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U.S. Immigration: History and Current Issues . Senior Capstone Ryan Rice. Overview . Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras: Open-Door Door-Ajar Pet-Door Revolving-Door Storm-Door Including Important Legislation and Court Cases. Overview .

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Overview

  • Breakdown of history of U.S. Immigration by eras:

    Open-Door

    Door-Ajar

    Pet-Door

    Revolving-Door

    Storm-Door

  • Including Important Legislation and Court Cases


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Overview

  • Following Historical Breakdown:

  • Look at current societal impacts of immigration both legal and illegal.

    Assimilation

    Economics

    Bilingualism

    Multiculturalism

    National Security


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Open-Door Era

  • Founding of the United States until 1880.

  • Immigration= Relatively Easy and Encouraged.

  • “Old-Wave” Immigrants primarily from Northwest Europe.

  • 1789 Article 1, Section 8 grants Congress power “To Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization”


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Open-Door Era

  • Naturalization Act of 1790 – First official act.

    Two-year residency requirement

  • Revised in 1802 – Extended to five years

  • Became the Five-Year Residency Act in 1813

  • 1819 – Began documenting all immigrants as the left their ship


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Open-Door Era

  • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Citizenship to those remaining in Territory cede by Mexico

  • Two Waves: 1845-1854 and 1865-1875

    First- Predominantly Irish and German

    Second – Included British and

    Scandinavian


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Open-Door Era

  • 1862 – Homestead Act

  • 1868 – Ratification of the 14th Amendment

  • 1870 – Citizenship granted to those of African decent

  • 1 million immigrants per year = 13% foreign born

  • Gave rise to fear and anxiety in native-born


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Door-Ajar Era

  • Began in 1880 and lasted 1920

  • Rate of 1 million per year continued

  • Shift to South, Central and Eastern Europe

  • Know-Nothings and Ku Klux Klan led restrictionist attitude.


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Door-Ajar Era

  • 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act – First piece of legislation aimed at a particular race or nationality.

    Virtually stopped Chinese immigration

    ten years.

  • Reenacted in 1888, 1892 and 1904



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Door-Ajar Era

  • 1885 – Foran Act – illegal to fund immigration of others.

  • 1888 – Scott Act – extended Chinese Exclusion act ten years/ barred return.

  • 1889 – Chae Chan Ping v. United States upheld Scott Act.


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Door-Ajar Era

  • 1892 – Ellis Island

  • 1894 – Bureau of Immigration

  • 1898 – Wong Kim Ark v. United States:

    Native born are eligible for nat.

    even if parents are not.

  • 1907 – Dillingham Commission: Led to the quota acts of the 1920s


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Pet-Door Era

  • The Pet-Door Era – 1920-1965

  • Pro-restrictionist groups pushed for quota acts: 1921, 1924, 1929

  • Immigration shifted back to Northwest Europe.

  • Era of restrictive legislation


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Pet-Door Era: Quota Acts

  • 1921 – 3% of pop. Of a country as of 1910 census.

    only 4 million entered from 1920-1930

  • 1924 – Johnson-Reed Act – 2% of pop. Of a country as of 1890 census.

    Brought about shift back to Northwest Europe

    Barred most Asians – “aliens ineligible for citizenship”

  • 1929 – proportion of pop. Or of each nationality for 1920 census.

    Only 150,000 admitted.



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Pet-Door Era

  • 1922 – Cable Act – women can become naturalized unless married to ineligible alien.

  • Labor Appropriations Act of 1924 Established the U.S. Border Patrol


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Great Depression

  • Immigration slowed dramatically between 1929 and 1939

  • 1940 – End of Depression – Congress passed Registration Law and Nationality Act

    Required all citizens to register address

    annually.

    Consolidated all naturalization policy into one Act.


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Pet-Door Era

  • 1942 – Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Americans to relocation camps.

  • 1943 – Hirabayashi v. United States upheld “military necessity”

  • 1944 – Korematsu v. United States allowed for excluded zones

  • 1952 – Immigration and Naturalization Act removed racial and national-origin barrier.


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Revolving-Door Era

  • Began with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965

  • Replaced quota system with preference system

  • Immigration in the following decade was up 60%

  • Act was amended in 1966 to allow for more refugees


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Revolving-Door Era

  • 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk – Dual Citizenship

  • 1970s – concerns over immigrants entering illegally

  • 5.4 million immigrants entered

  • 1978 – Pres. Carter – Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy

    Recommended closing backdoor and opening front door.


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Revolving-Door Era

  • 1980 Refugee Act

  • 1986 – Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)

  • Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT)

    Culmination of IRCA and SCIRP

  • 1993 - NAFTA


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Revolving-Door Era

  • California passed Proposition 187

    Claimed Illegal immigration was a financial burden

  • LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson et al. – declared 187 unconstitutional

  • 1996 – Illegal Immigrant Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA)


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Storm-Door Era

  • Began in 2001 as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks

  • 2001 – USA Patriot Act

  • 2002 – INS is abolished and duties granted to Department of Homeland Security

  • 2005 – USA Patriot Act Improvements and Reauthorization Act


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Current Immigration Issues

  • Assimilation

  • Economics

  • Bilingualism

  • Multiculturalism

  • National Security


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Assimilation

  • 1st step – Naturalization process

  • Pre-1970s – Strong pressures on immigrants to assimilate into the culture

  • Large numbers – fear that immigrants would not form emotional attachment to new country


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Assimilation

  • Assimilate by acquiring skills

  • Naturalization – more job opportunities

  • Proponents: Immigrants have no problem assimilating

  • Age is greatest distinguishing factor


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Economics

  • Pros:

    more workers create more wealth

    provide basis for S. Security and Medicare

    most still pay income and property taxes

    benefit from brain-drain of other nations


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Economics

  • Cons:

    Immigrant wages are decreasing

    Create a strain on taxpayers and government

    Tax burden in most states: couple hundred $/yr


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Bilingualism

  • Economic and Ideological detriment

  • Single language unifies incredible diversity

  • Multiple languages are inefficient

  • Argument for: too many Americans are illiterate anyway


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Multiculturalism

  • Distinct Culture Groups

  • Organizational and Conceptual Borders

  • Maintain ties to home country, thus no true American identity

  • Proponents: Proportion has remained stable over the years


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National Security

  • Major Concern recently – Became important in 1920s

  • 7,000 miles of border

  • Department of Homeland Security

    Struggle until recently

    Advances in transportation security

    Creative thinking to prevent attacks


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Summary and Review

  • Five Eras of Immigration: Open-Door, Door Ajar, Pet-Door, Revolving-Door, Storm-Door

  • Immigration: history of legislation

  • Current Issues: Assimilation, Economics, Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and National Security


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