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Closing the Performance Gap with Research-based Interventions. Long Island Association of Special Education Administrators Don Deshler January 16-17, 2003. “A doctor can bury his mistakes, but an architect can only advise his client to plant vines.” Frank Lloyd Wright.

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Closing the performance gap with research based interventions l.jpg

Closing the Performance Gap with Research-based Interventions

Long Island Association of Special Education Administrators

Don Deshler

January 16-17, 2003


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“A doctor can bury his mistakes, but an architect can only advise his client to plant vines.”

Frank Lloyd Wright


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“What matters most in the work that we do?”


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CLOSINGTHE PERFORMANCE GAP


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The Performance Gap

Demands/

Skills

Years in School


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Current Realities for SWDs in Our Schools: A Partial Profile


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Descriptive Research

Studying

  • School culture

  • Instructional methods

  • Services

  • Attitudes

  • Student outcomes

  • Satisfaction


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Descriptive Year 1 StudyResearch Questions

  • What is the school climate for SWDs?

  • How is instruction provided to SWDs enrolled in general education high school classes?

  • What support services are provided to SWDs enrolled in general education classes?

  • What are the outcomes of the instruction and the services?


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Administrator Interviews

  • All administrators state that they want to help SWDs succeed (17 of 17)

  • Administrators do not have method for evaluating the outcomes of special education programs (8 of 9 schools)

  • Administrators do not have a plan for the improvement of special education programs (8 of 9 schools)


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Administrator Interviews

  • Schools generally don’t have a written policy related to inclusion (8 of 9)

  • Special education administrators aren’t familiar with standards-based instruction (8 of 8)

  • Special education administrators aren’t familiar with the academic paths available within general education (7 of 8)


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Administrator Interviews

  • General education teachers and special education teachers are two separate camps (7 of 9 schools)

    • Budgets are separate

    • Staff development is separate

    • General education teachers do not get training related to SWDs and other at-risk students

    • Planning time is separate

    • Roles are separate, and responsibilities are not shared related to SWDs and other at-risk students

    • Hostility is apparent bilaterally


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Implications

  • Schools need written policies and integrated programs related to inclusion

  • Schools need specified outcome goals for inclusive programs

  • Schools need methods and measures for evaluating the outcomes of inclusive programs

  • Special education services need to be aligned with general education standards


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Type A

Courses taught by

SPED teachers for

SPED students

Type B

Courses for low

achievers and

at-risk students

Type C

Rigorous courses

with heterogeneous

groups of students

Type D

Advanced Placement

courses

Type E

Other courses

(e.g., vo tech electives)

Course Options

Taught

by general education teachers

SWDs


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Rigorous General Education Enrollments for SWDs


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High School Teachers Respond‘Why do Students with Disabilities Fail?’

General education teachers said:

  • They generally give up.

  • Not motivated to work.

  • SPED classification gives them an excuse not to try.

  • Ill-prepared.

  • Lack of parental involvement.

  • Appropriate accommodations not made because the disability isn’t understood.


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High School Teachers Respond‘Why do Students with Disabilities Fail?’

Special education teachers said:

  • Lack of proper nutrition.

  • Previous low expectations from teachers/district.

  • Reading and writing skills.

  • Poor work habits and organization.

  • Lack of student motivation and caring.

  • No or very little accommodations.


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Promoting Learning Over Coverage for ALL Learners

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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Promoting Learning Over Coverage for ALL Learners

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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What’s Should be at the Core?

  • Vision

  • Efficacy/Beliefs

  • Validated instructional practices

  • Administrative Leadership


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Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard (2000)

  • Interventions that benefit SLD also benefit average and high achievers

  • Instruction that is visible & explicit

  • Instruction that is interactive between students & teacher & between students

  • Instruction that controls of task difficulty

  • Strategies that guide student learning


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Small steps

Probes

Feedback

Diagrams/pictures

Independent practice

Clear Explanations

Teacher models

Reminders to use strategies

Step-by-step prompts

Review the learning process

Direct Instruction

Strategy Instruction

Swanson (1999)


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Responsive Instruction

  • Continuous Assessment

  • Instructional Accommodations

  • Elaborated Feedback


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Systematic Instruction

  • Structured

  • Connected

  • Scaffolded

  • Informative


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Intensive Instruction

  • Sufficient Time

  • High Engagement


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My, how time can slip away!!

  • 10 minutes lost/block (4 blocks/day)

    • 40 minutes lost/day

    • 200 minutes (3.3 hours) of lost/week

    • 105 hours/year or about

      17 days!!!


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Promoting Learning Over Coverage for ALL Learners

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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.

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

All students learn critical content

required in the core curriculum

regardless of literacy levels.

