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CHAPTER OVERVIEW. This chapter describes basic techniques of time management and stress management. It identifies ways supervisors can control how they use their time. It also discusses how they can manage their own stress and help employees.

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CHAPTER OVERVIEW

  • This chapter describes basic techniques of time management and stress management.

  • It identifies ways supervisors can control how they use their time.

  • It also discusses how they can manage their own stress and help employees.


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  • The chapter also lists time wasters such as to determine how time is being spent.

    • meetings,

    • phone calls,

    • paperwork and reading material,

    • unscheduled visitors,

    • procrastination,

    • perfectionism, and

    • failure to delegate work.


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  • Stress can be managed by unsafe or unpredictable, employees will suffer more from the effects of stress.

    • practicing effective time management,

    • maintaining a positive attitude,

    • getting exercise,

    • using biofeedback,

    • meditating, and

    • leading a well-rounded life.


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  • These actions do not reduce the amount of stress the person is under, but they do make a person better able to handle the stress.

  • Organizations can help employees manage stress by such practices as

    • job enlargement and job enrichment,

    • modifying jobs and training to make work more interesting,

    • giving employees more control, and

    • making sure employees understand their job.


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  • Time Log: is under, but they do make a person better able to handle the stress. A record of what activities a person is doing hour by hour throughout the day.

    • The time log can be used when you are having trouble fitting everything into your day and when you want to monitor your behavior to stay in charge of your time.


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  • The chapter approach to time management is similar to the problem-solving method of Chapter 10:

    • a. Identify the problem.

    • b. Identify the alternative solutions.

    • c. Gather and organize the facts.

    • d. Evaluate the alternatives.

    • e. Select and implement the best alternative.

    • f. Get feedback and take corrective action.


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  • After keeping the log for at least one week, review the log for the following information.

    • How much time did I spend on important activities?

    • How much time did I spend on activities that didn’t need to get done?

    • How much time did I spend on activities that someone else could have done (perhaps with training)?

    • What important jobs did I not get around to finishing?


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  • Supervisors need to make sure that the most important things get done each day before moving on to less important activities.

    • Thus, your first step of planning consists of deciding what you need to do and which activities are most important.

    • Review yearly objectives, figure out what you need to accomplish in shorter time periods, and use them to plan what you will need to accomplish each week and day.


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  • A “to do” list is helpful. get done each day before moving on to less important activities.

    • Spend a few minutes at the end of the week to write a “to do” list for the following week.

      • Write an “A” next to all activities that must be completed that week.

        • These are the top priority jobs.

      • Write “B” next to important activities that can be postponed if necessary.

      • Label everything else “C.”


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Scheduling Your Work and if you have time, work on the “C,” jobs.

  • Schedule first all regular activities, such as Monday morning staff meetings or appointments you have made.


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  • Find time for your remaining “A” activities. and if you have time, work on the “C,” jobs.

    • Avoid putting them at the end of the day or week.

    • If a crisis comes up, you will need another chance to finish these activities.

    • Schedule the most challenging and most important activities for the time of day when you are at your best.

    • Schedule time for thinking, not just for doing.

      • The creative process requires time for reflection.

    • Don’t fill up every hour of the day and week.

      • Leave some free time to handle unexpected problems and questions from your employees and others.

    • Use any time you are not busy to do “C” jobs.


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  • The common time wasters include: are what most often lead them to waste time.

    • Meetings.

    • Telephone calls.

    • Paperwork and reading material.

    • Unscheduled visitors.

    • Procrastination.

    • Perfectionism.

    • Failure to delegate.

    • Inability to say “no.”


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Meetings are what most often lead them to waste time. .

  • The main reason many supervisors hate meetings is that meetings often waste time.

    • Common problems include

      • lack of promptness by attendees,

      • chit-chat about nonwork-related matters,

      • the discussion drifts off target, and

      • perhaps the group never even completes the task it gathered to carry out.


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  • The supervisor may not be able to control the wasted time in a meeting chaired by someone else.

    • Encourage the careful use of time by being prompt, and help keep the discussion on target.

    • If the discussions seem irrelevant, try to tactfully ask the speaker to explain how the current discussion will help accomplish the goal of the meeting.


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Telephone calls. meeting.

  • People who call you usually have no way of knowing whether the time is convenient.

