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FLAG - OZONE FLAG Ozone Subgroup Bob Musselman, Subgroup Leader – FS-R Miguel Flores – NPS Tonnie Maniero – NPS Rich Fisher – FS-WO Suraj Ahuja – FS-R5 Janice Peterson – FS-R6 Trent Procter – FS-R5 Bill Jackson – FS-R8 Jim Renfro – NPS Judy Rocchio – NPS Andrzej Bytnerowicz – FS-R

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FLAG Ozone Subgroup

  • Bob Musselman, Subgroup Leader – FS-R

  • Miguel Flores – NPS

  • Tonnie Maniero – NPS

  • Rich Fisher – FS-WO

  • Suraj Ahuja – FS-R5

  • Janice Peterson – FS-R6

  • Trent Procter – FS-R5

  • Bill Jackson – FS-R8

  • Jim Renfro – NPS

  • Judy Rocchio – NPS

  • Andrzej Bytnerowicz – FS-R

  • Dave Peterson – USGS-BRD

  • Bill Hogsett – EPA


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Ozone Effects On Vegetation

Agricultural crops

Yield, Productivity

Leaf necrosis

Quality


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Ozone Effects On Vegetation

Agricultural cropsNative plants

Yield, Productivity Growth

Leaf necrosis Leaf necrosis

Quality Ecosystems form,

structure


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Environmental and Genetic Differences

Agricultural cropsNative plants

Small variability Large variability


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Variables Influencing Plant Response to Ozone

Nutrition, primarily nitrogen

Species/genotype

Moisture: relative humidity and soil moisture

Solar radiation, temperature

Day length/photoperiod

Regional climatic differences

Age of plant, phenological state of development

Population/ecosystem interactions


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Injury and Damage

Injury: All physical or biological responses to pollutants, such as changes in metabolism, reduced photosynthesis, leaf necrosis, premature leaf drop, and chlorosis.

Damage: Reduction in the intended use or value of the biological or physical resource; for example, economic production, ecological structure and function, aesthetic value, and biological or genetic diversity that may be altered through the impact of pollutants.


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Ozone Exposure Definitions

Exposure – ozone present in ambient air

Dose – ozone taken up into plant tissue

Flux – the rate at which plant surfaces absorb ozone

Effective flux – flux minus defensive response

Defenses –passive and active


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Ozone Metrics Related to Vegetation

  • Preferentially weights higher concentrations

  • Cumulative throughout growing season

  • 24 hour exposure


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Ozone Metrics Related to Vegetation

  • AOT40: accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb. (The sum of all hourly concentrations after subtracting 40 ppb from each hourly value.)

  • SUM06: sum of all hourly concentrations  60 ppb (0.06 ppm)

  • N100: number of concentrations 100 ppb

  • W126: sigmoidal weighted function, ppm-hrs

  • Wi = 1/[1 + M x e – (A x Ci)]

  • (where M = 4403 and A = 126 ppm-1)


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Daytime Exposure to Ozone

Daylight hours

AOT40 in Europe; 50 W/m2

12 hours

SUM06, recommended by EPA

8 am – 7:59 pm

24 hours

Some European, U.S. Scientists


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Seasonal Exposure to Ozone

3-Month

May, June, July (AOT40 - crops)

June, July, August (U.S.)

Running 3-month (AOT40)

Growing Season

April through September (AOT40 - forests)

April through October (U.S.)


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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTSFLAG has selected the W126 metric as most appropriate to describe ozone exposure for vegetation. The metric is based on a 24-hour, seasonal (April through October) period of measurement. FLAG also recognizes the importance of considering the number of hours in this period of time greater than or equal to 100 ppb (N100) given the importance of peak concentrations in plant response.


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W126 (ppm-hrs) and N100 values for injury

for selected species.

NameW126N100

Table mountain pine 20.0 2

Sweetgum 5.6 3

Sycamore 31.2 89

Winged sumac 3.3 5

Black cherry 11.5 10

Tall milkweed 0.3 0

Black-eyed susan 12.8 50

Dwarf dandelion 0.3 0

Yellow buckeye 4.7 3

Virginia pine 30.0 50

Cutleaf coneflower 5.5 3


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W126 (ppm-hrs) and N100 values for 10% growth loss for selected species.

NameW126N100

Aspen 259 6.4 4

Aspen wild 71.4 243

Black Cherry 6.5 1

Red Maple 85.4 245

Whorled-wood aster 8.2 10

Yellow poplar 14.4 4

Eastern white pine 30.2 66

Sugar maple 44.7 131

Sycamore 15.4 27

Winged sumac 9.7 4


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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTSNOx and VOC emissions are of concern because they are precursors of ozone. Current information indicates most FLM areas are NOx-limited most or all of the time. Until we determine such is not the case, we will focus on control of NOx emissions.


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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTSFLAG agrees with EPA and others that single source-receptor modeling for ozone is not feasible at this time. FLM actions or specific requests on a permit application will, therefore, be based on the existing air pollution situation at the FLM area(s) that may be affected by the source. FLM response will depend on (1) whether or not ozone phytotoxic effects have been documented in the area, and (2) whether or not ozone exposure levels occurring in the area have been shown to be phytotoxic.


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a. The FLM may recommend one or more of the following: - That the proposed source use stricter (than BACT) controls (e.g., Lowest Achievable Emission Rate [LAER]) - That the proposed source obtain NOx emission offsets that will benefit the potentially affected FLM area (as demonstrated by dispersion modeling). - That the permitting authority (i.e.state or EPA) conduct regional modeling to identify sources that are contributing significantly to ozone-associated impacts in the FLM area, and that the permitting authority then undertake actions necessary to reduce emissions from those sources (e.g., SIP revision).b. That the applicant calculate the ozone exposure for vegetation (using the W126 and N100 metrics) for the affected FLM area(s) where such information is not already available.c. That the permitting authority or applicant fund post-construction ambient ozone monitoring in or near the FLM area.d. That the applicant conduct or fund post-construction ozone effects monitoring/research in the FLM area.


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Ozone Information Provided in FLAG Report

  • List of plant species sensitive to ozone for foliar necrosis

  • List of ozone sensitive plant species occurring in selected Class I areas

  • List of representative high and low W126 and N100 values for selected NPS and FSW areas

  • Short list of W126 and N100 values causing foliar injury; and causing 10% growth loss for selected plant species


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Additional Information Needed

  • Inventory of plant species in FLM areas

  • Identification of ozone sensitive plant species

  • Monitoring of ozone in FLM areas

  • Active monitors – necessary for dynamics of exposure

  • Passive monitors – low cost, indicates ozone loading

  • Source/receptor modeling


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Ozone Air Pollution Web Sites

U.S. EPA ozone information:

http://www.epa.gov/airlinks

http://www.epa.gov gov/oar/oaqps/cleanair.html

http://www.epa.gov/naaqsfin/o3health.htm

http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/castnet

NPS ozone information:

http://www2.nature.nps.gov/ard/gas/network.htm;

http://www2.nature.nps.gov/ard/veginj.htm

Ozone effects research, USDA ARS, North Carolina:

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/notes/Ozone/ozone.html

Ozone effects research, England:

http://www.ncl.ac.uk/airweb/ozone/ozone.htm

Ozone effects research, Switzerland:

http://www.wsl.ch/forest/risks/wsidb/projects/ozone/ozoneENG.html

Ozone exposure metrics for vegetation:

http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ASL_ASSOCIATES/homepage. htm


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