Teachers compensate for limited literacy levels by using explicit teaching routines, adaptations, and technology to promote content mastery.

all

most

some

For example: The Unit Organizer Routine


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Content Enhancement Teaching Routines

Planning and

Leading Learning

Course Organizer

Unit Organizer

Lesson Organizer

Teaching Concepts

Concept Mastery Routine

Concept Anchoring Routine

Concept Comparison Routine

Explaining

Text, Topics, and Details

Framing Routine

Survey Routine

Clarifying Routine

Increasing Performance

Quality Assignment Routine

Question Exploration Routine

Recall Enhancement Routine

Vocabulary Routine


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The Unit Organizer

Elida Cordora

NAME

4

BIGGER PICTURE

1/22

DATE

The roots and consequences of civil unrest.

LAST UNIT

/Experience

NEXT UNIT

/Experience

CURRENT UNIT

3

2

1

CURRENT UNIT

The Civil War

The Causes of the Civil War

Growth of the Nation

8

is about...

UNIT SCHEDULE

5

UNIT MAP

1/22 Cooperative groups -

over pp. 201-210

Sectionalism

was based on

was influenced by

1/28 Quiz

pp. 201-236

1/29 Cooperative groups -

Leaders

over pp. 210-225

Areas of

across the

became greater with

emerged because of

the U.S.

U.S.

"Influential Personalities"

projectdue

Differences

Events in

1/30 Quiz

between

the U.S.

the areas

2/2 Cooperative groups -

over pp. 228-234

2/6 Review for test

2/7 Review for test

2/6 Test

6

descriptive

What was sectionalism as it existed in the U. S. of 1860?

compare/contrast

How did the differences in the sections of the U.S. in 1860 contribute to the start of the Civil War?

UNIT SELF-TEST

QUESTIONS

UNIT

RELATIONSHIPS

cause/effect

What examples of sectionalism exist in the world today?

7


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Concept Diagram

CONCEPT DIAGRAM

Vertebrate

1

3

Key Words

Mammal

3

CONVEY CONCEPT

2

1

2

OFFER OVERALL

CONCEPT

elephant

3

NOTE KEY WORDS

Always Present

Sometimes Present

Never Present

4

CLASSIFY

CHARACTERISTICS:

O

cold-blooded

warm-blooded

+

walks on 2 legs

human

walks on 4 legs

+

nurse their young

swims in water

has hair

+

warm-blooded

can fly

nurse their

moves on the ground

young

5

Examples:

EXPLORE EXAMPLES

Nonexamples:

whale

human

snake

bird

elephant

alligator

shark

duckbill

shark

whale

platypus

walks on

4 legs

bat

bird

can fly

6

PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE

cold-blooded

A mammal is a warm-blooded vertebrate that has hair and nurses its young.

7

TIE DOWN

A DEFINITION


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Concept Mastery Results

Test scores of students with disabilities on unit tests


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Section 1 of the Guide

The Critical Question

The question that will be

the focus of the lesson


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Section 2of the Guide

Key Terms and Explanations

Important words or phrases

that must be understood

in order to answer

the Critical Question


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Section 3of the Guide

Supporting Questions

The smaller questions that need to be answered

in order to answer the Critical Question


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Section 4of the Guide

The Main Idea Answer

A concise answer to the

Critical Question.


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Section 5of the Guide

Use in a Related Area

A question or statement that

prompts students to explore

the Main Idea Answer in

greater depth and demonstrate

their understanding of it in a

related content area.


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Section 6of the Guide

Real-World Use

A question or statement

that challenges students

to show how the Main

idea Answer applies

to the real world.

Overall Idea

A generalization

derived from the

main Idea Answer

which can be applied

to the world at large.


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Instructional Methodology

  • CUE

  • DO

  • REVIEW


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Teachers embed selected learning strategies in

core curriculum courses through direct explanation,

modeling, and required application in content

assignments.

For example: Teachers teach the steps of a

paraphrasing strategy (RAP), regularly model its

use, and then embed paraphrasing

activities in course activities through the year to

create a culture of “reading to retell.”


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“It’s strange that we expect students to learn, yet spend so little time teaching them about learning!”

Norman, 1980


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“In times of change learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists!”

Eric Hoffer


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Embedded Strategy Instruction


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Memory Strategy

  • Form a word with first letters

  • Insert a letter

  • Rearrange the letters

  • Shape a sentence

  • Try combinations


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Large Group InstructionI Do It!

  • Review the steps of the strategy

  • Explain how it will help them learn

  • Specify what they need to do

  • Think out loud

  • Problem solve

  • Attack the challenge in different ways

  • Address errors from previous day’s work


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Large Group InstructionWe Do It!