    • Because they interrupt the flow of work, telephone calls can be time wasters.

      • To take control of your time, have your calls screened, if possible, when you are working on top-priority jobs.

      • If you answer the phone while you are in a meeting or involved in something important, explain that you cannot give the call the attention it deserves at that time, and schedule a time to call back when it will be convenient for both of you.



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  • Procrastination: Putting call may be your top priority.off what needs to be done.

  • One of the reasons people say they procrastinate is that they can do a better job under pressure. A supervisor’s job has many sources of pressure or stress. This may be one behavior that can be changed to reduce stress.


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  • Think ahead when placing calls. call may be your top priority.

    • Consider different time zones when making long-distance calls.

    • Make sure you have all information you will need close at hand.

    • If the person you are calling is not available, ask when you can reach him or her, rather than simply leaving a message.


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Paperwork and reading material. appointments and verifying directions.

  • Supervisors spend a lot of time reading mail, reports, and magazines.

  • They also must prepare reports, letters, and memos to send to others.

    • These are not necessarily a waste of time, but they can become time wasters when done inefficiently.

    • Most advice on how to manage paperwork is based on the principle of handling each item only once.


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  • Set aside time to read all the papers that cross your desk. appointments and verifying directions.

    • Decide whether each item is something you need to act on.

      • If not, throw it away immediately.

      • If you must act, decide on the most efficient response.

        • An efficient way to respond to a memo is to write the response across the memo and return it to the sender. When possible, answer a letter with a phone call.

        • If you must prepare a report, set time aside in your schedule immediately.


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Unscheduled Visitors. newspapers--decide which ones are useful and stop receiving the rest.

  • Supervisors are interrupted at times by unscheduled visitors, including

    • customers,

    • peers,

    • employees,

    • salespeople, or

    • anyone else who turns up without an appointment.


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  • The key to controlling your time is to know which interruptions are important.

    • An angry customer or your boss dropping in to discuss an idea are interruptions you will probably need to work around.

    • But when a coworker in another department stops in to talk about personal things or a salesperson shows up unannounced, the interruption is not such a high priority.


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  • When employees interrupt, remember it is the supervisor’s job to listen and help them.

    • If they come to you with problems, listen, then ask, “What do you suggest we do about that?”

      • This shows the employee that the supervisor expects him or her to participate in finding solutions.

      • With practice, the employee may learn to handle problems more independently.


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Procrastination. to schedule time later when both the employee and supervisor can meet and work on the problem.

  • Procrastination: Putting off what needs to be done.

    • One of the reasons people say they procrastinate is that they can do a better job under pressure.

      • A supervisor’s job has many sources of pressure or stress.

      • This may be one behavior that can be changed to reduce stress.


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  • Procrastination is a time waster because it leads people to spend time on low-priority activities while they avoid higher priorities.

  • The best cure is to jump right in.

    • Decide the first step to be taken, do that step, and then do the next step.

    • You’ll find that you’re building momentum and that the big job no longer feels so overwhelming.


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Perfectionism. each step, and give yourself a reward for completing each step.

  • While high standards can inspire high performance, perfectionism can make some people afraid to try at all.

    • It may sound like a noble goal, but the fact is that human beings are imperfect.

      • Expecting perfection dooms a person to failure.

      • Determine the highest standard you can realistically achieve.

      • You may be able to meet a higher standard by drawing on the expertise of employees and peers.


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Failure to Delegate. each step, and give yourself a reward for completing each step.

  • Perfection often underlies the failure to delegate work.

    • Even when someone else can do a job more efficiently in terms of that person’s cost and availability, a supervisor may resist delegating because the supervisor believes he or she is the only one who can really do the job right.


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Inability to say “no.” each step, and give yourself a reward for completing each step.

  • Control who and what your time is allocated for.

    • It’s easy to let other people and their demands control how we use our time, so we end up overextending ourselves by taking on more tasks than we can possibly do well.


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  • If someone comes to you with an opportunity that will require a significant commitment of time, learn to tell the person politely that you will consider the offer and will reply at some specific time, say, by the end of the week.

    • Then assess what you’re already committed to do and what your priorities are.

      • In some cases you will decide you don’t have enough time to do justice to the new task, and you will have to decline.

