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VT. Bodies and Bodily Systems. Barry Smith and Igor Papakin. INTEGUMENTARY (SKIN) SYSTEM . MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM . CONNECTIVE SYSTEM . The Connective System.

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bodies and bodily systems

Bodies and Bodily Systems

Barry Smith and Igor Papakin

the connective system
The Connective System
  • The connective system contains all the bona fide boundaries in the interior of the body: the membranes and layers of fat which create an internal framework of support for the organs
  • This system performs active work by maintaining the internal sub-environments in the necessary conditions
slide11

URINARY

SYSTEM

slide14

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

(Principal Organs)

the autonomic part of the nervous system

The autonomic part of the nervous system

This is the oldest part of the nervous system from the standpoint of evolution. It regulates the vegetative functions of the body.

‘Vegetative’ means:

automatic, not dependent on one’s mind.

example
Example
  • I decide to run. I can decide to start or stop running because running is controlled by the somatic part of the nervous system.
  • BUT: when I’m running my heart is beating more quickly because my muscles need more oxygen for their work
  • The autonomous part of the nervous system is responsible for these changes.
  • You cannot decide to start or stop digesting the food that is already in your stomach
  • Digestion and heart-beat are vegetative processes
the endocrine system
The endocrine system
  • is like a system of the radio transmitters which are broadcasting to the every cell of the body.
  • Their ‘waves’ are hormones.
  • The medium of transmission is the blood.
  • The cell have ‘receivers’ –specific receptors for particular hormones
bodily systems are component parts of bodies
Bodily Systems are Component Parts of Bodies

digestive

respiratory

circulatory

immune

skeletal

musculatory

slide33

MUSCLE SYSTEM

SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide34
because without muscle the skeletal system would fall apart and without bone the muscles would have nothing to attach themselves
why talk of one nervous system rather than two
Why talk of one nervous system rather than two?
  • Is the boundary between the autonomous and vegetative system porous
  • (can you train yourself to control vegetative processes?)
but the fiat boundaries separating them from their surroundings are much more complicated
but the fiat boundaries separating them from their surroundings are much more complicated
problems of medical ontology
Problems of Medical Ontology
  • Knowledge Mining
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • Doctors don’t know ontology
  • Aristotle is no help either
system oed
System (OED)
  • I. An organized or connected group of objects.
  • II. A set of principles, etc.; a scheme, method.
system oed42
System (OED)
  • An organized or connected group of objects.
  • Aset or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan
  • Physics. A group of bodies moving about one another in space under some particular dynamical law, as the law of gravitation;
  • Biol. A set of organs or parts in an animal body of the same or similar structure, or subserving the same function, as the nervous, muscular, osseous, etc. systems, the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, etc. systems; also, each of the primary groups of tissues in the higher plants.
  • In various scientific and technical uses: A group, set, or aggregate of things, natural or artificial, forming a connected or complex whole.  
system oed43
System (OED)
  • 4. In various scientific and technical uses: A group, set, or aggregate of things, natural or artificial, forming a connected or complex whole. 
  • a. of natural objects or phenomena, as geological formations, mountains, rivers, winds, forces, etc.; also of lines, points, etc. in geometry. b. of artificial objects or appliances arranged or organized for some special purpose, as pulleys or other pieces of mechanism, columns or other details of architecture, canals, railway lines, telegraphs, etc. c.Geol. A major stratigraphic division, composed of a number of series and corresponding to a period in time; the rocks deposited during any specific period. d. The set of the various phases that two or more given metals are capable of forming at different temperatures and pressures, as alloy system. e.Linguistics. A group of terms, units, or categories, in a paradigmatic relationship to one another.
  • f.Computers. A group of related programs; spec. = operating system
system oed44
System (OED)
  • II. A set of principles, etc.; a scheme, method.
  • 8. The set of correlated principles, ideas, or statements belonging to some department of knowledge or belief
  • 9. An organized scheme or plan of action, esp. one of a complex or comprehensive kind; an orderly or regular method of procedure. Now usually with defining word or phrase. …d. Any method devised by a gambler for determining the placing of his bets.
  • 10. In the abstract (without a or pl.): Orderly arrangement or method; systematic form or order.
snap and span
SNAP and SPAN
  • Substances and processes
  • Continuants and occurrents
  • In preparing an inventory of reality
  • we keep track of these two different categories of entities in two different ways
need for different perspectives
Need for different perspectives
  • Not one ontology, but a multiplicity of complementary ontologies
  • Cf. Quantum mechanics: particle vs. wave ontologies
snap and span50
SNAP and SPAN
  • stocks and flows
  • commodities and services
  • product and process
  • anatomy and physiology
  • synchrony and diachrony
snap and span51
SNAP and SPAN
  • SNAP entities
  • - have continuous existence in time
  • - preserve their identity through change
  • - exist in toto if they exist at all
  • SPAN entities
  • - have temporal parts
  • - unfold themselves phase by phase
  • - exist only in their phases/stages
spqr entities
SPQR… entities
  • States, powers, qualities, roles …
  • functions, dispositions, plans, shapes
  • SPQR… entities are all dependent on substances
some systems are spqr entities
SOME SYSTEMS ARE SPQR ENTITIES
  • legal systems
  • languages (as systems of competences)
  • religions (as systems of beliefs)
snap ontology
SNAP ontology
  • many sharp boundaries
  • SPAN ontology
  • many smeered boundaries
  • Fiat boundaries can be drawn in each
  • (Cf. Ingvar‘s theory of 4-D shapes)
mesoscopic reality
Mesoscopic reality
  • is divided at its joints into substances:
  • animals, bones, rocks, potatoes
  • and into parts of substances:
  • ARMS
  • LEGS
  • and
  • BODILY SYSTEMS
processes
Processes
  • Processes merge into one another
  • Process kinds merge into one another
  • … few clean joints either between instances or between types
three kinds of snap entities
Three kinds of SNAP entities
  • Substances
  • SPQR… entities
  • Spatial regions, Contexts, Niches
slide61

