopted and enacted

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  • Clinton campaign promise

  • Forestry conference of 1993

  • Designation of Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team

  • Plan in 60 days (extended to 90 days)

  • Emphasis shifted from a PLAN to options the president would select

  • 10 Options presented along a continuum, #9 recommended and selected

  • Sued by both sides of debate

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Ecosystem Management

  • Developed here in the PNW “first?”

  • FEMAT looked at very broad spatial and temporal scales (100+ years, Watershed and greater)

  • Incorporated disturbance, other processes into planning

  • As best as possible, attempted to reconcile resource use with habitat conservation

  • 50 – 100 year planning outlook

  • First hand experience with lack of data, modeling into the future, and making decisions based on these situations

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FEMAT Matrix Approach

  • Concepts of landscape ecology and island biogeography

  • Within the matrix of forest resources, large patches of conserved, used, roaded, unroaded areas.

  • Connectivity, contagion important concepts.

  • Time scale and the 150 year-old cohort (Late Successional Reserves).

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Healthy Forests Initiative

  • Bush plan to address fire-prone landscape

  • Seen by environmentalists as a means to road and log unsuitable/closed areas

  • Donato controversy (Biscuit Fire Regen Study)

  • Recent timber sale planning of old growth by BLM on O and C lands in Oregon (2.2 million acres)

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