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VT. Bodies and Bodily Systems. Barry Smith and Igor Papakin. INTEGUMENTARY (SKIN) SYSTEM . MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM . CONNECTIVE SYSTEM . The Connective System.

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Bodies and bodily systems l.jpg

Bodies and Bodily Systems

Barry Smith and Igor Papakin





The connective system l.jpg
The Connective System

  • The connective system contains all the bona fide boundaries in the interior of the body: the membranes and layers of fat which create an internal framework of support for the organs

  • This system performs active work by maintaining the internal sub-environments in the necessary conditions




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URINARY

SYSTEM




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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

(Principal Organs)



The autonomic part of the nervous system l.jpg

The autonomic part of the nervous system

This is the oldest part of the nervous system from the standpoint of evolution. It regulates the vegetative functions of the body.

‘Vegetative’ means:

automatic, not dependent on one’s mind.


Example l.jpg
Example

  • I decide to run. I can decide to start or stop running because running is controlled by the somatic part of the nervous system.

  • BUT: when I’m running my heart is beating more quickly because my muscles need more oxygen for their work

  • The autonomous part of the nervous system is responsible for these changes.

  • You cannot decide to start or stop digesting the food that is already in your stomach

  • Digestion and heart-beat are vegetative processes



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ENDOCRINESYSTEM to other systems)


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The endocrine system to other systems)

  • is like a system of the radio transmitters which are broadcasting to the every cell of the body.

  • Their ‘waves’ are hormones.

  • The medium of transmission is the blood.

  • The cell have ‘receivers’ –specific receptors for particular hormones


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ENDOCRINE to other systems)

SYSTEM


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IMMUNE SYSTEM to other systems)


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Bodily Systems are Component Parts of Bodies to other systems)

digestive

respiratory

circulatory

immune

skeletal

musculatory




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Bodily Systems interconnect to other systems)




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MUSCULO-SKELETAL boundaries

SYSTEM


Why one system l.jpg
Why one system? boundaries


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Rather than two: boundaries


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MUSCLE SYSTEM boundaries

SKELETAL SYSTEM


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because without muscle the skeletal system would fall apart boundariesand without bone the muscles would have nothing to attach themselves


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Why talk of one nervous system rather than two? boundaries

  • Is the boundary between the autonomous and vegetative system porous

  • (can you train yourself to control vegetative processes?)



But the fiat boundaries separating them from their surroundings are much more complicated l.jpg
but the fiat boundaries separating them from their surroundings are much more complicated


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plus NERVOUS SYSTEM (Regulatory Links) surroundings are much more complicated


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Where to fit bodily systems into an ontology? surroundings are much more complicated


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Problems of Medical Ontology surroundings are much more complicated

  • Knowledge Mining

  • Tacit Knowledge

  • Doctors don’t know ontology

  • Aristotle is no help either


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System (OED) surroundings are much more complicated

  • I. An organized or connected group of objects.

  • II. A set of principles, etc.; a scheme, method.


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System (OED) surroundings are much more complicated

  • An organized or connected group of objects.

  • Aset or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan

  • Physics. A group of bodies moving about one another in space under some particular dynamical law, as the law of gravitation;

  • Biol. A set of organs or parts in an animal body of the same or similar structure, or subserving the same function, as the nervous, muscular, osseous, etc. systems, the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, etc. systems; also, each of the primary groups of tissues in the higher plants.

  • In various scientific and technical uses: A group, set, or aggregate of things, natural or artificial, forming a connected or complex whole.  


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System (OED) surroundings are much more complicated

  • 4. In various scientific and technical uses: A group, set, or aggregate of things, natural or artificial, forming a connected or complex whole. 

  • a. of natural objects or phenomena, as geological formations, mountains, rivers, winds, forces, etc.; also of lines, points, etc. in geometry. b. of artificial objects or appliances arranged or organized for some special purpose, as pulleys or other pieces of mechanism, columns or other details of architecture, canals, railway lines, telegraphs, etc. c.Geol. A major stratigraphic division, composed of a number of series and corresponding to a period in time; the rocks deposited during any specific period. d. The set of the various phases that two or more given metals are capable of forming at different temperatures and pressures, as alloy system. e.Linguistics. A group of terms, units, or categories, in a paradigmatic relationship to one another.

