chapter 11 pricing decisions
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Chapter 11 Pricing Decisions. Int’l Marketing Analysis Written Report. Due : November 29 Length : Minimum 2 pages, Double Spaced. Content -Company Background (1-2 paragraphs) :Products, History, Sales, Operation, Network (Global) Strategic Goals, ……..

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slide2

Int’l Marketing Analysis Written Report

  • Due : November 29
  • Length: Minimum 2 pages, Double Spaced
  • Content
  • -Company Background (1-2 paragraphs)
  • :Products, History, Sales, Operation, Network (Global)
  • Strategic Goals, ……..
  • -Article Summary (1-2 paragraphs)
  • : Key issues, Concepts or Theories, Examples,
  • Conclusions, ……….
  • -Int’l Marketing Implications (1-2 paragraphs)
  • a. What issues or concepts can be applied in IM
  • e.g.) Standardization/Adaptation, Brand Identity,
  • Ethno-centric/poly-centric…….
  • b. How these concepts and examples can be helpful
  • for Int’l Marketing Managers?
slide3

Peer Evaluation

  • Due : November 29
  • Form is available on my web-site
  • Turn in either E-mail or Hardcopy
  • You can write down your comments on e-mail or
  • on the back of evaluation form.
slide4

Key Issues

  • Kinds of Pricing
  • : Skimming, Penetration, Companion, Cost-based,
  • Market-based, Transfer
  • Environmental Influences on Pricing
  • : Currency (PPP), Inflation (Exchange Rate), Government,
  • Competition, Sourcing
  • Global Pricing Policy
  • : Extension, Adaptation and Geocentric
  • Definition
  • : Grey Market, Dumping, Price Fixing,
basic pricing concepts
Basic Pricing Concepts
  • The Global Manager must develop systems and policies that address
    • Price Floors
    • Price Ceilings
    • Optimum Prices
  • Must be consistent with global opportunities and constraints
global pricing objectives and strategies
Global Pricing Objectives and Strategies
  • Managers must determine the objectives for the pricing objectives
    • Unit Sales
    • Market Share
    • Return on investment
  • They must then develop strategies to achieve those objectives
    • Penetration Pricing
    • Market Skimming
market skimming and financial objectives
Market Skimming and Financial Objectives
  • Market Skimming
    • Charging a

_________

    • May occur at the _______ stage of product life cycle

Sony Ad. for camcorders

market skimming and financial objectives8
Market Skimming and Financial Objectives
  • Market Skimming
    • Charging a premium price
    • May occur at the introduction stage of product life cycle

Sony Ad. for camcorders

penetration pricing and non financial objectives
Penetration Pricing and Non-Financial Objectives
  • Penetration Pricing
    • Charging a ______price in order to _______market quickly
    • Appropriate to ______market prior to imitation by competitors

1979 Sony Walkman

slide10

Penetration Pricing and Non-Financial Objectives

  • Penetration Pricing
    • Charging a low price in order to penetrate market quickly
    • Appropriate to saturate market prior to imitation by competitors

1979 Sony Walkman

companion products
Companion Products
  • Products whose sale is dependent upon the sale of

______________

Video games are dependent upon the sale of the game Console

  • “If you make money on the blades you can give away the razors.”

X-Box Game System and Sports Game

companion products12
Companion Products
  • Products whose sale is dependent upon the sale of primary product
    • Video games are dependent upon the sale of the game Console
  • “If you make money on the blades you can give away the razors.”

