Chapter 3 lexical grammatical morphology
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Chapter 3 Lexical & Grammatical Morphology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 3 Lexical & Grammatical Morphology. Morphology Lane 333. Lexicon & Grammar . ‘actors’: grammatical word form of the LEXEME ACTOR Consider morphemes in ‘act-or-s’ Each morpheme functions differently ‘-s’ reflects the category of NUMBER (plural)

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Chapter 3 Lexical & Grammatical Morphology

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Chapter 3 lexical grammatical morphology

Chapter 3Lexical & Grammatical Morphology

Morphology

Lane 333


Lexicon grammar

Lexicon & Grammar

  • ‘actors’: grammatical word form of the LEXEME ACTOR

  • Consider morphemes in ‘act-or-s’

  • Each morpheme functions differently

  • ‘-s’ reflects the category of NUMBER (plural)

  • ‘-or’ changes verb into noun (performer of the action)


Inflectional morphology

Inflectional Morphology

  • Inflection (grammatical morphology): the process that builds word-forms of countless lexemes & it builds up paradigms of lexemes

  • never change the category of the word they are attached to (-s, -ing, -ed)

  • don’t change the meaning

  • they are only bound morphemes

  • grammatical morphemes follow lexical morphemes & come only after the stem


Inflectional suffixes of english

Inflectional suffixes of English

  • -s3rd per.sg. presentwaits

  • -edpast tensewaited

  • -ingprogressivewaiting

  • -enpast participleeaten

  • -spluralchairs

  • -’spossessivegirl’s

  • -ercomparativefaster

  • -estsuperlativefastest


Derivational morphology

Derivational morphology

  • Derivation (Lexical morphology): the process of building up new words by adding morphemes (derivational) that change the meaning, or part of speech of a word

  • may change the category of the word they are attached to (-ful in ‘beatiful’, -ish in ‘warmish’)

  • change the meaning

  • either bound or free

  • produce lexemes


Exercise

Exercise

3.3 Which morphemes are lexical & which are grammatical?

sparklerbenighted detective tympani

speedingstraightest platypus partly

threadedoxendisharmony ghastlier

horseboxemboldentwo-handed servant


Exercise1

Exercise

3.5 Can you segment these words?

linguistutilizearrogantalacrity

terrifylocationmechanicdemocrat


Bound lexical morphemes

Bound Lexical morphemes

  • the bits left over are ‘Bound Lexicalmorphemes’; e.g ‘lingu’

  • they don’t belong to any lexical category

  • hard to specify their precise dictionary meaning

  • ‘bovine’ : ‘bov’ bound lexical morpheme (to do with cattle)


Bound lexical morphemes1

Bound Lexical morphemes

  • Almost all bound lexical morphemes are of Greek, or Latin origin

  • used to create words for special purposes (scientific, technological)

  • Cranberry morphemes: have no other function but to distinguish different types of whatever is indicated by some other morpheme in the word; e.g. (raspberry, cranberry, bilberry)

  • no meaning except type of berry


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