Algae based biodiesel
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Ahmed Mohamed Marzouqi Hasan Salem Yalyali Ali Mousa Al Masri Essa Al Muallemi. Algae Based Biodiesel. Introduction. Goals: produce biodiesel from microalgae Saving the environment from CO 2 emissions Using sewage water Produce a renewable and new energy source

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Algae based biodiesel

Algae Based Biodiesel


Introduction
Introduction

  • Goals: produce biodiesel from microalgae

    • Saving the environment from CO2 emissions

    • Using sewage water

    • Produce a renewable and new energy source

  • Biodiesel: a biodegradable, clean-burning combustible fuel derived from new or used vegetable oils or animal fats and microalgae


Introduction1
introduction

  • Why biodiesel?

    • Produces less harmful emissions

    • Creates jobs

    • Substitute the fossil fuel

  • Why Algae?

    • Lower cost

    • High oil content

    • Can grow in everyplace

    • beneficial by-product


Research summary
Research Summary

  • The type of microalgae is Ankistrodesmusbraunii

  • Visiting UAQ research Centre

    • Chlorella, Nannochloropesis and Tetraselmis

    • Cultivated in small beakers (light + aeration)

    • Transferred to 100 L

    • Transferring to 1 Ton …….. 15 ton of algae


Research summary1
Research Summary

  • The reactor should be aseptic

  • Scaling up decreasing the density


Project overview

Sub culturing the algae in bottles

Cultivating micro algae in photobioreactor

Cultivating microalgae using diesel engine emissions

Separating algae cells from water by:

  • Drying

  • Filters

  • Centrifuging

  • Building the bioreactor

  • Testing diesel engine's emissions

Cultivating microalgae in sewage water

  • Getting 1 ton of algae from UAQ

  • Building the open pond

Crushing algae cells by:

  • Sonication

Doing Transteterification to get biodiesel

Extracting oil from algae cells by hexane

Testing the biodiesel

Project Overview


Daily media preparation

Soil water(not for Nannochloropesis) 400 ml/L

]

NaCl 100 ml/L

]

NaNO3 300 ml/L

]

K2HPO4 100 ml/L

]

CaCl 100 ml/L

]

KH2PO4 100 ml/L

]

MgSO4 100 ml/L

]

Vitamins 10 ml/L for each

]

P (4) metal solution 60 ml/L

]

10 L

Daily Media Preparation


Ordering algae from university of texas
Ordering algae from university of texas

  • The selected type of microalgae which is Ankistrodesmusbraunii has been ordered from the University of Texas


Ordering algae from uaq research centre
Ordering Algae from UAQ research Centre

  • After finishing the tour in UAQ research centre, we were provided with 1.5 liter of three types of microalgae which are:

  • Chlorella

  • Nannochloropesis

  • Tetraselmis


Building the cultivation reactor
Building the cultivation reactor

Design specifications

  • Material of PVC with thickness of 6, 8 and 10 mm

  • Neon tubes

  • Fittings and connections

  • Hoses and pipes

Dimensions

Four Rooms (40 X 40 X 75 cm)

Offset to install the neon lights (5 cm) from all sides


Analysis
Analysis

The outer case of the cultivation reactor is made of 6mm thickness plastic with 10mm base. The offset will be filled with neon lights. The amount of light supported to the culture has a proportional effect with the algae growth rate.

  • The cultivation reactor is divided to four rooms, where each room is 40cm X 40cm.


The bottom case of the reactor has been drilled to feed the culture with CO2 and to drain the water if needed. Water and nutrients will be fed from the upper cover of the room. CO2 are being used in cylinders, and it is connected to the reactor with tubes which will bubble the CO2 in the reactor, and the bubbling will help the media to be mixed at the same time.