X-Box Game System and Sports Game

target costing 8 questions
Target Costing – 8 Questions
  • Does the price reflect the product’s quality?
  • Is the price competitive given local market conditions?
  • Should the firm pursue market penetration, market skimming, or some other pricing objective?
  • What type of discount (trade, cash, quantity) and allowance (advertising, trade-off) should the firm offer its international customers?
  • Should prices differ with market segment?
  • What pricing options are available if the firm’s costs increase or decrease? Is demand in the international market elastic or inelastic?
  • Are the firm’s prices likely to be viewed by the host-country government as reasonable or exploitative?
  • Do the foreign country’s dumping laws pose a problem?
target costing
Target Costing
  • __________is based on an analysis of internal and external cost
  • Firms using western cost accounting principles use the Full absorption cost method
    • Per-unit product costs are the sum of all past or current direct and indirect manufacturing and overhead costs
target costing15
Target Costing
  • Cost-Based Pricing is based on an analysis of internal and external cost
  • Firms using western cost accounting principles use the Full absorption cost method
    • Per-unit product costs are the sum of all past or current direct and indirect manufacturing and overhead costs
target costing16
Target Costing
  • Rigid cost-plus pricing means that companies set prices without regard to the eight foundational pricing considerations
  • Flexible cost-plus pricing ensures that prices are competitive in the contest of the particular market environment
transfer pricing
Transfer Pricing
  • Pricing of goods, services, and intangible property bought and sold by _________or _______of a company doing business with an affiliate in another jurisdiction
  • Intra-corporate exchanges
    • Cost-based transfer pricing
    • Market-based transfer pricing
    • Negotiated transfer pricing
transfer pricing18
Transfer Pricing
  • Pricing of goods, services, and intangible property bought and sold by operating units or divisions of a company doing business with an affiliate in another jurisdiction
  • Intra-corporate exchanges
    • Cost-based transfer pricing
    • Market-based transfer pricing
    • Negotiated transfer pricing
terms of the sale
Terms of the Sale
  • Obtain export license if required
  • Obtain currency permit
  • Pack goods for export
  • Transport goods to place of departure
  • Prepare a land bill of lading
  • Complete necessary customs export papers
  • Prepare customs or consular invoices
  • Arrange for ocean freight and preparation
  • Obtain marine insurance and certificate of the policy
terms of the sale20
Terms of the Sale
  • Incoterms
    • Ex-works – seller places goods at the disposal of the buyer at the time specified in the contract; buyer takes delivery at the premises of the seller and bears all risks and expenses from that point on.
    • Delivery duty paid – seller agrees to deliver the goods to the buyer at the place he or she names in the country of import with all costs, including duties, paid.
environmental influences on pricing decisions
Environmental Influences on Pricing Decisions
  • ___________________
  • ___________________
  • Government Controls, Subsidies, Regulations
  • Competitive Behavior
  • ___________
environmental influences on pricing decisions22
Environmental Influences on Pricing Decisions
  • Currency Fluctuations
  • Inflationary Environment
  • Government Controls, Subsidies, Regulations
  • Competitive Behavior
  • Sourcing
inflationary environment
Inflationary Environment
  • Defined as a persistent ______change in price levels
    • Can be caused by an ______in the money supply
    • Can be caused by currency _________
    • Essential requirement for pricing is the maintenance of operating margins

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inflationary environment25
Inflationary Environment
  • Defined as a persistent upward change in price levels
    • Can be caused by an increase in the money supply
    • Can be caused by currency devaluation
  • Essential requirement for pricing is the maintenance of operating margins

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government controls subsidies and regulations
Government Controls, Subsidies, and Regulations
  • The types of policies and regulations that affect pricing decisions are:
    • Dumping legislation
    • Resale price maintenance legislation
    • Price ceilings
    • General reviews of price levels

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competitive behavior
Competitive Behavior
  • If competitors do not adjust their prices in response to rising costs it is difficult to adjust your pricing to maintain operating margins
  • If competitors are manufacturing or sourcing I a lower-cost country, it may be necessary to cut prices to stay competitive

Return

using sourcing as a strategic pricing tool
Using Sourcing as a Strategic Pricing Tool
  • Marketers of domestically manufactured finished products may move to offshore sourcing of certain components to

____________

____________

Can you stay competitive while staying local?

Return

using sourcing as a strategic pricing tool29
Using Sourcing as a Strategic Pricing Tool
  • Marketers of domestically manufactured finished products may move to offshore sourcing of certain components to keep costs down and prices competitive

Can you stay competitive while staying local?

Return

global pricing three policy alternatives
Global Pricing: Three Policy Alternatives
  • Extension
  • Adaptation
  • Geocentric
extension
Extension
  • __________
  • Per-unit price of an item is the _______no matter where in the world the buyer is located
  • Importer must absorb freight and import duties
  • Fails to respond to each national market

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extension32
Extension
  • Ethnocentric
  • Per-unit price of an item is the same no matter where in the world the buyer is located
  • Importer must absorb freight and import duties
  • Fails to respond to each national market

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adaptation
Adaptation
  • _________
  • Permits _____________or _____________to establish price as they feel is most desirable in their circumstances
  • Sensitive to market conditions but creates potential for gray marketing

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adaptation34
Adaptation
  • Polycentric
  • Permits affiliate managers or independent distributors to establish price as they feel is most desirable in their circumstances
  • Sensitive to market conditions but creates potential for gray marketing

