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Chapter 9. Volcanoes. Section 1. _________ : mountain that forms when layers of lava and volcanic ash erupt and build up. Magma is _________ dense than the rock around it, so it very slowly rises toward Earth’s surface.

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Chapter 9 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Volcanoes


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Section 1

  • _________ : mountain that forms when layers of lava and volcanic ash erupt and build up


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  • Magma is _________ dense than the rock around it, so it very slowly rises toward Earth’s surface



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  • Factors that Affect Eruptions Earth’s surface

  • 1) Water Vapor and Trapped Gases: gas that gets trapped under high pressure eventually escapes, causing explosive eruptions

    • (slow release = _________ eruption)


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  • 2) Earth’s surfaceComposition of Magma

    • A) _________ magma: contains little silica, is very _________ , and produces quiet, _________ eruptions


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  • B) _________ Earth’s surfacemagma: is thick with a lot of silica which causes pressure to build, also has a lot of water vapor, which causes _________ eruptions


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Section 2 Earth’s surface


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  • _________ Earth’s surface: opening at the top of a volcano’s vent


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Types Earth’s surface

  • _________ Volcano: broad volcano with _________ _________ sides formed by _________ eruptions of basaltic lava

    • Ex. Hawaiian Islands


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  • _________ consolidated volcano formed from falling tephraVolcano: cycle of lava and tephra is repeated over and over at convergent boundaries above subduction zones


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • Batholiths: largest intrusive igneous rock body formed when huge bodies of magma cool underground and stop rising

    • Ex. Granite domes (Yosemite National Park)


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • Dike: magma that is squeezed into a vertical crack and hardens


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • Sill: magma that is squeezed into a horizontal crack and hardens


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • Laccolith: dome of rock formed when magma that forms a sill may continue to push the rock layers upward


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • Volcanic Neck: in a dead volcano, the cone erodes away first, leaving behind this solid igneous core


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Formations consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • _________ : after an eruption, the top of a volcano may collapse down into the vent, thus a very large opening is formed


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Section 3 consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra


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Where Do Volcanoes Occur? consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra

  • 1) _________ Boundary: magma flows from rifts and is instantly cooled by seawater. It builds up from the seafloor, sometimes rising high enough to from islands

    • Ex. Iceland


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  • 2) _________ consolidated volcano formed from falling tephraBoundaries: magma that is created in the subduction zone works its way to the surface, forming volcanoes

    • Ex. Mount Saint Helens


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  • Pacific consolidated volcano formed from falling tephra_________ of _________ : area around the pacific plate where earthquakes and volcanoes are common


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  • Ex. Hawaiian Islands than others. The melted rock rises toward the crust as magma

  • (plate is moving but hot spot is stationary)


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Additional Information than others. The melted rock rises toward the crust as magma

  • Geothermal Energy: heat from magma can be used to heat water and produce steam in a power plant, the steam is pressurized and spins generators that make electricity


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Additional Information than others. The melted rock rises toward the crust as magma

  • Would it be better to clear forests for geothermal energy or to continue releasing pollution into the atmosphere?


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