The base of the reactor has been manufactured to keep the reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Preparing the perfect media
Preparing the perfect media reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

Once algae has been ordered from University of Texas, the manual of the media that will help algae growing efficiently was provided, where the media name is Bristol, which consists of many chemical components and Proteose Peptone with 6.8 pH. The components of Bristol medium are:

  • Sodium nitrate NaNO3

  • Calcium chloride CaCl2·2H2O

  • Magnesium sulfate MgSO4·7H2O

  • Dipotassium phosphate K2HPO4

  • Sodium chloride NaCl


Building the bioreactor
Building the bioreactor reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

A bioreactor which has a shape near to the cultivation reactor will be used to grow microalgae strain with feeding it from the diesel engine's exhaust gases.


Design specifications: reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • The outer case of the cultivation reactor is made from 6mm thick plastic with 10 mm to fill it with neon lights as shown in

  • The cultivation reactor is one square, where each square is 54 cm X 54 cm.

  • The base of the reactor has been manufactured to keep the reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the volume of the reactor, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Leakage problem
Leakage Problem reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

The leakage problem occurred for the cultivation reactor happened for the bioreactor also. Therefore, it was covered by double plastic layer to prevent the leakage.


Testing diesel engine emissions
Testing Diesel Engine emissions reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

There are many methods for determining total organic carbon (TOC). TOC analyzer is one of the most important analytical methods to know how much the TOC in the sample. Four samples have been taken to test their TOC using the TOC analyzer in the civil engineering department. These samples are:

  • Sample one: Tap water

  • Sample two: water bubbled by diesel engine's exhaust gases for 30 minutes.

  • Sample three: water bubbled by diesel engine's exhaust gases for 60 minutes.

  • Sample four: water bubbled by diesel engine's exhaust gases for 120 minutes.


The steps of using the device: reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

-inject sample.

-burn it at 800 c.

-Detect TOC.


The toc test for four samples with different feeding time
The TOC test for four samples with different feeding time reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

It is observed that while the output of the diesel engine increases, the TOC will increase.


Cultivating the microalgae
Cultivating the microalgae reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Sub culturing microalgae in bottles

    • To grow the microalgae under the perfect conditions (Temp., Perfect media, PH, Lighting)

    • 10 L bottles were used.

    • Two types of microalgae were cultivated in the lab. (chlorella and Ankistrodesmus braunii).

    • Sub culturing will double the original amount.


Sub culturing microalgae in bottles
Sub culturing microalgae in bottles reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • 10 L Bottles were in use.

  • Prepare ten liters of the perfect media.

  • Take five liters of microalgae from the bottle which needs to be break.

  • Mix the five liters of microalgae with liters liters of the perfect media.

  • Also add five liters of perfect media to the broken one.

  • After three to four days we will have twenty liters of microalgae.


Sub culturing microalgae in bottles1
Sub culturing microalgae in bottles reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Cultivating microalgae in the bioreactor
Cultivating microalgae in the bioreactor reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • After growing the chlorella microalgae in 10 L bottles, it was dumped in the bioreactor.

  • Diesel engine output as feeding to the microalgae 30 minutes everyday.

  • Monitoring the density of the microalgae in consistent time.


Cultivating microalgae in the bioreactor1
Cultivating microalgae in the bioreactor reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Open pond or raceway pond is a shallow artificial pond used in the cultivation of algae.

  • The pond is divided into a rectangular grid, with each rectangle containing one channel in the shape of an oval, like an automotive raceway circuit.

  • Each rectangle contains a paddle wheel to make the water flow continuously around the circuit .


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond1
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Benefits: -

    • Cheaper to construct compared with other types of reactors.

    • Largest production capacities relative to other systems of comparable size and cost.

    • Natural lighting.

    • Using the sewage water/Power Stations Output.

    • A small amount of power needed to run the motor.

    • Easy to maintain.


