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Chapter 27. C o l o r. 1.SELECTIVE REFLECTION. Most objects "reflect" rather than emit light. The spring model of the atom works well in explaining reflection. Radiations that match the resonant frequencies of the atoms are absorbed.

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Chapter 27

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Chapter 27

Color


1.SELECTIVE REFLECTION

  • Most objects "reflect" rather than emit light.

  • The spring model of the atom works well in explaining reflection.

  • Radiations that match the resonant frequencies of the atoms are absorbed.

  • Frequencies of the radiations on either side of the resonant frequencies are “reflected.”


  • Objects can only reflect the light that is in the source illuminating the object.

  • Demo – Razorback Football in Cyan Light (Next Slide)


2.SELECTIVE TRANSMISSION

  • As light passes through materials some frequencies of light are removed (absorbed) while other frequencies are transmitted.

  • The degree of transmission depends on how transparent the material happens to be.


  • Color filters are good examples of selective transmission.

  • Demo – Color Filters and White Light


3.MIXINGCOLOREDLIGHT

  • All visible frequencies make up white light.

  • Example: The sun emits all frequencies and its light is white.

  • (Actually it is slightly yellowish to us on Earth, which possibly explains why we are more sensitive to light in the middle of the spectrum.)


  • RED, GREEN, andBLUE when added also produce white.

  • Demo - Color Addition and Colored Shadows

  • Color Addition Schematic

  • Red, green, and blue are

    called the additive primaries.


Color Addition


Through color addition you are able to see a wide range of colors from a color TV or color projector which actually only emit three different colors.

These colors are red, green, and blue.

They are called the additive primaries.


Your vision system “adds” these together to see a single color from a single location illuminated by more than one color.

You even see colors that don’t appear in the continuous emission spectrum of the sun.

Red, green, and blue are used as the additive primaries because this set of three will produce the widest range of colors that you visually experience.


On the next slide you will see what happens as you add colors to produce other colors.


Colors in White Light

White

Red

Green

Blue

You can see that these three add to give white.

Yellow

Note that yellow is the addition of red and green.

Cyan

Magenta

Note that cyan is the addition of green and blue.

Note that magenta is the addition of red and blue.


Tosummarize,seecoloraddition circles on next slide.


ColorAdditionCircles

What you are about to see is what you would get with three partially overlapping spotlights reflecting off a white screen.

Yellow

Red

Green

Cyan

Magenta

Blue


Complementary Colors

  • Any two colors that add to give white are said to be complementary colors.

  • Demo - Complementary Colors


4.MIXINGCOLOREDPIGMENTS

  • Subtractive primaries - YELLOW, CYAN, and MAGENTA

  • Example - Mixing paints, zip-lock sandwich bags, color printing

  • Demo - Color Subtraction

  • Overhead - Foretravel Advertisement


Color Subtraction


Through color subtraction you are able to see a variety of colors from printings, paintings, etc.

If you have ever bought printer inks, you will notice that the ones used to provide a variety of colors in printing are yellow, cyan, and magenta.

They are called the subtractive primaries.


In subtraction, colors are eliminated by the absorption of colors that were in the original illuminating source.

This particular set of three colors, yellow, cyan, and magenta, will produce the widest range of colors that you visually experience.


On the next slide you will see what happens as you remove different colors from white light.


White

Blue

Yellow

Colors in White Light

You get blue.

Take away yellow and what is left?


White

Cyan

Red

Colors in White Light

You get red.

Take away cyan and what is left?


White

Green

Magenta

Colors in White Light

You get green.

Take away magenta and what is left?


Tosummarize,seecolorsubtraction circles on next slide.


ColorSubtractionCircles

What you are about to see is what you would get with three partially overlapping transparencies on an overhead projector.

Green

Cyan

Yellow

Blue

Red

Magenta


  • It should be noted from the previous that objects that reflect a particular color are themselves good absorbers of the complimentary color of that particular color.

  • For examples:

  • A red object is a good absorber of cyan and vice versa.

  • A blue object is a good absorber of yellow and vice versa.

  • A green object is a good absorber of magenta (blues and reds) and vice versa.


5.WHY THE SKY IS BLUE


  • Just as resonating tuning forks scatter sound, so do particles in our atmosphere scatter light.

  • N2 and O2 scatter high frequencies which are near natural frequencies of N2 and O2.

  • (Natural frequencies are in the UV.)

  • This scattering produces the bluish sky.

  • The blue end of the spectrum is scattered ten times better that the red end.


Top of Atmosphere

Sun

Blue in this direction

Earth


6.WHY SUNSETS ARERED

Sunset

  • If the atmosphere becomes thicker or the paths of light through the atmosphere become longer, more of the longer wavelengths of light will be scattered.


Sun

Sun

Earth


  • Demo - Blue Sky and Red Sunset

  • Because of scattering of blue light the sun appears more yellowish at noon than it really is.


7.WHY CLOUDS AREWHITE

  • Droplet size dictates which colors are scattered best.

  • Low frequencies scatter from larger particles.

  • High frequencies scatter from small particles.


  • Electrons close to one another in a cluster vibrate together and in step, which results in a greater intensity of scattered light than from the same number of electrons vibrating separately.

  • Large drops absorb more and scatter less.


8.WHY WATER IS GREENISH BLUE

  • Water quite often looks bluish.

  • This is due to reflected “sky light.”

  • A white object looks greenish blue when viewed through deep water.


  • Water is a strong absorber in IR and a little in red.

  • Remove some of the red and cyan is left.

  • Crabs and other sea creatures appear black in deep water.


9.COLOR VISION ANDCOLOR DEFICIENCY

  • Colorblindness (color deficiency) affects

    about 10% of population

  • Red-green is predominant

  • Yellow-blue - a few

  • Total – some

  • Colorblindness Tests – URL


10. AFTER IMAGES

  • Slides - After Images


  • After images are due to conal fatigue.

  • Cones that have been “firing” for a while will not “fire” as well as “rested” cones when all are exposed to white light.


Chapter 27 Review Questions


Most of the light that we see has undergone

(a) selective interference

(b) selective transmission

(c) selective reflection

(d) selective refraction


A mixture of magenta and green lights give white light. These two colors are

(a) additive primaries

(b) secondary colors

(c) complementary colors

(d) fluorescent colors

(e) interference colors


Mixing yellow paint and magenta paint gives what color?

(a) red

(b) green

(c) blue

(d) cyan


What color would red cloth appear if it were illuminated by cyan light?

(a) cyan

(b) red

(c) yellow

(d) green

(e) black


The sky is blue because air molecules in the sky act as tiny

(a) mirrors which reflect only blue light

(b) resonators which scatter blue light

(c) sources of white light

(d) prisms

(e) none of these


When you stare at a red object for a long time without moving your head and eyes and then suddenly look away at a white screen, you will see a image of the object.

(a) red

(b) blue

(c) cyan

(d) green

(e) white


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