  • f.Computers. A group of related programs; spec. = operating system


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System (OED) surroundings are much more complicated

  • II. A set of principles, etc.; a scheme, method.

  • 8. The set of correlated principles, ideas, or statements belonging to some department of knowledge or belief

  • 9. An organized scheme or plan of action, esp. one of a complex or comprehensive kind; an orderly or regular method of procedure. Now usually with defining word or phrase. …d. Any method devised by a gambler for determining the placing of his bets.

  • 10. In the abstract (without a or pl.): Orderly arrangement or method; systematic form or order.


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Bodily systems are SNAP entities surroundings are much more complicated


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t i m e surroundings are much more complicated

process

Substances and processesexist in time in different ways

substance


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SNAP and SPAN surroundings are much more complicated

  • Substances and processes

  • Continuants and occurrents

  • In preparing an inventory of reality

  • we keep track of these two different categories of entities in two different ways


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Need for different perspectives surroundings are much more complicated

  • Not one ontology, but a multiplicity of complementary ontologies

  • Cf. Quantum mechanics: particle vs. wave ontologies


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t i m e surroundings are much more complicated

process

SNAPshot Video (SPAN)ontology ontology

substance


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SNAP and SPAN surroundings are much more complicated

  • stocks and flows

  • commodities and services

  • product and process

  • anatomy and physiology

  • synchrony and diachrony


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SNAP and SPAN surroundings are much more complicated

  • SNAP entities

  • - have continuous existence in time

  • - preserve their identity through change

  • - exist in toto if they exist at all

  • SPAN entities

  • - have temporal parts

  • - unfold themselves phase by phase

  • - exist only in their phases/stages


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SPQR… entities surroundings are much more complicated

  • States, powers, qualities, roles …

  • functions, dispositions, plans, shapes

  • SPQR… entities are all dependent on substances


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SOME SYSTEMS ARE SPQR ENTITIES surroundings are much more complicated

  • legal systems

  • languages (as systems of competences)

  • religions (as systems of beliefs)


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t i m e surroundings are much more complicated

The SPAN Ontology


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SNAP ontology surroundings are much more complicated

  • many sharp boundaries

  • SPAN ontology

  • many smeered boundaries

  • Fiat boundaries can be drawn in each

  • (Cf. Ingvar‘s theory of 4-D shapes)


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Mesoscopic reality surroundings are much more complicated

  • is divided at its joints into substances:

  • animals, bones, rocks, potatoes

  • and into parts of substances:

  • ARMS

  • LEGS

  • and

  • BODILY SYSTEMS


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Processes surroundings are much more complicated

  • Processes merge into one another

  • Process kinds merge into one another

  • … few clean joints either between instances or between types


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t i m e surroundings are much more complicated

boundaries are mostly fiat

everything is flux


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SNAP: Entities existing surroundings are much more complicatedin toto at a time


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Three kinds of surroundings are much more complicatedSNAP entities

  • Substances

  • SPQR… entities

  • Spatial regions, Contexts, Niches


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Functions surroundings are much more complicated

The function of the

heart is to pump blood


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SNAP surroundings are much more complicated

Fiat part of substance

Extremity (hand, arm)

Bodily System


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SPAN: Entities extended in time surroundings are much more complicated


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SPAN: Entities extended in time surroundings are much more complicated


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SPAN: Entities extended in time surroundings are much more complicated

Functioning

The heart’s pumping

of blood


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Granularity surroundings are much more complicated

spatial region

substance

parts of substances are always substances


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Granularity surroundings are much more complicated

spatial region

substance

parts of spatial regions are always spatial regions


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Granularity surroundings are much more complicated

process

parts of processes are always processes


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MORAL surroundings are much more complicated

  • Relations crossing the SNAP/SPAN border are never part-relations


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substance John surroundings are much more complicated

sustaining in existence

physiological processes

Relations crossing the SNAP/SPAN border are never part-relations

John’s life


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How do you know whether an entity is SNAP or SPAN? surroundings are much more complicated


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problem cases surroundings are much more complicated

  • traffic jam

  • forest fire

  • anthrax epidemic

  • hurricane Maria

  • waves

  • shadows


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forest fire: surroundings are much more complicated

  • an object (complex substance)

  • Compare: a pack of monkeys jumping from tree to tree

  • the Olympic flame:

  • a process or a thing?