Functions

The function of the

heart is to pump blood

slide63

SNAP

Fiat part of substance

Extremity (hand, arm)

Bodily System

span entities extended in time66
SPAN: Entities extended in time

Functioning

The heart’s pumping

of blood

granularity
Granularity

spatial region

substance

parts of substances are always substances

granularity68
Granularity

spatial region

substance

parts of spatial regions are always spatial regions

granularity69
Granularity

process

parts of processes are always processes

moral
MORAL
  • Relations crossing the SNAP/SPAN border are never part-relations
relations crossing the snap span border are never part relations

substance John

sustaining in existence

physiological processes

Relations crossing the SNAP/SPAN border are never part-relations

John’s life

problem cases
problem cases
  • traffic jam
  • forest fire
  • anthrax epidemic
  • hurricane Maria
  • waves
  • shadows
forest fire
forest fire:
  • an object (complex substance)
  • Compare: a pack of monkeys jumping from tree to tree
  • the Olympic flame:
  • a process or a thing?
  • anthrax spores are little monkeys
system oed75
System (OED)
  • An organized or connected group of objects.
  • Aset or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan
roman ingarden
Roman Ingarden
  • Material Ontology
  • Theory of Causality
  • Theory of Relatively Isolated Systems
  • Modularity
roman ingarden77
Roman Ingarden:
  • organisms, in order to be able to sustain themselves effectively as identical through time, must be at least in some respects “bounded off from the surrounding world and partially isolated or, better, shielded from it.”
each complex multi cellular organism
Each complex multi-cellular organism
  • is a relatively isolated causal system which is organized in modular fashion in such a way as to contain within itself numerous further relatively isolated causal systems on successively lower levels.
  • The latter are hierarchically ordered and at the same time both partially interconnected (they collaborate in their functioning) and also partially segregated from each other via coverings or membranes which protect their interiors from certain external influences and also allow other kinds of influences and substances to pass through them.
modularity bodily systems
MODULARITY: Bodily Systems
  • can be viewed at different levels of granularity
relative isolation
Relative Isolation
  • The container formed by the skin or hide around a bodily system may be topologically highly complicated
the whole body
The whole body
  • “is surrounded by a well-defined enclosure—for man this is the skin, for the majority of animals—the hide.”
  • The skin or hide is itself a complex organ which is composed of many layers and has many functions in the life-process, precisely because it forms the boundary between the body and the external world. Thus it is a permeable membrane, which participates in the expulsion of water and waste-products.
organisms
Organisms
  • order to be able to sustain themselves effectively as identical through time, must be at least in some respects “bounded off from the surrounding world and partially isolated or shielded from it.”
each multi cellular organism
Each multi-cellular organism
  • is a system of relatively isolated causal systems organized in modular fashion in such a way as to contain within itself further relatively isolated causal systems on successively lower levels.
  • The systems within this modular hierarchy are both partially interconnected (they collaborate in their functioning)
  • and also partially segregated via coverings or membranes which protect their interiors from certain external influences and also allow other kinds of influences and substances to pass through them
bodily systems
Bodily systems
  • are not absolutely closed off from each other: they are partially open and partially shielded.
  • There are paths between them along which a certain restricted spectrum of causal influences and substances may flow.
  • Each sense organ is a partially open system which is “attuned to a special selection of outside processes and at the same time also shielded in other respects.”
slide87

Recall:

