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Dec 7, 2007. SOAP vs REST. Can you read this? If not, please sit closer. Thank you. XML RPC (1998). Request <?xml version="1.0"?> < methodCall > < methodName > doSomeWork </ methodName > < params > < param > <value>< int >40</ int ></value> </ param > < param >

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dec 7 2007
Dec 7, 2007

SOAP vs REST

Can you read this? If not, please sit closer. Thank you.

slide2

XML RPC (1998)

  • Request
  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <methodCall>
    • <methodName>doSomeWork</methodName>
    • <params>
      • <param>
        • <value><int>40</int></value>
      • </param>
      • <param>
        • <value><double>-12.53</double></value>
      • </param>
    • </params>
  • </methodCall>
  • Response
  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <methodResponse>
    • <params>
      • <param>
        • <value>
          • <array>
            • <data>
              • <value><dateTime.iso8601>19980717T14:08:55</dateTime.iso8601></value>
              • <value><string>Something here</string></value>
            • </data>
          • </array>
        • </value>
      • </param>
    • </params>
  • </methodResponse>
slide3

Early SOAP (2000) “section 5 encoding”

  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <soap-env:envelope
  • soap-env:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:soap-env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  • xmlns:soap-enc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema"
  • xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema-instance">
    • <soap-env:header>
      • ...
    • </soap-env:header>
    • <soap-env:body>
      • <m:doSomeWork xmlns:m="http://www.lab49.com/">
        • <foo xsi:type="xsd:int">40</foo>
        • <bar>-12.53</bar>
      • </m:doSomeWork>
    • </soap-env:body>
  • </soap-env:envelope>
  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <soap-env:Envelope
  • soap-env:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:soap-env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  • xmlns:soap-enc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema"
  • xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema-instance">
    • <soap-env:body>
      • <m:doSomeWorkResponse xmlns:m="http://www.lab49.com/">
        • <soap-enc:array soap-enc:arrayType="xsd:ur-type[2]">
          • <baz xsi:type="xsd:int">12345</baz>
          • <quux xsi:type="xsd:string">Something here</quux>
        • </soap-enc:array>
      • </m:doSomeWorkResponse>
    • </soap-env:Body>
  • </soap-env:Envelope>
slide4

SOAP fancy encoding rules

References:

<e:Book> <title>My Life and Work</title> <author href="#Person-1"/></e:Book>

<e:Person id="Person-1"> <name>Henry Ford</name> <address href="#Address-2"/></e:Person>

<e:Address id="Address-2">  <email>mailto:[email protected]</email> <web>http://www.henryford.com</web></e:Address>

Sparse arrays:

<SOAP-ENC:Array SOAP-ENC:arrayType="xsd:string[,][4]"> <SOAP-ENC:Array href="#array-1" SOAP-ENC:position="[2]"/></SOAP-ENC:Array>

<SOAP-ENC:Array id="array-1" SOAP-ENC:arrayType="xsd:string[10,10]"> <item SOAP-ENC:position="[2,2]">Third row, third col</item> <item SOAP-ENC:position="[7,2]">Eighth row, third col</item></SOAP-ENC:Array>

slide5

Document/literal (2003): Forget all the fancy encoding rules

  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <soap-env:envelope
  • soap-env:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:soap-env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema"
  • xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema-instance">
    • <soap-env:header>
      • ...
    • </soap-env:header>
    • <soap-env:body>
      • … your XML Schema compliant document goes here …
    • </soap-env:body>
  • </soap-env:envelope>
slide6

I want my, I want my RPC (rpc/literal)

  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <soap-env:envelope
  • soap-env:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:soap-env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  • xmlns:soap-enc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema"
  • xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema-instance">
    • <soap-env:header>
      • ...
    • </soap-env:header>
    • <soap-env:body>
      • <m:doSomething xmlns:m=“http://lab49.com/”>
        • <foo>
          • … XML Schema compliant value…
          • … XML Schema compliant value…
        • </foo>
        • <bar>
          • … XML Schema compliant value…
        • </bar>
      • </m:doSomething>
    • </soap-env:body>
  • </soap-env:envelope>