  • anthrax spores are little monkeys


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System (OED) surroundings are much more complicated

  • An organized or connected group of objects.

  • Aset or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan


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Roman Ingarden surroundings are much more complicated

  • Material Ontology

  • Theory of Causality

  • Theory of Relatively Isolated Systems

  • Modularity


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Roman Ingarden: surroundings are much more complicated

  • organisms, in order to be able to sustain themselves effectively as identical through time, must be at least in some respects “bounded off from the surrounding world and partially isolated or, better, shielded from it.”


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Each complex multi-cellular organism surroundings are much more complicated

  • is a relatively isolated causal system which is organized in modular fashion in such a way as to contain within itself numerous further relatively isolated causal systems on successively lower levels.

  • The latter are hierarchically ordered and at the same time both partially interconnected (they collaborate in their functioning) and also partially segregated from each other via coverings or membranes which protect their interiors from certain external influences and also allow other kinds of influences and substances to pass through them.


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MODULARITY: surroundings are much more complicatedBodily Systems

  • can be viewed at different levels of granularity


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NERVOUS SYSTEM surroundings are much more complicated


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Relative Isolation surroundings are much more complicated

  • The container formed by the skin or hide around a bodily system may be topologically highly complicated


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The whole body surroundings are much more complicated

  • “is surrounded by a well-defined enclosure—for man this is the skin, for the majority of animals—the hide.”

  • The skin or hide is itself a complex organ which is composed of many layers and has many functions in the life-process, precisely because it forms the boundary between the body and the external world. Thus it is a permeable membrane, which participates in the expulsion of water and waste-products.


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Organisms surroundings are much more complicated

  • order to be able to sustain themselves effectively as identical through time, must be at least in some respects “bounded off from the surrounding world and partially isolated or shielded from it.”


Each multi cellular organism l.jpg
Each multi-cellular organism surroundings are much more complicated

  • is a system of relatively isolated causal systems organized in modular fashion in such a way as to contain within itself further relatively isolated causal systems on successively lower levels.

  • The systems within this modular hierarchy are both partially interconnected (they collaborate in their functioning)

  • and also partially segregated via coverings or membranes which protect their interiors from certain external influences and also allow other kinds of influences and substances to pass through them


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Bodily systems surroundings are much more complicated

  • are not absolutely closed off from each other: they are partially open and partially shielded.

  • There are paths between them along which a certain restricted spectrum of causal influences and substances may flow.

  • Each sense organ is a partially open system which is “attuned to a special selection of outside processes and at the same time also shielded in other respects.”


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Two kinds of fiat boundaries surroundings are much more complicated


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Recall: surroundings are much more complicated

Bodily systems have fiat boundaries

Endocrine system unified as a system of scattered radio transmitters is unified:

through transmitted waves


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How are these fiat boundaries determined? surroundings are much more complicated

  • Mario Bunge, Treatise of Basic Philosophy, vol. 4:

  • Ontology II: A World of Systems,

  • "Every science studies systems of some kind, whether natural (physical, chemical, biological, or social) or artificial (technical). Moreover most sciences study nothing but systems“ (p.1).

  • Ingvar: I agree whole-heartedly. [But in my view:]

  • systems make up some special species of the genus pattern … and patterns have fiat boundaries


Better l.jpg
Better surroundings are much more complicated

  • systems make up some special species of the genus pattern

  • But: systems are patterns = tokens

  • Token patterns have fiat boundaries

  • Thus systems have fiat boundaries


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Causal Systems surroundings are much more complicated

  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.

  • A causal system contains a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.

  • 3. A causal system contains a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.


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Causal Systems surroundings are much more complicated

  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.

  • A causal system contains a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.

  • 3. A causal system contains

  • a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.


Spatial patterns l.jpg
Spatial patterns surroundings are much more complicated


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Spatial properties surroundings are much more complicated


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Functions: surroundings are much more complicated

  • Spatio-temporal patterns = 4-dimensional shapes

  • Property-grounded relations:

  • e.g. is taller than, grounded in the respective heights


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Causal Systems surroundings are much more complicated

  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.

  • A causal system is held together by

  • a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.

  • 3. A causal system is held together by

  • a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.


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Causal Systems surroundings are much more complicated

  • 4. A causal system contains a specific kind of causal unity. STILL NEEDS TO BE DETERMINED

  • 5. The type-identity of a causal system is independent of its spatiotemporal size.