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond2
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Design of the open pond

    • Location: - Al Ain Main Unit for treating the wastewater

    • Length: - 8 m, Width: - 2 m, Depth: - 30 cm

    • Area: - 3 m2

    • Distal end, hydraulic radius

    • Ground infrastructure prepared for no leakage

    • Pond lining (concrete)

    • Liquid flow with paddle wheel

    • Flow velocity (laminar liquid flow velocity, 5-40 cm/sec)

    • Pond accessories (drainage, cleaning, pumps, pipes)

    • Water tank with ball valve for compensation

    • Temperature range from 30 to 50 C


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond3
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • CAD Drawing


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond4
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Pond Start up

    • 1 ton of sea water

    • 1 ton of microalgae (Nannochloropesis)

    • 500 liters of fresh water

    • 500 liters of treated water

  • Properties of the treated water are

    • TOC = 5 ppm

    • Ammonia = 3 ppm


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond5
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • TOC Monitoring

    • First day TOC= 420 ppm

    • After 48 Hours TOC= 210 ppm

    • After 72 Hours TOC= 103 ppm

  • Cells Density Monitoring (after the addition of 120 L of raw sewage TOC 300 ppm, Ammonia 38 ppm)

    • After 24 hours it was 2.47 x 105 cells/ml

    • After 48 hours it was 4.12 x 106 cells/ml

    • After 72 hours it was 2.00 x 108 cells/ml


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond6
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Cultivating microalgae in the open pond7
Cultivating microalgae in the open pond reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.


Separation of microalgae from water
Separation of microalgae from water reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Methods

    • Filtration

      Filtration is carried out commonly on membranes of modified Cellulose with the aid of a suction pump.

    • Drying

      In this method the algae are kept in low height containers under the sun light.


Separation of microalgae from water1
Separation of microalgae from water reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Flocculation

    Flocculation is a method of separating algae from the medium by using chemicals to force the algae to form lumps.

  • Flotation

    Usually flotation is used in combination with flocculation for Algae Harvesting in waste water. It is a simple method by which algae can be made to float on the surface of the medium and removed as scum.


Separation of microalgae from water2
Separation of microalgae from water reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Centrifugation

    Centrifugation is a method of separating algae from the medium by using a centrifuge to cause the algae to settle to the bottom of a flask or tank.

    Three methods were used in the project to separate microalgae from water: -

  • Drying

  • Centrifuging

  • Filtering


Separation of microalgae from water3
Separation of microalgae from water reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Drying


Separation of microalgae from water4
Separation of microalgae from water reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Centrifuging


Cost analysis
Cost Analysis reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Cost of the open pond building

    • Total Volume of the open pond = 1.547 m3

    • Concrete cost = total concrete volume (m3) x Price of concrete per m3.

      = 1.547 m3 x 1000 AED/ m3 = 1547 AED

    • Cost of 3 labors to build the pond = 3 labors x 100 AED/labor = 300 AED

    • Cost of the compensating tank with ball valve = 495 AED


Cost analysis1
Cost Analysis reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

  • Cost of the paddle wheel with motor = 1300 AED

  • Total Cost of the pond = 1547 + 300 + 495 + 1300 = 3642 AED

  • The Chemical Process Cost

    • Building Chemical Lab = 10000 AED

    • Chemicals = 3000 AED

    • Sonicator = 7340 AED

    • Centrifuging Machine = 5000 AED

    • Distiller = 8000 AED

    • Importing Algae Sample = 500 AED

    • Fridge = 630 AED

    • 40 Pans or low depth containers to dry the Algae = 1500 AED


  • Cost analysis2
    Cost Analysis reactor with a suitable height from the ground and to be moved easily with four wheels from its bottom, with considering the high volume of the cultivation reactor, which will lead for a high mass of it, the base has been manufactured with a thick iron material to avoid any fracture or cracks.

    • Total Initial Cost for the chemical process = 10000 + 3000 + 7340 + 5000 + 8000 + 500 + 630 + 1500 = 35970 AED

    • Maintenance & Delivery = 1500 AED/Month

    • Lab Specialist = 5000 AED/Month


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