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Molecular Techniques Applied to Biological Material. Grizzly Bear Scent Lures Bases : aged cattle blood, fish oil, fatty acid scent (expensive) Musk y: beaver castor, skunk essence

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Molecular Techniques

Applied to Biological Material

Grizzly Bear Scent Lures

Bases: aged cattle blood, fish oil, fatty acid scent (expensive)

Musky: beaver castor, skunk essence

Intense: butyl mercapto, oleoresin capsicum, shellfish essence, cheese essence, anise oil, Tabasco, liquid smoke / bacon oil, fermented egg essence, garlic, bag balm antiseptic, turpentine

Sweet: calamus powder, honey, cherry oil, peppermint oil, lavender, loganberry, banana, almond extract 


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Gender Identification in Conservation Programs

Seychelles warbler

Do they adaptively

adjust sex ratio?

Spix’s Macaw

ZZ / ZW

making a love connection


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Estimating Historical Population Sizes

Based on Coalescent Model: Roman and Palumbi (2003)

Humpback Fin Minke

WhaleWhaleWhale

Today 10,000 56,000 149,000

Historical 240,000 360,000 265,000


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Marine Protected Areas: How Big Should They Be?

Big enough to allow corridors or stepping-stones for dispersal.

Average dispersal distance

(determined using molecular markers)

MPE

MPE


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Rookery 1

Rookery 2

Rookery 3

Identifying Units of Conservation

Adult Feeding Grounds

Rookeries

independent

units

Females

(mtDNA

lineages)

Rookeries

Non-independent

units

Adult Feeding Grounds

Green Turtles


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Relationship between population genetic structure and

gender specific dispersal and gene flow

Female dispersal and gene flow

Low High

Geographic structure in…

mtDNA-- yes

Autosomal genes-- yes

Y-linked genes-- yes

Demographic autonomy-- yes

Geographic structure in…

mtDNA-- no

Autosomal genes-- no

Y-linked genes-- ***

Demographic autonomy-- ***

Low

Male

dispersal

and

gene

flow

Geographic structure in…

mtDNA-- no

Autosomal genes-- no

Y-linked genes-- no

Demographic autonomy-- no

Geographic structure in…

mtDNA-- yes

Autosomal genes-- no

Y-linked genes-- no

Demographic autonomy-- yes

High


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Inferred patterns of female dispersal and matrilineal gene flow

may be misleading:

Strong geographical matrilineal (mtDNA) structure

may result from density-dependent restrictions

on female movement, not historical processes.

Geographic populations may persist via continued

recruitment from favorable areas (source-sink

population structure). Limited structure would be

observed, suggesting that local populations colonize

easily.


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Inferred patterns of female dispersal and matrilineal gene flow

may be misleading:

Molecular markers may not reveal “true” population

genetic structure. Are populations structured because

of historical gene flow and genetic drift, or could it be

habitat specific natural selection?

Larger historical population sizes may give the impression

of geographically larger demographic units (it didn’t

take much migration between populations), when there is

actually very little contemporary gene flow.

The details matter: go study your organisms in nature too!


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