Carbon compounds in cells
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Carbon Compounds In Cells. Chapter 3. Organic Compounds. Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids . Carbon’s Bonding Behavior . Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8

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Organic compounds l.jpg
Organic Compounds

Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic Acids


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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior

  • Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8

  • Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms


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Bonding Arrangements

  • Carbon atoms can form chains or rings

  • Other atoms project from the carbon backbone


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CARBOHYDATES

  • Basic Formula = Cn(H2O)n

  • One water for each Carbon, hence carbohydrate


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Two Simple Sugars

glucose

fructose


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Disaccharides

glucose

fructose

+ H2O

sucrose


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Polysaccharides

  • Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers

  • Most common are composed entirely of glucose

    • Cellulose

    • Starch (such as amylose)

    • Glycogen


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Cellulose & Starch

  • Differ in bonding patterns between monomers

  • Cellulose - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants

  • Starch - easily digested, storage form in plants



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Glycogen

  • Sugar storage form in animals

  • Large stores in muscle and liver cells

  • When blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose


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Lipids

  • Most include fatty acids

    • Fats

    • Phospholipids

    • Waxes

  • Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids

  • Tend to be insoluble in water


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Fatty Acids

  • Carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end

  • Carbon backbone (up to 36 C atoms)

    • Saturated - Single bonds between carbons

    • Unsaturated - One or more double bonds


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stearic acid

oleic acid

linolenic acid

Three Fatty Acids


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Fats

  • Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol

  • Triglycerides are most common


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Phospholipids

  • Main components of cell membranes


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Sterols and Derivatives

  • No fatty acids

  • Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings

  • Cholesterol - most common type in animals


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PROTEINS

  • Key in Cellular Structure & Function

  • Key Functional Role as Enzymes Controlling all Chemical Reactions

  • Amino Acid Building Blocks


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Amino Acid Structure

carboxyl

group

amino

group

R group


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Protein Synthesis

  • Protein is a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds

  • Peptide bond = Primary Bonding

    • Type of covalent bond

    • Links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next


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Primary Structure & Protein Shape

  • Primary structure influences shape in two main ways:

    • Allows hydrogen bonds to form between different amino acids along length of chain

    • Puts R groups in positions that allow them to interact


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Secondary Structure

  • Internal bond angles give rise to coiled or extended pattern

  • Hydrogen bonds form between different parts of polypeptide chain

  • Helix or pleated sheet



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Tertiary Structure

heme group

Folding as a result of interactions between R groups

coiled and twisted polypeptide chain of one globin molecule


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Quaternary Structure

Some proteins are made up of more than one polypeptide chain

Hemoglobin


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Denaturation

  • Disruption of three-dimensional shape

  • Breakage of weak bonds

  • Causes of denaturation:

    • pH

    • Temperature

  • Destroying protein shape disrupts function


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A Permanent Wave

different

bridges

form

bridges

broken

hair wrapped

around cuticles


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NUCLEIC ACIDS

  • DNA = Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

  • RNA = Ribonucleic Acid

  • Nucleotide Building Blocks


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Nucleotide Structure

  • Sugar

    • Ribose or deoxyribose

  • At least one phosphate group

  • Base

    • Nitrogen-containing

    • Single or double ring structure


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ADENINE

(a base)

THYMINE

phosphate group

sugar (deoxyribose)

GUANINE

CYTOSINE

Fig. 3.19, p. 46


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Nucleotide Functions

  • Energy carriers

  • Coenzymes

  • Chemical messengers

  • Building blocks for nucleic acids


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Nucleic Acids

Adenine

  • Composed of nucleotides

  • Single- or double-stranded

  • Sugar-phosphate backbone

Cytosine


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DNA

  • Double-stranded

  • Consists of four types of nucleotides

  • A bound to T

  • C bound to G


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RNA

  • Ribose instead of Deoxyribose

  • Usually single strands

  • Four types of nucleotides

  • Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine


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