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Childcare effects. Cultural context. Child-care thru 3 & peer competencies. Positive responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive skilled peer interaction More time in child-care  observed to be more positive and skilled in peer play in child care

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Childcare effects

Cultural context


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Child-care thru 3 & peer competencies

  • Positive responsive caregiver behavior most consistently associated with positive skilled peer interaction

  • More time in child-care  observed to be more positive and skilled in peer play in child care

  • Same for child-care with other kids, but caregivers rated these kids as more negative with playmates.

    • but their observed peer play was not related to the quantity of care.

  • Child-care not associated with peer competence as rated by mothers or as observed in dyadic play with a friend.

  • Maternal sensitivity and children's cognitive and language competence predicted peer competence across all settings and informants, suggesting that family and child-care contexts may play different, but complementary roles in the development of early emerging individual differences in peer interaction.

    • NICHD_Early_Child_Care_Research_Network (2001). "Child care and children's peer interaction at 24 and 36 months: The NICHD study of early child care." Child Development72(5): 1478-1500


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Child-Care Effect Sizes Early Child Care and Youth DevelopmentNICHD Early Child Care Research Network

  • Children (n 1,261) were recruited at birth and assessed at 15, 24, 36, and 54 months.

  • Exclusive maternal care did not predict child outcomes

  • Higher quality child care was related to advanced cognitive, language, and preacademic outcomes at every age and better socioemotional and peer outcomes at some ages.

  • More childcare hours predicted more behavior problems and conflict, according to care providers.

  • More center-care time was related to higher cognitive and language scores and more problem and fewer prosocial behaviors, according to care providers.



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Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?

  • Parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of children’s development than early child-care experience.

  • But higher quality care predicted higher vocabulary scores and more exposure to center care predicted more teacher-reported externalizing problems. Belsky et al., 2007


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  • Existing behavioral scales:

    • Attribute behaviors to be “stable deficits” within children and do not consider cultural and contextual influences

      • behaviors that vary over different settings

    • Do not tell us when, where and how to intervene

  • Development of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI)

    • Specifically developed for low income preschool children

    • “Language of preschool teachers, rather than psychiatric terms”

    • 22 developmentally appropriate preschool classroom situations & 2 non-situation specific unusual behavior problems

      • 144 behavioral items

        • 122 maladaptive behaviors & 22 adaptive behaviors).

      • 5 behavioral dimensions: “Phenos”

        • Externalizing behaviors : aggressive, oppositional & hyperactive/inattentive

        • Internalizing behaviors: withdrawn/low-energy & socially reticent

    • Limitations:

      • Didn’t measure the impact of the multiple contexts within the classroom on outcomes

Fernandez


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  • Goal: To examine the individual and interactional influence of the types of behavioral problems (what) and the situational context(s) in which they occur (where) on children’s developmental outcomes

    • Theoretical Model:

      • developmental-ecological approach  (bioecological systems theory)

  • Study 1:

    • N=3,799 Head Start children

    • Identified 3 reliable and unique situational dimensions: “Situs”

    • Structured learning

    • Peer Interactions

    • Teacher Interactions

    • Age and Gender differences

      • 4 > 5 year olds

      • Boys > Girls

Fernandez


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  • Study 2:

    • N=747

    • Unique relationship between situtypes and school readiness outcomes

      • Hypotheses:

        • The situational dimensions would contribute unique variance to the prediction of social and learning outcomes

        • The combined contribution of both situational and behavioral influences would be greater than either set alone

      • Findings:

        • Peer Social Competencies

          • Play Disconnection, Disruption & Interaction

        • Classroom Learning Competencies

      • Most Importantly

        • Contribution of structured learning to peer social competency & learning outcomes

        • Phenos moderate the influence of Situsin the prediction of multiple social and learning competencies

Fernandez


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  • Limitations/Directions for Future Research

    • Generalizability across ethnic & linguistic groups

    • Multisource assessment across additional time periods

  • Implications for Policy & Practice

    • Responsive to Surgeon General’s call

      • ASPI guides intervention, rather than creating diagnostic labels

      • children are assessed within a “naturalistic context”

    • Developmental-ecological perspective

      • Multiple levels of influence (dynamic transaction):

        • child behavior (ontogenetic)

        • & classroom situation (microsystem)

    • Interventions:

      • Goal shift:“fixing the child”  broader systemic approach

      • Identification of “high-frequency” challenging situations and behavior problems (Classroom Management & Intervention Strategies)

      • Professional Development

      • Curriculum

Fernandez


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