  • 6. Causal systems can be represented by mind-dependent patterns.

  • 7. Causal systems are fiat objects.


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Ingvar surroundings are much more complicated

  • The kinds of possible causal interactions which constitute a causal system have to be chosen from all the possible ones. This means that every causal system is a fiat system. By fiat we decide to focus attention only on some kinds of interactions.

  • But

  • conventionality can fuse with mind-independence. The "fiatness" of causal systems, just like the "fiatness" of spatial patterns, does not cancel mind-independence.


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What gives a bodily system its unity? surroundings are much more complicated

  • Why do we divide up the bodily systems in this way rather than in that?

  • Because each performs some CRITICAL FUNCTION = if functioning ceases the organism will die


Sustaining in existence l.jpg

John surroundings are much more complicated

sustaining in existence

Sustaining in Existence

John’s

nervous

system

John’s life

functioning of

John’s nervous

system


Millikan l.jpg
Millikan surroundings are much more complicated

  • “An item X has proper function F only if:

  • (i) X is a reproduction of some prior item that, because of the possession of certain reproduced properties, actually performed F in the past, and X exists because of this performance;

  • or (ii) X is the product of a device that had the performance of F as a proper function and normally performs F by way of producing an item like X.”


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Critical Function surroundings are much more complicated

  • An item X performs the critical function F for organism Y if and only if:

  • (i) F is the proper function of X and

  • (ii) the continuing to exist of Y is dependent on the continued functioning of F


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Definition of Bodily System surroundings are much more complicated

  • X is a bodily system for organism Y if and only if

  • (i) X is part of Y

  • and

  • (ii) there is a critical function of Y and X performs this critical function

  • Or: has the disposition/capacity to perform this critical function


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Evidence surroundings are much more complicated

  • The visual system is not classified in medical science as a bodily system in its own right

  • (It is a module of the nervous system)

  • because it is non-critical

  • part of the body’s redundancy


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Problems: surroundings are much more complicated

  • Prostheses (Heart pacemakers …)

  • Are they parts of the body or analogous to foreign bodies in the interior of the body

  • Solve this problem by adding condition of reciprocal dependence

  • (Pacemaker does not change in light of its functioning and of the functioning of associated systems)


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Problems: surroundings are much more complicated

  • Kidney dialysis

  • (is the operation of the kidney a critical function?)

  • Cryptobiosis – the condition that some creatures (e.g. shrimp) surivive in after drying out and shutting down:

  • this means that they can survive even though their bodily systems are not functioning


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Problems: surroundings are much more complicated

  • Reproductive system:

  • Not critical to the life of the individual

  • critical to the life of the species

  • of the population?

  • Mother and baby share an endocrine system?


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Problems surroundings are much more complicated

  • Maximality

  • Is the endocrine system one system or seven?


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Questions: surroundings are much more complicated

  • If these systems are critical, how could they evolve?

  • By splitting from prior systems?


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Questions: surroundings are much more complicated

  • Does every system contain at least one organ?

  • How is ‘organ’ to be defined?

  • Are muscles organs?

  • Are bones organs?


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Questions surroundings are much more complicated

  • How many of these systems are present in all organisms?

  • In all multi-cellular organisms?

  • In all vertebrates?

  • How many of these systems have analogues in other sorts of systems

  • (antivirus software in computer systems)


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Questions: surroundings are much more complicated

  • In a good parsing of the body into bodily systems

  • should all bodily systems be mereologically disjoint?

  • should the parsing exhaust the body?


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The Monarchic System of Government surroundings are much more complicated


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The Monarchic System of Government surroundings are much more complicated


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A river is a body of water surroundings are much more complicated

  • A political system is a body of people

  • (the body politic)


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Millikan’s “ surroundings are much more complicatedproper function”

  • “The proper function of some mechanism, trait, or process is what it is supposed to do, what it has been designed to do, what it ought to do.”


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  • Functions are SNAP entities surroundings are much more complicated

  • Their functionings (realizations, expressions, ...) are SPAN entities.

  • A function f is dependent on its bearer b

  • b is a SNAP entity

  • b's continuing to exist (b's life) is a SPAN entity

  • A function F is critical to its bearer B =df. the continuing to exist of B is dependent on the functioning of F


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The example of the simple sympathetic reflex surroundings are much more complicated


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