Defining RequirementsMonitoring ProgressFixing Returns

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Making Implicit Knowledge Explicit in Task-Based Offshoring ... Offshoring within International Automobile Corporation (IAC) Consider transformational ...

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Defining RequirementsMonitoring ProgressFixing Returns

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Transformational Technologies and the Creation of New Work Practices: MIS Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2 Paul M. Leonardi, Northwestern University Diane E. Bailey, Stanford University Making Implicit Knowledge Explicit in Task-Based Offshoring presented by Esther Rosenow Overview Transformational technologies may create problems What problems and how do workers respond? Offshoring within International Automobile Corporation (IAC) Consider transformational technologies in research Problem: Question: Subject: Conclusion: Communication Technologies Storage Technologies Knowledge-Transfer Technologies knowledge conduits knowledge repositories DB Transformational Technologies Output – digital artifact Input – design (CAD) CAE F - mA0 – 2m? × v' - m? × r' - m? × (? × r') = ma' Transform information Collaborate across time and space CAD = Computer-Aided Design CAE = Computer-Aided Engineering Explicit vs. Implicit Knowledge Implicit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge design specifications knowledge from experience Behind the Scenes at IAC Shared CAD database Separate CAE suite Design Engineers (DE), Performance Engineers (PE) Home sites offshore to India U.S. Model – gatekeeping, funneled through Coordinators Mexico Model – direct-interfacing, PE to PE Differences in Offshoring Models PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE PE C Research Questions Workers’ response? Coordinators’ role? Workers’ perception? Data Collection ANOVA = Analysis of Variance Work Practices Common to Mexico & U.S.

Slide 10:Defining Requirements Monitoring Progress Fixing Returns

Performed by Mexican PEs & U.S. Coordinators

Defining Requirements – Mexican PEs, U.S. Cs Gather information Describe tasks Implicit knowledge = PowerPoint + Monitoring Progress – Mexican PEs, U.S. Cs Check in with India Check in with India Check in with India To Do: Fixing Returns – Mexican PEs, U.S. Cs Inspect work from India, fix if necessary C DE PE PE PE Work Practices Unique to U.S. Coordinators Routing Tasks Strategically Filtering Quality Routing Tasks Strategically – U.S Coordinators Consider Indian PEs’ schedules Thu Fri Tue Wed Mon Wed ? Filtering Quality – U.S. Coordinators Return low-quality projects PE PE C Analysis Combined data Compared workers’ perceptions Expected models to differ Perception: Mexican and U.S. PEs Used work practices more Offshoring not a timesaver Less satisfied Indian performance high Satisfied Coordinators big help Perception: Indian PEs Preferred Mexico’s model: Coordinators risked inaccuracies Learned from PEs More challenging tasks Discussion: New Knowledge-Transfer Problems Operational knowledge use technology Diagnostic knowledge interpret output Syntactic boundary transfer knowledge Semantic boundary += translate Pragmatic boundary += transform Discussion: Workers’ Response New work practices Make implicit knowledge explicit But! Using new practices can lead to frustration Future Research Cost differences Equal expertise Pragmatic boundaries? Beyond engineering
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