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PRAXIS Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Tests Barbara Parr Assessment Specialist, Licensure Development Group Assessment Development Division November 18, 2006. Overview. The Praxis Series Licensure Tests Test Development Process Test Preparation Products and Services.

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PRAXIS

Speech-Language Pathology

and

Audiology

Tests

Barbara Parr

Assessment Specialist, Licensure Development Group

Assessment Development Division

November 18, 2006


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Overview

  • The Praxis Series

  • Licensure Tests

  • Test Development Process

  • Test Preparation Products and Services


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The Praxis Series

Professional Assessment for Beginning Teachers

  • Licensure

    • State regulated process

    • Grants permission/legal authority to practice

    • Indicates the professional has met the standards for training and practice experience

    • Indicates readiness for independent professional practice

    • Indicates minimal competence


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The Praxis Series

  • Licensure Testing

    • High stakes

    • Required, not voluntary

    • One of multiple requirements

    • Measure knowledge, skills, and abilities deemed important for professional practice

    • Does not predict performance

    • Must be legally defensible and professionally credible


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The Praxis Series

  • Age of the program: over 55 years old

  • User states & jurisdictions

    • Each state or agency adopts the most appropriate tests for its licensure titles

    • Each state or agency sets its own cut score for each test

    • Praxis staff work with states and agencies to set cut scores (standard setting studies)

  • Number of test titles: 140+


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The Praxis Series

  • Number of administrations per year: 8

  • Number of test centers across the country: 650+

  • Number of test takers for selected tests:

    • PPST>150,000

    • Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment> 35,000

    • Speech-Language Pathology >5,000

    • Audiology > 1,500


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The Praxis Series

  • Test Offerings:

    • Praxis I: PPST (Pre-Professional Skills Tests)

      Measure basic proficiency in reading, writing, and mathematics

      Computer and paper/pencil delivery

    • Praxis II: Subject Assessments

      • Specialty Area tests (140+ titles)

      • Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) tests (4 titles)

      • Multiple Subjects Assessment for Teachers (MSAT) (2 titles)


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The Praxis Series

  • Praxis III: Classroom Performance Assessments

    Direct observation in the classroom

  • Related Programs:

    • School Leaders Series

      • School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA)

      • School Superintendent Assessment (SSA)

    • ParaPro Assessment


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Praxis Speech-Language PathologyandPraxis Audiology

  • Intended for examinees who have completed a degree program.

  • Recognized as the national examination in speech-language pathology and audiology

    • The test is one of several requirements for the Certificate of Clinical Competence issued by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA).

  • Some states use the examination as part of the licensure procedure.

    • Complete information may be about certification/licensure from the authority (ASHA or state agency) from which certification or licensure is sought.

  • .


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TEST DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

ETS RESEARCH

ASHA

  • Format outcomes of the domain analysis into a survey

  • Conduct a large-scale confirmation survey

  • Analyze Standards

  • Analyze Domain

  • Define Subset of Domain

  • Draft Test Specifications

  • Recommend Test Design

  • Test Development Committee consists of ASHA representatives, content experts, and higher education faculty.

  • The committee is diverse in terms of race, gender, and educational setting (elementary, secondary, college, etc.)


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ASHA NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  • Reviews outcomes of the job survey

  • Confirms Domains to Be Tested

  • Approves Test Specifications

  • Confirm Test Design

  • Reviews each new test form

  • Reviews outcomes of each new test form


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Item Development

  • Item writers are referred to ETS by ASHA.

  • Beginning an online initiative to access writers throughout the country

  • Each item that appears on the test undergoes external and internal reviews.


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Item Types

  • Discrete multiple choice

  • Case studies

    • Assess knowledge of possible applications to clinical situations and issues.

  • Research articles

    • Assess ability to synthesize information and to apply it to specific examples


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Praxis Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

  • 2 hours

  • 120 Multiple Choice Questions

  • Cost $75


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Registration

All information is available online www.ets.org


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Test Takers with Disabilities

  • All requests for testing accommodations are subject to approval by ETS and must meet ETS documentation criteria.

