Tips to Garden Organically. Down to Earth Ideas for Good Health and a Safe Environment By Paule Hjertaas, B.Sc. Copyrighted Paule Hjertaas. Permission granted for personal use. Other uses please contact the author at dp.hjertaas(at)sasktel.net.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Down to Earth Ideas for Good Health and a Safe Environment
By Paule Hjertaas, B.Sc.
Copyrighted Paule Hjertaas. Permission granted for personal use. Other uses please contact the author at dp.hjertaas(at)sasktel.net.
Photos credits: Paule Hjertaas and the Insect Images, a joint project of the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service.http://www.insectimages.org/
Is an approach based on observation and prevention
Deals with the causes of problems
Pays attention to garden design and garden and plant siting
Builds up soil, stability and bio-diversity
Starts by using the safest methods
Is not simply replacing one chemical by a less toxic product
Treated wood of any type has no place in an organic garden (CCA creosote, penta)Organic Gardening
Timing of Seeding and Transplanting
Indoor or Greenhouse common problems
Beds vs Rows
Products Discussion and DemonstrationsTopics Covered
Length of Frost-free season
Type (sand, clay,etc)
Soil test so you can correct deficiencies
Proper pruning and thinning
Not to much NitrogenFactors Affecting Plant Health, Insects and Diseases
Cunning Cultivation Methods
Encouraging Predators and Parasites
Mix and Match Companion Plants
Barriers and Traps
Brought-in Predators and Parasites
Organic Pesticides including enzyme cleaner10 Lines of Defense against Pests and Diseases
Used to build soil
As soil amendment
As foliar spray (Seaweed emulsion, well finished compost tea)Fertilizers
Complete Organic fertilizer Blend (West Coast Seed)
4 parts seed meal (I.e. flax)
1 part rock phosphate or ½ part bone meal
1 part lime
½ part kelp meal
Prepackaged equivalent is All-Purpose Blend (Gaia) or Power Bloom (Gaia)
Some catalogs offering organic and natural fertilizers
West Coast Seeds
William Dam Seeds
NIC OntarioFertilizer Recipe
pH 6.6 to 7.5
Needs lots of K and P (bonemeal and greensand)
Inoculate seeds and only loosen soil a little
Cover with ½” compost
Next year, each time 10 % flowers, mow to 1 “ tall
Spread clippings around garden
At end of summer cut to 3-4 “ tall
Ass greensand and bonemeal 1-2 times /yr 5 lb/2 lb respectively for 10 ft bed
Stand lasts 5 years
Choose disease-resistant varieties
Can be used to break up compacted subsoil in problem areas
Or buy good-quality pellets
(OG Aug 06)Alfalfa - best soil builder
1/2 peat moss
1 handful bonemeal
1 handful rock phosphate
1 handful organic fertilizer
Seaweed emulsion (and foliar feed)
Manure TeaIndoor Seeding 1
Prune and destroy
Sticky and other traps (including tree bands)Physical Insect Control
Acts as anti-feedant and pseudo-steroidal IGR
Can prevent swallowing and affects digestion
Chitin synthesis inhibitor
Generally must be eaten
Effectiveness may depend on concentration of azadirachtin
Most effective on larval forms on insects with total metamorphosis (caterpillars, including sod webworms, gypsy moth and cutworms, larval beetles. whitefly nymphs), leafminers and mitesNeem Oil
Washed off by rain
Reentry as soon as spray dries
Does not persist in environmentNeem Oil (2)
Diatomaceous Earth in hole
Repellent garlic spray
The tunnels vary tremendously in length and shape between species
Most published controls for indoors or for fire ants which we don’t have
Some species are usefulAnts
Hand Pick with gloves
Pick under boards or other traps (grapefruit rind) during the day
Boiling water or salt
Best bait: Crushed slugs
Spray plants w ½-1/2 vinegar-water early am. When #s down, every 2 weeks (untested)
5 % garlic solution provides best barrier and kills 95 %
As the clay hardpan improves, the numbers decreaseSlugs and Snails
Application of compost to soil may help.
Deadheading and removing infested foliage is an option. Do not shear or stimulate new growth. Prune by cutting plants just above branch crotches and nodes.
Insecticidal soap, Horticultural oils and neem oil containing azadirachtin are effective
Spray a test area first to see if not phytotoxic.
All degrade very quickly. Due to overlapping generations, may have to apply several timesThrips
* Perform tick checks.
Tick Flag population.(for med.height brush)
Staple 1 sq yard piece of white flannel cloth with heavy knap to a stick ( hem one end if used often)
Sweep flag ahead. Captured ticks show well.
Turn over, pick ticks and drop in plastic container with cap. Will die in 24 hours. Or drop in soapy water.
Tick Drag (grass or low brush)
4 ft wide x 6 ft long.Velcro strip one end
Add lead weights to lower end
Make a clothesline handle through plastic pipe.
Drag besides and behind.Trap Ticks
Crows dig up seeds population.
House Sparrows eat seedlings
Grackles squish all peas
Robins eat Fruits
-- row cover
Trap to kill (e.g. Lee’s trapworks)
AC Greenfix (variety of Chickling Vetch - Lathyrus sativus)
Walk on lawn with long spike sandals in late spring or late summer
Basin of soapy water under a light at night
Milky spore disease for Japanese beetleLawn insects 1
Pear Slugs population.
Forceful spraying with water
Home recipe 1
Insecticidal soap on larvae
Try .01 % black pepper spray
Banding, but may blow in
Insecticidal soap sickens
BtkTrees and shrubs
European Corn borer
Oblique banded Leafroller
Oriental Fruit Moth
Grape Berry Borer
Available from Natural Insect ControlLures and Traps 1
Indian Meal Moth
Sm. Elm Bark Beetle
Lygus Bug and European Sawfly
Ash/Lilac BorerLures and Traps 2
Keep things clean population.
Discard diseased material, don’t compost
Baking Soda Recipe
Compost Teas Sprays
Competing OrganismsDisease Control
Identify and find the source population.
Fungi spread by spores
Viruses when sap from infected plant transferred to healthy plant
Bacterial D transmitted by insects like leafhoppers, aphids and thrips
Prevent stress from over- or under-watering, overfertilization, extreme weather or other.
Beware of family connections (i.e petunias, tomatoes, delphiniums are in different families but all host the tobacco mosaic virus)
Get rid of infected plantDiseases
Minimize Imports population.
Clean tools and shoes
Don’t throw flowering weeds in compost
Pick seeds with lowest % weed seeds
Don’t disturb soil unnecessarily
Don’t till areas infested with perennial weeds, dig them up
Encourage healthy competition
Anti-weed WateringWeed Control Methods 1
Timing is everything population.
Hot water works
A little salt will do the trick
Sprout them out
Crowd them out
When in doubt, mulch
Action must follow planningWeed Control Methods 2
Organically herbicide them population.
Cook them out
Cut of their heads
Before they go to seed with mower or string trimmer
Mow them down
Before they go to seed
Pull them out
Dig them out
Follow the roots to China if you have to!
Graze or eat themWeed Control Methods3
Weed Barriers population.
Sweep and Vac
Japanese Weeding Knife (Maria Rodale)
Eco-Weeder – Infrared
GrazersWeed Control Tools