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Consumer Preference for Wild Caught and Farm Raised Seafood. Kelly Davidson, Minling Pan NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Wuyang Hu, Devie Poerwanto University of Kentucky Dept. of Agricultural Economics. A Comparison across Species and Consumer Residence States.

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Consumer Preference for Wild Caught and Farm Raised Seafood

Kelly Davidson, Minling Pan

NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Wuyang Hu, Devie PoerwantoUniversity of KentuckyDept. of Agricultural Economics

A Comparison across Species and Consumer Residence States

CNREP Conference, New Orleans, LA

May 26-28, 2010


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u.s. Beef, chicken, and fish consumption, 1980-2008

Source: USDA/Economic Research Service Per Capita Availability Data

NOAA Fisheries of the United States Report, 2008


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A closer look at u.s. per capita fish consumption, 1980-2008

Source: NOAA Fisheries of the United States Report, 2008


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U.S. Seafood Consumption (nmfs data)

  • 2008 U.S. Per Capita Fish/Shellfish Consumption 16.0 pounds

    • 84% imported, over half of imported seafood is farm raised

    • U.S. freshwater and marine aquaculture combined provide 5% of seafood demand

    • U.S. seafood trade deficit of over $9 billion

  • US ranked 3rd in seafood consumption behind China and Japan

    • 2008 consumer expenditures on fishery products over $69.9 Billion

      • Nearly $35 Billion in value-added contributing to GNP


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Top ten species: US per capita Seafood consumption in 2008

Source: National Fisheries Institute, 2010


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Global aquaculture

  • World Per Capita Fish/Shellfish Consumption 36.2 lbs

  • Global wild fish harvest 90-95 million tons/yr

  • Global aquaculture production 60 million tons/yr

    • Value of $70 billion per yr

    • Total U.S. aquaculture production approx. $1.2 billion per yr

  • China leads in both aquaculture and wild catch

    • 31 million mT farmed in 2007

    • 14 million mT caught in 2007

  • U.S. and Japan major importers of fishery products – over $13 billion each

Source: FAO data and NOAA Aquaculture Statistics


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Hawaii Seafood market

  • Local per capita seafood consumption rate approx. 3 times the national average

  • Demand for most products > supply

    • Imports 75% of all seafood consumed

  • Fresh and live product markets

  • Tourism, “ethnic markets”

    • Premium price for fresh, high quality seafood

Source: Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture


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Hawaii aquaculture

  • 70 aquaculture operations statewide

  • Offshore Marine Culture

    • Hukilau Foods

      • Moi Cage Culture

    • Kona Blue Water Farms

      • Kona Kampachi

  • Record $34.7 Million total grown in 2008

    • 38% increase from 2007

    • Hawaii County accounted for 80%

Source: National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA, Hawaii Field Office


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pilot study rationale

  • NOAA Aquaculture Policy

  • What seafood attributes are important when comparing aquaculture with wild catch?

    • Perceptions of aquaculture

  • Consumer preferences

    • Across species

      • Popular (tuna, salmon) and less familiar (moi, tilapia)

    • Across different residence states


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Pilot study – august 2009

  • 15 respondents in Hawaii, 17 in Kentucky

    • Clarity of survey questions

    • Awareness of aquaculture

    • Familiarity with species

    • Attribute question for each species used to determine conjoint analysis cards

1=Not important, 5=Very Important


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Pilot survey questions

  • Which of the following have you purchased for home consumption in the past 60 days?

    • Top ten species

  • How often can you find fish from aquaculture in the market?

  • For seafood, which of the following types do you prefer most:

    • Wild caught

    • Inshore aquaculture

    • Offshore aquaculture

    • Land-based aquaculture

  • What are the main reasons? (environmental issues, natural resource uses, taste, food safety standards, price, other)


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More pilot survey questions

  • For each species, which type of product have you purchased?

    • Wild Caught, Farm Raised, Both, Neither, Unsure

  • How do you perceive the status of wild fish in the U.S. for each species?

    • Severely Overfished, Moderately Overfished, Not at all Overfished, Unsure

  • Are you more likely to purchase seafood grown locally in your area?


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Interesting comparisons from pilot responses

  • Consumers are less familiar with term “aquaculture” than “farm-raised”

  • Top ten species consumption

    • Shrimp, canned tuna, fresh tuna, salmon relatively equally popular in each state

    • More variation in Kentucky: Pollock, Tilapia, Catfish, Cod – zero consumed in Hawaii, some in KY

  • Are you able to differentiate between wild fish and aquaculture fish, either pre or post-consumption?

    • 12/17 in KY “sometimes, most of the time, always”

    • 9/15 in HI “rarely, never” 6 in HI “sometimes” or more


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More interesting comparisons

  • Are you more likely to purchase seafood grown locally in your area?

    • Hawaii: 9 yes, 4 no, 2 unsure

    • Kentucky: 4 yes, 9 no, 2 unsure

  • Price always important attribute for each species

  • Biggest differences for importance of each attribute between Tilapia and Moi

    • Product familiarity

    • Tilapia availability: 5 Hawaii respondents indifferent, only 3 said availability was important compared to 8 in Kentucky

  • Importance of product availability differed by species

    • Tuna availability more important in Hawaii

    • Salmon and Tilapia availability important in Kentucky



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Research objectives most?

  • Consumer preferences across species, different residence states

    • Production Methods

    • Tastes

    • Perceptions

    • Species Attributes

    • Hawaii vs. Kentucky: cultural and geographical differences in consumer preferences

  • Objectives

    • Examine consumer preference toward farm-raised versus wild caught fish

    • Evaluate the impact of preference related attributes across species on consumption decisions and WTP


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Methodology most?

  • Consumer surveys

    • Online

    • Face-to-face

  • Consumer preference elicitation method

    • Attitude and perception questions

    • Past consumption history: quantities and price

    • Hypothetical consumption questions for moi/tilapia

    • Choice experiment (conjoint analysis) on attributes of species

      • Tuna, Salmon, Tilapia, Moi

  • Data analysis

    • Multivariate regression analysis

    • Discrete choice models


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Sample conjoint card most?

  • Wild caught

  • Previously frozen

  • $25.49/lb

  • Farm raised

  • Previously frozen

  • Turtle safe

  • $19.99/lb

I will not choose either A or B

Option A

Option B

Option C

Tuna (Sashimi Grade Steak): Situation 2


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Conjoint analysis: species and attributes most?

  • Salmon

    • Wild Caught/Farm Raised

    • Previously Frozen/Fresh

    • Imported/US Domestic

  • Tilapia

    • Locally Grown

    • Veg. Feed/Synthetic

    • P. Frozen/Fresh/Live

  • Tuna

    • Wild Caught/Farm Raised

    • P. Frozen/Fresh

    • Turtlesafe Logo

  • Moi (pacific threadfin)

    • Locally Grown

    • Land-based/Ocean-based/Wild Caught


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QUESTIONS most?OR COMMENTS?


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