  • Ask for strategy steps

  • Ask students to explain how they’re thinking

  • Shape student responses

  • Encourage students with authentic praise

  • Evaluate student understanding

  • Re-instruct if necessary


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Large Group InstructionYou Do it!

  • Let students perform independently

  • Give brief, specific, constructive feedback

  • Identify categories of error to identify the focus for the next day’s session

  • Have students record their grade on a progress chart


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Learning Strategies Curriculum

Expression of Competence

Sentences

Paragraphs

Error Monitoring

Themes

Assignment Completion

Test-Taking

Acquisition

Word Identification

Paraphrasing

Self-Questioning

Visual Imagery

Interpreting Visuals

Multipass

Storage

First-Letter Mnemonic

Paired Associates

Listening/Notetaking

LINCS Vocabulary


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Self-Questioning Strategy

  • Attend to clues as you read

  • Say some questions

  • Keep predictions in mind

  • Identify the answer

  • Talk about the answers


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Self-Questioning-2001 n= 133

7th Grade Science Class: Growth Scores


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State Writing Assessment


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

.

Students who have difficulty mastering the strategies

presented in courses by content teachers are provided more

instruction in the strategies through specialized, more

intensive instruction delivered by support personnel.

For example: When core curriculum teachers notice students

having difficulty learning and using strategies such as

paraphrasing they work with support personnel to provide

more intensive instruction.


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Intensive Strategy Instruction


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Eight Stage Instructional Process

1. Pretest and Make Commitments

2. Describe

3. Model

4. Verbal Practice

5. Controlled Practice

6. Advanced Practice

7. Posttest and Make Commitments

8. Generalization

Daily instruction for 6 to 8 weeks in each strategy.


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Word Identification

  • Discover the context

  • Isolate the prefix

  • Separate the suffix

  • Say the stem

  • Examine the stem

  • Check with someone

  • Try the dictionary


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 4: Develop more intensive course options

for those who need it.

Students learn literacy skills and strategies through specialized,

direct, and intensive instruction in listening, speaking, reading,

and writing through carefully designed and delivered courses.

For example: Courses in researched-based reading

Programs such as the SRA Corrective Reading Program

are created for students.


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A Continuum of Action

Key Components for Content Literacy

Component 1: Ensure mastery of critical content.

Component 2: Weave shared strategies across classes.

Component 3: Support mastery of shared strategies

for targeted strategies.

Component 4: Develop more intensive course

options for those who need it.

Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical

options for those who need it.

.


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Component 5: Develop more intensive clinical options

for those who need it.

Students with underlying language disorders learn the linguistic,

metalinguistic, and metacognitive underpinnings they need to

acquire content literacy skills and strategies.

For example: Speech and language pathologists work with

students whose language disorders to teach the language

skills needed to acquire critical literacy skills and strategies.


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Summary of Key Ideas Related to Content literacy

  • The purpose of literacy is to increase the learning of critical information.

  • Content literacy requires fluent decoding.

  • Common strategies are taught and reinforced by all teachers.

  • Responsive and systematic instruction is provided on a continuum of intensity.

  • Students must master critical content regardless of literacy competence.


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Promoting LearningOver Coverage for ALL Learners

is about

Closing the Performance Gap

only happens through

results from attending to

Strong Administrative Leadership

The “Core”

is promoted by the

Continuum of Content Literacy


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Administrative Leadership

  • Ensure right conditions are in place for student success

  • Create a professional culture of “calling,” high expectation, and success


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Student Success

Vision

Beliefs

+

Validated practices

Fidelity implementation

+

=

+

Coordinated implementation

Quality Professional Development

+

Strong Administrative

Leadership


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“What matters most in the work that we do?”


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The answer to that question will impact the degree to which the “performance gap” is closed.


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www.ku-crl.org

Don Deshler

University of Kansas

Center for Research on Learning

ddeshler@ku.edu


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The Speech-Language Pathologist Provides Curriculum-Relevant Therapy

Curriculum-relevant therapy is a kind of intervention that engages adolescents in meaningful, relevant, results oriented work, leading to academic success.

Practice Principles:

Intervention provided by the SLP should be therapeutic, or clinical, in nature.

Intervention should relate directly to what students have to learn in school.


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What is Strategic Tutoring?

  • Usually one-to-one instruction

  • With a highly skilled instructor

  • Who assesses, constructs, weaves, and plans for transfer using

  • Strategies for learning how to learn

  • While helping youth complete class assignments


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Strategic Tutoring Instructional Phases

“I Do”

TEACHING

Modeling

Assessing

Constructing

Transferring

Checking

Supporting

“We Do”

“You Do”


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ASSESSING PHASE

Did the tutor:

  • Ask about the assignment?

