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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition. Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation. Objectives. Describe common types of hardware and their features Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux. Understanding Hardware: Central Processing Units (CPUs).

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linux guide to linux certification second edition

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition

Chapter 2

Preparing for Linux Installation

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe common types of hardware and their features
  • Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware central processing units cpus
Understanding Hardware:Central Processing Units (CPUs)
  • Core component of any computer
    • Also known as microprocessor or processor
  • Two main components:
    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here
    • Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processor’s integral electronics
  • Two main processor architectures:
    • Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
    • Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued5
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor
    • Determines speed that processor executes commands
    • Measured in Megahertz (MHz)
  • A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar
  • Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed
    • Measured in binary digits (bits)
    • The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued6
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Cache: Temporary store of information
    • Cache size and location affect a processor’s ability to calculate larger volumes of data
  • Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself
  • Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip
    • Connected to processor via high speed link
  • Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip
    • Connected directly to processor

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware cpus continued7
Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
  • Multiple processors can work together
    • Perform the same tasks faster
    • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task
    • ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory
  • Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor
  • Two main categories:
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
      • Volatile memory
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM
  • Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information
  • Directly related to computer performance
  • Two major categories:
    • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
    • Static RAM (SRAM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram continued
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM (continued)
  • Three main types of DRAM sticks:
    • Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM)
      • No longer produced
    • Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM)
    • Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM)
      • Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory ram continued11
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―RAM (continued)
  • Three recent DIMM technologies:
    • Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)
    • Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM)
    • Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory rom
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―ROM
  • Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to
    • Nonvolatile
  • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware physical memory rom variants
Understanding Hardware:Physical Memory―ROM Variants
  • Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once
  • Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole
  • Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives
  • Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits
    • Hard disk
    • Floppy disk
    • CD-ROM, DVD
    • CD-RW, DVD-RW disk
    • Zip disk
    • Flash Memory

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hard disk drives
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―Hard Disk Drives
  • Not directly wired to the processor
    • Pass through a hard disk controller card
      • Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD)
  • Two types of controller cards:
    • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
      • Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers
    • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)

Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued17
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)
  • Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive
  • Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself
    • A partition must be formatted with a filesystem

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued18
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)
  • Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions
  • Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives
  • Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk
    • Stored outside of all partitions

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives hdds continued19
Understanding Hardware:Disk Drives―HDDs (continued)

Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives other information storage devices
Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives―Other Information Storage Devices
  • Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer
    • Transferable between computers
  • Floppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically
    • Used in floppy disk drives
  • Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks
    • Can store much more information
    • Used in zip drives

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware disk drives other information storage devices continued
Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives―Other Information Storage Devices (continued)
  • DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses
    • Greater data transfer speed
    • Larger storage capacity
    • More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks
  • Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components
  • Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard
  • Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board
  • Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer
    • e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs)
    • Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Three common slots for peripheral devices:
    • Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz
    • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz
      • Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA)
    • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz
      • Designed for video card peripherals

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued24
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)

Figure 2-1: Mainboard components

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued25
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard
    • PS/2
    • COM (Serial)
    • LPT
    • USB
    • IEEE1394 (Firewire)
    • PCMCIA

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued26
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • PS/2 ports: Connect keyboards and mice to computers
  • COM ports: Connect a variety of peripherals to the mainboard
    • Serial port
  • LPT ports: Most commonly connect printers to the mainboard
    • Parallel ports

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued27
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) port: Connects peripheral components such as mice, printers, and scanners
    • Hot-swappable: Can be attached to the computer while it is running
  • FireWire (IEEE1394): Hot-swappable variant of USB commonly used to connect SCSI hard disks, scanners, digital cameras, and CD-RW drives

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued28
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality
  • Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware mainboards and peripheral components continued29
Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
  • Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU
  • Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device
  • Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors
  • Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor
    • Commonly referred to as video cards
  • Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen
  • Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors continued
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)

Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware video adapter cards and monitors continued32
Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)
  • Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed
    • Measured in Hertz (Hz)
    • Two types of refresh rates:
      • HSync (horizontal refresh)
      • VSync (vertical refresh)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

understanding hardware keyboards and mice
Understanding Hardware:Keyboards and Mice
  • Facilitates user input and direction
  • Variety of ways to connect to motherboard
    • Serial port
    • Large circular AT 5-pin connector
    • Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector
    • USB connection
    • Wireless or radio connection
  • Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering preinstallation information
Gathering Preinstallation Information

Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering preinstallation information continued
Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)

Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering preinstallation information continued36
Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued)

Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information
Gathering Hardware Information
  • Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist:
    • Computer manuals
    • Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed)
    • Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information continued
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information continued39
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information continued40
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information continued41
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering hardware information continued42
Gathering Hardware Information (continued)

Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering software information
Gathering Software Information
  • Identifying system network configuration:
    • Hostname
    • IP address
    • Netmask
    • Gateway
    • DNS servers
      • Resolve FQDNs

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering software information continued
Gathering Software Information (continued)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers
    • If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering software information continued45
Gathering Software Information (continued)

Table 2-6: Common Linux packages

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

gathering software information continued46
Gathering Software Information (continued)

Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary
Summary
  • Understand the hardware before an installation
    • Allows you to make appropriate choices
    • Verify that the installation was successful
  • CPUs process most instructions in a computer
  • Two CPU architectures: RISC and CISC
  • Computer memory can be volatile (RAM) or nonvolatile (ROM)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Most information is stored on hard disks, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs in a nonvolatile manner
    • Two main types of hard disks: SCSI and IDE
  • Peripheral components (video adapter cards, sound cards, mice, keyboards, NICs) attach to mainboard via an expansion slot or port
  • Common expansion slots: ISA, PCI, and AGP
  • Common ports: PS/2, serial, parallel, USB, FireWire, and PCMCIA

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary continued49
Summary (continued)
  • All peripherals must have a unique IRQ and I/O address to communicate with the processor
    • Can use DMA to bypass some processor operations
  • Hardware information can be gathered from computer manuals, BIOS, or other OSs
  • Can set software information at installation

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

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