      • If your life is already busy but the opportunity seems important, it can be useful to ask, “What activity am I willing to give up in order to make time for this new one?”


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Stress and the other person a favor.

  • Stress: The body’s response to coping with environmental demands.

  • Causes of stress.

    • Some people seem to be more prone to stress than others and some people and some people live or work in conditions that produce more stress.


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  • Type A Personality: A pattern of behavior that involves constantly trying to accomplish a lot in a hurry.


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    • Some job factors have been linked to stress. are more likely to have heart disease, a presumed sign of stress, tend to have a similar kind of personality.

      • Stress-causing job factors involve the organization’s policies, structure, physical conditions, processes, and the way work gets done.


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    • Consequences of stress. are more likely to have heart disease, a presumed sign of stress, tend to have a similar kind of personality.

      • Stress is a fact of life.

      • Life would be boring without some sources of stress, and most people seek out some degree of stress.

      • Employees tend to perform best when they are experiencing a moderate degree of stress.


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    • Too much stress brings problems, especially when the sources of stress are negative, such as a critical boss or unsafe working conditions.

      • Performance falls when the amount of stress moves from moderate to high.

      • A high stress environment is also associated with

        • unhappiness,

        • illness,

        • absenteeism, and

        • distractions.


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    • People experiencing stress tend to feel of stress are negative, such as a critical boss or unsafe working conditions

      • anxious,

      • aggressive,

      • frustrated,

      • tense, and

      • moody.

    • They may be overly sensitive to criticism and have trouble making decisions.


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    • Typically burnout occurs in three stages: of time, they may experience burnout, or the inability to function effectively as a result of the ongoing stress.

      • The employee feels emotionally exhausted.

      • The employee’s perceptions of others become calloused.

      • The employee views his or her effectiveness negatively.


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    • Burnout is worse than just needing a vacation. of time, they may experience burnout, or the inability to function effectively as a result of the ongoing stress.

      • Therefore, it is important to cope with stress before it leads to burnout.


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    Time Management. management, including

    • Making conscious, reasoned decisions about your use of time helps prevent the stress that can result from wasted time or unrealistic goals and can be useful for managing the stress of balancing work and home responsibilities..


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    Positive Attitude. management, including

    • Supervisors can reduce their stress response by cultivating a positive attitude.

      • This can be accomplished by focusing on the areas over which he or she has control, and by maintaining a sense of humor.


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    Exercise. management, including

    • Experts on stress believe that the human body develops a stress response in order to help people handle dangerous situations.

      • There are two basic responses: fight the danger or run away.


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    Biofeedback. management, including

    • Biofeedback: Developing an awareness of bodily functions in order to control them.

      • An example of biofeedback is focusing your thoughts on bodily functions, such as muscle tension, and concentrating on controlling the tension, so individuals are able to relax muscles.


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    Meditation. management, including

    • A general form of meditation is simply a practice of focusing one’s thoughts on something other than day-to-day concerns.

    • People who practice regular meditation find that it relaxes them and that the benefits carry beyond the time spent meditating.


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    Well-Rounded Life Activities. management, including

    • For someone who gets all of his or her satisfaction and rewards from working, job-related stress is more likely to be overwhelming.

      • On the other hand, people who lead a well-rounded life are more likely to experience satisfaction in some other area of life.

      • This satisfaction can make stress a lot easier to cope with.


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    Changes in the Job. she may be in a position to recommend them to higher-level managers.

    • Some jobs are so repetitious that they are boring or so difficult that it feels overwhelming.

      • The organization may be able to reassign responsibilities to make the job less stressful.

      • Supervisors are likely to be in a position to do this without the authorization of upper management.


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    Environmental Changes. she may be in a position to recommend them to higher-level managers.

    • Stress caused by characteristics of the job or the workplace, such as noise, poor lighting, uncomfortable chairs, or extremes of heat or cold, can be improved through the effort of the supervisor.

      • The supervisor is in an excellent position to identify and report needed environmental changes to managers who are able to make the changes.


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    Wellness Programs. she may be in a position to recommend them to higher-level managers.

    • Many organizations are actively interested in helping employees stay well.

      • The usual way way to do this is to provide a wellness program designed to help employees adopt healthy practices.

        • These activities might include

          • exercise classes

          • stop-smoking clinics,

          • nutrition counseling, and

          • health screening


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