Human rights global affairs psc 354 001
Download
1 / 17

Human Rights Global Affairs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 285 Views
  • Updated On :

Human Rights & Global Affairs (PSC 354.001) . January 21 , 2009 (W). Today. Housekeeping Digital pictures Review of last week Course website Introducing the three core readings (books) Today’s readings: O’Byrne and Donnelly What are human rights? Theory and human rights

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Rights Global Affairs ' - HarrisCezar


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Human rights global affairs psc 354 001 l.jpg

Human Rights & Global Affairs (PSC 354.001)

January 21, 2009 (W)


Today l.jpg
Today

  • Housekeeping

  • Digital pictures

  • Review of last week

  • Course website

  • Introducing the three core readings (books)

  • Today’s readings: O’Byrne and Donnelly

    • What are human rights?

    • Theory and human rights

    • Justifying human rights


Human rights global affairs psc 354 0013 l.jpg
Human Rights & Global Affairs (PSC 354.001)

  • Are you registered for this class?

  • Attendance

  • Additions: social and economic rights/religious freedom

  • The quiz

  • Digital pictures

  • Expectations


What are human rights l.jpg
What are “human rights”?

  • ‘Human rights’ are rights held simply because one is a human being.

  • Human rights describe a life in human dignity framed in a language of rights.

  • Rights are “trumps”, superceding other considerations (utility, interests, political concerns, etc.)

  • Human possibility

    • Human rights cover more than basic needs. They aim to promote human possibilities in a particular, morally defensible way.


Universal inalienable indivisible l.jpg
Universal, Inalienable, Indivisible

  • Inalienable/incontrovertible

    • Rights can not be forfeit, suspended, or given up.

  • Indivisible

    • All rights are equal and depend upon each other.

  • Universal

    • Every human being enjoys the same rights.

  • Rights create duties and obligations for others

    • Human rights create obligations and go beyond the moral claim of something being right; they create entitlements (having a right).


O byrne introduction 1 25 l.jpg
O’Byrne, introduction, 1-25

  • Human rights as “a discipline in its own right,” 2

  • Human rights research should improve the human condition, 3 (is there a conflict with the academic ethos of unbiased research?)

  • Book focuses primarily on civil and political rights, 11


O byrne introduction 1 257 l.jpg
O’Byrne, introduction, 1-25

  • Human rights abuses today (p. 5-8)

    • Ranking countries with regard to human rights abuses

  • What does human rights research look like (p. 8-17)?

    • What should be included in human rights research? What qualifies as a human rights abuse?

    • Focus on the key role of the state


O byrne introduction 1 258 l.jpg
O’Byrne, introduction, 1-25

  • Theory and Human rights, 17

    • Theories of human nature: because violations are committed by individuals (next week)

    • Theories of society: because violations occur in specific social contexts.

    • Theories of ethics: because we need to understand why violations are wrong.

    • Theories of politics: because the state plays a central role in acts of commission or omission.

    • Theories of modernization: because we face a world of simultaneous human rights progress and atrocities.


Donnelly introduction and ch 1 l.jpg
Donnelly, introduction and ch. 1

  • Human rights: “the rights that one has because one is human,” 7

  • Human rights are NOT granted by the state.

  • Human rights are

    • Inalienable

    • Equal

    • Universal

    • Indivisible


Donnelly introduction and ch 110 l.jpg
Donnelly, introduction and ch. 1

  • Human rights are not the same as abstract values, 11

    • “To have the right” significantly changes the relationship between rulers and ruled.

  • Human rights are not simply legal rights.

    • Example: LGBT community frequently appeals to human, not legal rights, 12

    • Legal rights are based on positive law.


Donnelly introduction and ch 111 l.jpg
Donnelly, introduction and ch. 1

  • How do rights ‘work’?

    • A right is an entitlement. It is not simply a benefit or a desirable outcome.

    • Assertive exercise: to claim a right

    • Active respect: to consider a right

    • Objective enjoyment.

  • Human rights violations constitute a special class of injustice.


Donnelly introduction and ch 112 l.jpg
Donnelly, introduction and ch. 1

Human rights and human nature

  • How can we defend human rights?

  • How can we justify human rights?

  • Why do those defenses (based on ethics or religion) of human rights sometimes fail?

  • How does being ‘human’ create rights? (Donnelly, p. 13).

  • Possible answers:

    • Human needs (rejected by Donnelly, p. 14)

    • Life in dignity: Man’s moral nature; prescriptive account of human possibility


  • What is essential human nature l.jpg
    What is essential human nature?

    • Physical needs

      • Derives a definition of human rights from the scientific study of what humans require for survival.

      • Weakness: neglects dignity and possibility.

    • Mental and moral needs

      • Shifts attention away from what we are now to what we could be in the future.

      • Weakness: No agreement on human nature and possibilities.

    • Capacity to suffer and feel compassion

      • Shifts attention away from being human to issues of suffering and compassion.

      • Weakness: Focus on pain, rather than human possibility.


    Human possibility l.jpg
    Human possibility

    • Donnelly: “Human nature is a social project and more than a presocial given.”

    • “Treat a person like a human being and you will get a human being” (Donnelly, p. 15).

    • Rights constitute individuals (not communities).

    • Rights construct free and equal citizens.


    From human nature to specific rights l.jpg
    From human nature to specific rights

    • What is the content and essence of human nature? (Donnelly, p. 16/17)

      • Ultimately, these philosophical theories will always be contentious (because they are based on assumptions).

      • However, we have a remarkable normative consensus on the content of rights (expressed in the UDHR).

    • A lack of foundations is not necessarily damaging to the idea of human rights.


    The universal declaration model l.jpg
    The Universal Declaration Model

    • A Global Consensus?

    • 30 min video on the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

    • Donnelly, chapter 2: Rights are

      • Universal and Individual (p. 23-27)

      • Indivisible (p. 27-33)

      • States have the exclusive responsibility to implement human rights at home (p. 33-37).


    What you should know l.jpg
    What you should know

    • What are human rights?

    • Where do human rights come from (normative and empirical)?

    • What are some justifications for upholding human rights?

    • What are contemporary challenges to the global human rights movement?

    • What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?


    ad