Namespace does not

have to be the same

as the parameter values

Argument elements don’t

even have a namespace

Lets you model procedure calls, but can’t validate SOAP body with an XML Schema

slide7

SOAP encoding convention line-up circa 2003

    • RPC/encoded (the original)
    • Document/literal (based on XML Schema, but doesn’t model RPC)
    • RPC/literal (adds RPC modeling, breaks XML Schema validation)
  • Can’t we model RPC without breaking Schema validation?
slide8

Wrapped document literal style (2005)

  • <?xml version="1.0"?>
  • <soap-env:envelope
  • soap-env:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:soap-env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  • xmlns:soap-enc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"
  • xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema"
  • xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/1999/XMLSchema-instance">
    • <soap-env:header>
      • ...
    • </soap-env:header>
    • <soap-env:body>
      • <m:doSomething xmlns:m=“http://lab49.com/”>
        • <m:foo>
        • </m:foo>
        • <m:bar>
        • </m:bar>
      • </m:doSomething>
    • </soap-env:body>
  • </soap-env:envelope>

Entire body complies with an XML Schema

containing element doSomething containing

a sequence of elements foo and bar

slide10

Web Service Definition Language (WSDL 1.1)

  • <definitions>
    • <types>
      • <schema>
        • <element name="doSomething">
          • <complexType>
          • <sequence>
            • <element name="foo" nillable="true" type="string" />
            • <element name="bar" nillable="true" type="double" />
          • </sequence>
          • </complexType>
        • </element>
        • <element name="doSomethingResponse">
          • ...
        • </element>
      • </schema>
    • </types>
    • <message name="doSomethingRequest"> <part name="parameters" element="doSomething"></part> </message>
    • <message name="doSomethingResponse"> <part name="parameters" element="doSomethingResponse"></part> </message>
    • <portType name="myServices">
      • <operation name="doSomething">
        • <input name="doSomethingRequest" message="doSomethingRequest"></input>
        • <output name="doSomethingResponse" message="doSomethingResponse"></output>
      • </operation>
    • </portType>
    • <binding name="myServicesHttpBinding" type="myServices">
      • <binding style="document" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http" />
      • <operation name="doSomething">
        • <operation soapAction="" />
        • <input name="doSomethingRequest"> <body use="literal" /> </input>
        • <output name="doSomethingResponse"> <body use="literal" /> </output>
      • </operation>
    • </binding>
    • <service name="myServices">
      • <port name="myServicesHttpPort" binding="myServicesHttpBinding"> <address location="http://..." /> </port>
    • </service>
  • </definitions>

Wrapped style. Notice the operation

has one message part called “parameters”

which is an XML sequence of the args

slide12

Code first / WSDL first decision algorithm

Write code first and use doc/literal style. i.e. Every method has one arg. Use

annotations to name everything and review

WSDL afterward.

Will other projects be using these services? i.e. is this part of an SOA?

Are you in a great hurry?

No

No

Yes

Yes

Write code first in

wrapped/literal style, i.e. Use

annotations to name everything and review WSDL afterward.

Write WSDL first.

Think through interfaces carefully, plan

for backward compatibility, write lots of

comments, and maintain in source control.

slide13

Goodies

  • WS-Security (message integrity, confidentiality, and authentication)
  • WS-ReliableMessaging
  • WS-Routing (messaging patterns and routes)
  • WS-Eventing (pub/sub)
  • Many other incomprehensible extensions, collectively referred to as WS-*
slide17

Complexity

Low

High

SOAP

?

REST

slide18

Comparison points

  • WSDL is a good idea for both SOAP and REST
    • (not a long-term differentiator)
  • SOAP and REST both allow you to name resources with URIs
    • (also not a long-term differentiator)
  • REST adds value to the entire web
    • (we don’t care)
  • REST is easier to program
    • (not for long)
  • SOAP provides better support for async messaging
  • SOAP is better if developers and network administrators don’t
  • have a good relationship
slide19

In conclusion

  • For enterprise apps, default to SOAP.
  • But if (like Amazon.com) you
  • are catering to people who are not making a large
  • investment in connecting to your service
  • have control over your network
  • are trying to reach a broad audience
  • … then go with REST.
  • Expires: Mon, 31 Mar 2008 20:00:00 GMT
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