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Egyptian Gods. Outline. Introduction Part I. Egyptian mythology Part II. Sacred cities Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus Part IV. Animals Conclusion References. Introduction. What is now known as Egyptian mythology was the religion of Ancient Egypt (3300-30 BC)

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egyptian gods

Egyptian Gods

Dr. Montoneri

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Part II. Sacred cities
  • Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Part IV. Animals
  • Conclusion
  • References

Dr. Montoneri

introduction
Introduction
  • What is now known as Egyptian mythology was the religion of Ancient Egypt (3300-30 BC)
  • The Egyptian gods were represented with human torsos and human or animal heads
  • The ka, a duplicate of the body, accompanied the body throughout life and, after death, departed from the body to take its place in the kingdom of the dead
  • The ka, however, could not exist without the body; the corpse had to be preserves. Bodies were embalmed and mummified
  • After arriving in the kingdom of the dead, the ka was judged by Osiris, the king of the dead

Dr. Montoneri

slide4

Eye of Horus

Dr. Montoneri

part i egyptian mythology
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • The Egyptians believed that in the beginning, the universe was filled with the dark waters of chaos
  • The first god, Re-Atum, appeared from the water as the land of Egypt appears every year out of the flood waters of the Nile
  • Re-Atum spat and out of the spittle came out the gods Shu(air) and Tefnut(moisture)
  • The world was created when Shu & Tefnut gave birth to 2 children: Nut(sky)& Geb (the Earth)

Dr. Montoneri

part i egyptian mythology6
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Osiris was the son of Re-Atum and king of Egypt. His brother Seth represented evil in the universe
  • He murdered Osiris and himself became the king. After killing Osiris Seth tore his body into pieces, but Isis rescued most of the pieces for burial beneath the temple
  • Seth made himself king but was challenged by Osiris\'s son-Horus. Seth lost and was sent to the desert. He became the God of terrible storms
  • Osiris was mummified by Anubis and became God of the dead. Horus became the King and from him descended the pharaohs

Dr. Montoneri

part i egyptian mythology7
Part I. Egyptian mythology
  • Egypt had a highly developed view of the afterlife with elaborate rituals for preparing the body and soul for a peaceful life after death
  • Beliefs about the soul and afterlife focused heavily on preservation of the body, or ba (the soul was known as the ka). This meant that embalming and mummification were practiced, in order to preserve the individual\'s identity in the afterlife
  • The intestines, lungs, liver and the stomach were preserved separately and stored in canopic jars protected by the Four sons of Horus

Dr. Montoneri

part ii sacred cities
Part II. Sacred cities
  • Karnak Temple is the largest ancient religious site in the world (north of Luxor); Construction work began in the 16th century BC; 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings; cult of Amun
  • Luxor Temple is a large temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city of Luxor (Thebes); Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Chons
  • Memphis, founded around 3100 BC by Menes, who united the two kingdoms of Egypt; cult of Ptah

Dr. Montoneri

part ii sacred cities9
Part II. Sacred cities
  • Abydos, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt; the history of the city begins in the late prehistoric age; worship of Anubis, Horus
  • Heliopolis: unfortunately it is now mostly destroyed, its temples and other buildings being used for the construction of mediaeval Cairo; most information about it comes from textual sources; the chief deity of Heliopolis was the god Atun

Dr. Montoneri

slide10

EgyptDivided into Upper Egypt or Southern Egypt because it is upstream, closer to the source of the Nile Lower Egypt or Northern Egypt because it is downriver along the Nile

Dr. Montoneri

part iii isis osiris and horus
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Isis: Egyptian Goddess; wife of Osiris; First mentions of Isis date back to the 5th dynasty
  • Isis was pictured as a woman wearing a long sheath dress; depicted with her son, the great god Horus, with a crown and a vulture, and sometimes as a kite bird flying above Osiris\'s body
  • As a funerary deity, she was associated with Osiris, god of the underworld, thus was considered his wife
  • By merging with Hathor, Isis mother of Horus

Dr. Montoneri

part iii isis osiris and horus12
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Osiris: Egyptian God of the dead and the underworld
  • First mentioned in the 4th Dynasty; one of the four children of the earth (Geb) and the sky (Nuit), and was the husband of Isis (Aset), who represented life
  • Usually depicted as a mummified man, with a beard, and, as ruler of the underworld, was also given the symbols of kingship - the crown and crozier (staff)
  • Osiris killed by Set; Horus became thought of as the resurrected version of Osiris, i.e. Osiris re-incarnated

Dr. Montoneri

part iii isis osiris and horus13
Part III. Isis, Osiris and Horus
  • Horus: the Eye of Horus is an important Egyptian symbol of power
  • God of the sky, Horus became depicted as a falcon, or as a falcon-headed man
  • Son of Isis and Osiris: The legend of Osiris, Isis, Horus and Seth became one of the most important and powerful in Egyptian mythology during the New Kingdom (16-11th centuries BC)
  • Concerns the death of Osiris and birth of Horus

Dr. Montoneri

slide14

Isis

Dr. Montoneri

part iv animals
Part IV. Animals
  • Many creatures were also mummified, sometimes thought to be pets of Egyptian families, but more likely they were the representations of the Gods. The ibis, crocodile, cats, nile perch and baboon can be found in perfect mummified forms
  • Gods and animals:
  • Wepwawet was shown as a wolf, or as a jackal, or as a man with the head of a wolf or a jackal

Dr. Montoneri

part iv animals16
Part IV. Animals
  • Bast: Egyptian cat goddess of the home and of the domestic cat; daughter of the sun god Re
  • Hathor: Egyptian cow goddess. Daughter of Nut and Re; merged with Isis
  • Sobek: Egyptian crocodile god; aids in the destruction of Seth
  • Anubis: Egyptian god of the dead, represented as a black jackal or dog

Dr. Montoneri

conclusion
Conclusion
  • In Egypt 3000 years ago, the birthday of the sun god was celebrated on the 25 December
  • The sun was then in the sign of Capricorn, then known as the Stable of Augeus, the infant sun god was said to have been born in a stable
  • The stories of Jesus and Horus are very similar. Osiris, the father of Horus was a supreme and transcendental god; Horus was born of the virgin Isis-Meri, Isis the Beloved, on December 25th

Dr. Montoneri

conclusion19
Conclusion
  • Osiris was the god who suffered, died and rose again, to reign eternally over the souls of the righteous dead
  • His worshippers believed that, like their god, they would inherit eternal life. Osiris\'s coming announced by Three Kings or Three Wise Men: the 3 stars Mintaka, Anilam and Alnitak in the belt of Orion
  • Even Horus and his Father, Osiris, were interchangeable, reminding us that Jesus said: "I and my Father are one."

Dr. Montoneri

slide20

One of these two images is a famous mediaeval icon of Mary and Jesus, the other is a bronze statue of Isis nursing Horus dating from the Ptolemaic era of Egypt

Dr. Montoneri

references
References
  • http://www.pantheon.org/areas/mythology/africa/egyptian/articles.html
  • http://interoz.com/egypt/gods1.htm
  • http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/home.html
  • http://www1.pu.edu.tw/~bmon/Egypt.htm

Dr. Montoneri

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