Return

geocentric
Geocentric
  • Intermediate course of action
  • Recognizes that several factors are relevant to pricing decision
    • Local costs
    • Income levels
    • Competition
    • Local marketing strategy

Return

gray market goods
Gray Market Goods
  • Trademarked products are exported from one country to another where they are sold by

_______________________

  • Occurs when product is in short supply, when producers use skimming strategies in some markets, and when goods are subject to substantial mark-ups
gray market goods37
Gray Market Goods
  • Trademarked products are exported from one country to another where they are sold by unauthorized persons or organizations
  • Occurs when product is in short supply, when producers use skimming strategies in some markets, and when goods are subject to substantial mark-ups
dumping
Dumping
  • Sale of an imported product at a price _______than that normally charged in a domestic market or country of origin.
  • Occurs when imports sold in the US market are priced at either levels that represent less than the cost of production plus an 8% profit margin or at levels below those prevailing in the producing countries
  • To prove, both price discrimination and injury must be shown
dumping39
Dumping
  • Sale of an imported product at a price lower than that normally charged in a domestic market or country of origin.
  • Occurs when imports sold in the US market are priced at either levels that represent less than the cost of production plus an 8% profit margin or at levels below those prevailing in the producing countries
  • To prove, both price discrimination and injury must be shown
price fixing
Price Fixing
  • Representatives of two or more companies secretly set _________for their products
    • Illegal act because it is anticompetitive
  • Horizontal price fixing occurs when competitor within an industry that make and market the same product conspire to keep prices high
  • Vertical price fixing occurs when a manufacture conspires with wholesalers/retailers to ensure certain retail prices are maintained
price fixing41
Price Fixing
  • Representatives of two or more companies secretly set similar prices for their products
    • Illegal act because it is anticompetitive
  • Horizontal price fixing occurs when competitor within an industry that make and market the same product conspire to keep prices high
  • Vertical price fixing occurs when a manufacture conspires with wholesalers/retailers to ensure certain retail prices are maintained
countertrade
Countertrade
  • Countertrade occurs when payment is made in some form other than money
  • Options
    • Barter
    • Counter-purchase
    • Offset
    • Compensation trading
    • Cooperation agreements
    • Switch trading
barter
Barter
  • The least complex and oldest form of bilateral, non-monetary counter-trade
  • A direct exchange of goods or services between two parties
looking ahead
Looking Ahead
  • Chapter 12 Global Marketing Channels and Physical Distribution
incoterms
Incoterms
  • FAS (free alongside ship) named port of destination – seller places goods alongside the vessel or other mode of transport and pays all charges up to that point
  • FOB (free on board) – seller’s responsibility does not end until goods have actually been placed aboard ship
  • CIF (cost, insurance, freight) named port of destination – risk of loss or damage of goods is transferred to buyer once goods have passed the ship’s rail
  • CFR (cost and freight) – seller is not responsible at any point outside of factory

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self test question 1
Self-test Question 1

Which pricing strategy would be most appropriate for a marketer of luxury designer brands:

a) gray market

b) skimming

c) penetration

d) market holding

e) cost based

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self test question 2
Self-test Question 2

If company managers decide to set the export price for a particular product at an amount equivalent to the home country price, they would be using which approach to pricing:

a) ethnocentric

b) polycentric

c) regiocentric

d) geocentric

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self test question 3
Self-test Question 3

The unauthorized distribution of trademarked goods to exploit price differentials in world markets is known as:

a) market skimming

b) black marketing

c) gray marketing

d) dumping

e) licensing

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self test question 4
Self-test Question 4

In the late 1990s, the U.S. Justice Department fined two European pharmaceutical companies hundreds of millions of dollars for conspiring to suppress competition and set high prices for vitamin supplements marketed in the United States. What was the issue in this lawsuit:

a) price skimming

b) market penetration

c) price bundling

d) price fixing

e) transfer pricing

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self test question 5
Self-test Question 5

Excelsior Corp. launches a new hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) for busy corporate executives. The initial retail price is set at $699. One year later, in an effort to reach a broader market, the price is lowered to $299. Which of the following describes the pricing strategies used by Excelsior Corp:

a) skimming strategy followed by penetration strategy

b) penetration strategy followed by cost based strategy

c) penetration strategy followed by skimming strategy

d) penetration strategy only

e) skimming strategy only

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