Bodily systems have fiat boundaries

Endocrine system unified as a system of scattered radio transmitters is unified:

through transmitted waves

how are these fiat boundaries determined
How are these fiat boundaries determined?
  • Mario Bunge, Treatise of Basic Philosophy, vol. 4:
  • Ontology II: A World of Systems,
  • "Every science studies systems of some kind, whether natural (physical, chemical, biological, or social) or artificial (technical). Moreover most sciences study nothing but systems“ (p.1).
  • Ingvar: I agree whole-heartedly. [But in my view:]
  • systems make up some special species of the genus pattern … and patterns have fiat boundaries
better
Better
  • systems make up some special species of the genus pattern
  • But: systems are patterns = tokens
  • Token patterns have fiat boundaries
  • Thus systems have fiat boundaries
causal systems
Causal Systems
  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.
  • A causal system contains a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
  • 3. A causal system contains a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
causal systems91
Causal Systems
  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.
  • A causal system contains a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
  • 3. A causal system contains
  • a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
functions
Functions:
  • Spatio-temporal patterns = 4-dimensional shapes
  • Property-grounded relations:
  • e.g. is taller than, grounded in the respective heights
causal systems95
Causal Systems
  • A causal system contains things with properties and corresponding spatial and spatiotemporal patterns.
  • A causal system is held together by
  • a lot of property-grounded relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
  • 3. A causal system is held together by
  • a lot of both spatial, temporal, and causal relations, but it is not identical with a set or an aggregate of such relations.
causal systems96
Causal Systems
  • 4. A causal system contains a specific kind of causal unity. STILL NEEDS TO BE DETERMINED
  • 5. The type-identity of a causal system is independent of its spatiotemporal size.
  • 6. Causal systems can be represented by mind-dependent patterns.
  • 7. Causal systems are fiat objects.
ingvar
Ingvar
  • The kinds of possible causal interactions which constitute a causal system have to be chosen from all the possible ones. This means that every causal system is a fiat system. By fiat we decide to focus attention only on some kinds of interactions.
  • But
  • conventionality can fuse with mind-independence. The "fiatness" of causal systems, just like the "fiatness" of spatial patterns, does not cancel mind-independence.
what gives a bodily system its unity
What gives a bodily system its unity?
  • Why do we divide up the bodily systems in this way rather than in that?
  • Because each performs some CRITICAL FUNCTION = if functioning ceases the organism will die
sustaining in existence

John

sustaining in existence

Sustaining in Existence

John’s

nervous

system

John’s life

functioning of

John’s nervous

system

millikan
Millikan
  • “An item X has proper function F only if:
  • (i) X is a reproduction of some prior item that, because of the possession of certain reproduced properties, actually performed F in the past, and X exists because of this performance;
  • or (ii) X is the product of a device that had the performance of F as a proper function and normally performs F by way of producing an item like X.”
critical function
Critical Function
  • An item X performs the critical function F for organism Y if and only if:
  • (i) F is the proper function of X and
  • (ii) the continuing to exist of Y is dependent on the continued functioning of F
definition of bodily system
Definition of Bodily System
  • X is a bodily system for organism Y if and only if
  • (i) X is part of Y
  • and
  • (ii) there is a critical function of Y and X performs this critical function
  • Or: has the disposition/capacity to perform this critical function
evidence
Evidence
  • The visual system is not classified in medical science as a bodily system in its own right
  • (It is a module of the nervous system)
  • because it is non-critical
  • part of the body’s redundancy
problems
Problems:
  • Prostheses (Heart pacemakers …)
  • Are they parts of the body or analogous to foreign bodies in the interior of the body
  • Solve this problem by adding condition of reciprocal dependence
  • (Pacemaker does not change in light of its functioning and of the functioning of associated systems)
problems117
Problems:
  • Kidney dialysis
  • (is the operation of the kidney a critical function?)
  • Cryptobiosis – the condition that some creatures (e.g. shrimp) surivive in after drying out and shutting down:
  • this means that they can survive even though their bodily systems are not functioning
problems118
Problems:
  • Reproductive system:
  • Not critical to the life of the individual
  • critical to the life of the species
  • of the population?
  • Mother and baby share an endocrine system?
problems119
Problems
  • Maximality
  • Is the endocrine system one system or seven?
questions
Questions:
  • If these systems are critical, how could they evolve?
  • By splitting from prior systems?
questions121
Questions:
  • Does every system contain at least one organ?
  • How is ‘organ’ to be defined?
  • Are muscles organs?
  • Are bones organs?
questions122
Questions
  • How many of these systems are present in all organisms?
  • In all multi-cellular organisms?
  • In all vertebrates?
  • How many of these systems have analogues in other sorts of systems
  • (antivirus software in computer systems)
questions123
Questions:
  • In a good parsing of the body into bodily systems
  • should all bodily systems be mereologically disjoint?
  • should the parsing exhaust the body?
a river is a body of water
A river is a body of water
  • A political system is a body of people
  • (the body politic)
millikan s proper function
Millikan’s “proper function”
  • “The proper function of some mechanism, trait, or process is what it is supposed to do, what it has been designed to do, what it ought to do.”
slide128
Functions are SNAP entities
  • Their functionings (realizations, expressions, ...) are SPAN entities.
  • A function f is dependent on its bearer b
  • b is a SNAP entity
  • b\'s continuing to exist (b\'s life) is a SPAN entity
  • A function F is critical to its bearer B =df. the continuing to exist of B is dependent on the functioning of F
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