  • Review previous performance on similar assignments?

  • Determine the student’s current strategy?

  • Ask if the current strategy works?

  • Provide rationale for creating a new strategy?

  • Gain the student’s commitment?

  • Make a commitment to the student?

  • Determine if the tutor knows a strategy for the task at hand?

  • Decide which strategic pathway to follow?


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CONSTRUCTING PHASE

If BUILDING a strategy, did the tutor:

  • Begin working on the assignment?

  • Stand back and analyze what the student and tutor are doing to complete the task?

  • List the steps of the strategy with the student?

  • Have the student list the steps of the strategy?

  • Compare the new strategy with the old strategy?


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TEACHING PHASE

  • Did the tutor:

  • MODEL (I Do) the strategy for the student

  • Explain the student’s role during modeling?

  • Model the steps of the strategy?

  • Involve the student during the modeling activity?

  • CHECK (We Do) the student’s understanding of the strategy

  • Ask the student to list the steps of the strategy?

  • Have the student discuss the importance of the strategy and where the strategy could be used?

  • Ask the student if they wish to modify the strategy?

  • SUPPORT(You Do) the acquisition of the strategy

  • Cue the student to the use of the strategy?

  • Ask guiding questions?

  • Guide the student through assignment completion?

  • Provide positive and corrective feedback?


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TRANSFERRING PHASE

Did the tutor:

  • Celebrate strategy mastery with the student?

  • Ask the student to compare current performance with performance before learning the strategy?

  • Develop a plan for using the strategy in other settings?

    • Identify specific settings and classes?

    • Identify specific assignments and due dates?

    • Identify dates and times to work on assignments?

    • Identify dates to review results of independent strategy usage?

  • Follow up on student use of the strategy?

  • Provide feedback if necessary?


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Strategic Tutoring Instructional Phases

SEVERAL WEEKS

2-3 min

3-5 min

3-4 min

TEACHING

Modeling

Assessing

Constructing

Transferring

Checking

Supporting


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StudentStrategyKnowledge“Tell me everything you do when you......”

Pre Strategic Tutoring

Post Strategic Tutoring

  • Andre’: Math Strategy

  • Dec. 7, 1998

  • First, I have a separate folder for math assignments.

  • I read the problem aloud.

  • I underline information

  • Compare to other

  • problems(look at example

  • in the book).

  • Make up a guess

  • Solve parts of the problem.

  • Check my work

  • Andre’: Math Strategy

  • Oct. 13, 1998

  • I take notes from the

  • overhead.

  • I use the notes if I don’t

  • remember.


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Student Strategy Knowledge

Pre Strategic Tutoring

Post Strategic Tutoring

  • Andre’: Organizational Strategy Dec. 7, 1998

  • Use a notebook and

  • separate folder for each

  • subject.

  • The tutor checks my weekly/

  • daily planner.

  • Use a grid for the planner

  • and put sports stickers for

  • each daily schedule that was

  • complete.

  • I look at the board each

  • class for notes written by the

  • teacher.

  • Copy the dates and

  • assignments from the board

  • and due dates.

  • Andre’: Organizational Strategy

  • Nov 2, 1998

  • Put my papers for class in each

  • textbook(science assignment in

  • science text).

  • overhead.

  • Also put papers in bottom of

  • backpack.


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Strategic Tutoring Model

The Role of the Strategic Tutor:

  • Explain Content, Build Knowledge

  • Have Extensive Knowledge of Strategies

  • Apply Principles of Strategic Instruction

  • Mentor and “Connect” Students


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Preliminary Data Analysis (1)

  • Scores earned in general education tutored classes on Quizzes and Tests

  • N= 32; Chase and Landon

    • 1:1 tutoringPre= 59% Post= 73%

    • 1:3 tutoring59%64%

    • HmWk help65%66%

    • Comparison63%55%


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Preliminary Data Analysis (2)

  • GPA for all classes

  • N= 32; Chase and Landon

    • Chase 1:1 Pre=.83Post= 2.25

    • Landon 1:1 .291.57

    • Chase 1:31.101.65

    • Landon 1:31.501.50

    • HmWk help.50.62

    • Comparison2.001.00


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What Can the Content Literacy Continuum Do for Schools?


Slide95 l.jpg

The Performance Gap

Demands/

Skills

Years in School


Slide96 l.jpg

Promotes focus on

Content:

Rigorous academic

standards


Slide97 l.jpg

Helps professionals differentiate complementary roles.


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Focuses on change at the school level.


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Addresses, national, state, and district priorities in literacy.


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ADOLESCENT

You want me to do what?

LITERACY

?


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