  • Reasonable testing accommodations are provided to allow candidates with documented disabilities (recognized under the ADA) an opportunity to demonstrate their skills and knowledge.

  • http://www.ets.org/disability/index.html


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Test Preparation Products and Services

  • “Test at a Glance” available free online

    • Test specifications

    • Sample questions, answers with explanations

  • SLP eStudy Guides will be available in January, 2007

  • Workshops available for faculty of institutions of higher education



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Praxis: Speech Pathology and AudiologyStatistics

Kathryn L. Ricker

Associate Psychometrician

Center for Statistical Analysis

ETS, Princeton, NJ


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Purpose of the Praxis Tests

The Audiology and Speech Language Pathology tests measure examinees’ academic preparation in and knowledge of the field…it is one of several requirements for the Certification of Clinical Competence…also used by some states for licensure

*These tests are to aid in determining preparedness to enter the profession—they are NOT diagnostic, and scores beyond the cut score are NOT meant to be predictive of success in the profession


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What’s a psychometrician?

  • Oversees all statistical processes related to the test title

    • Equating

    • Item Analysis

    • Differential Item Functioning

    • Test Analysis

  • Consults on measurement issues

    • Scoring, test delivery

  • Ensures that statistics are used appropriately to ensure fairness and validity (tools, not weapons, or magic)


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What is Item Analysis?

  • A statistical description of how examinees responded to each item in a test

  • Reveals the difficulty of the items

  • Shows the relative attractiveness of each option in a multiple-choice item

  • Indicates how well the item discriminates among the examinees


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What Can IA Help Detect?

  • Wrong key

  • Typographical errors which make the key incorrect

  • Key has become incorrect because it is obsolete


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Test Form Equating

  • Test forms are not exactly equal in difficulty—scores must be aligned statistically to be FAIR

    • Scaled scores mean the same thing across forms, raw scores do not!

  • Use a set of items common to an old form-performance on these items helps establish equivalence of the forms


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Differential Item Functioning

  • Statistical means of examining tests for bias for one group over another

    • Males vs. Females, Ethnicity (if sample size allows)

  • Conditions on total test score (i.e., compares item performance relative to “like” test scores)

  • Used as a guide for careful examination by committees of item reviewers



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Notes from the Test Stats

  • Repeaters-tend to have lower mean test scores by about 1-1.5 standard deviations—repeaters need to try to use the diagnostic information and test prep materials that are provided—this requires time!

  • Subscores (category scores) are less reliable than total test scores—be cautious when interpreting raw scores at the level of the content categories!


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What can these stats tell me to help my students prepare?

  • Individual level feedback

  • Institutional level feedback




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Understanding Individual Scores

Raw category score

Best possible score


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Understanding Individual Scores

Rough estimate of

“typical” performance

Raw category score

Best possible score


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Understanding IHE Statistics

  • Sample size is important!

    • Be careful when interpreting statistics with small samples (especially less than 30-50 candidates)

  • Score distributions

    • By gender, ethnicity

  • Detailed Category Score Information

  • Detailed Score Information by Quartile

    Why are National and State-wide data both included for comparisons?


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FAQs

  • I took the test twice and got too different raw scores (when I add up my number correct in each category) but the same scaled score. What’s up with that?

  • I got a scaled score of 590, but the conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) is 10. Doesn’t that really mean I could have gotten a 610?

  • My friend and I took the same test at the same time and our number correct are the same, but our scaled scores are different. Doesn’t that mean there was some kind of mistake made?


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It Sure Isn’t the National Exam That I Took…

Beth Mineo Mollica, Ph.D.

University of Delaware

Praxis SLP National Advisory Committee


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Striving for…

  • Balance across content areas

  • Keeping reading burden reasonable

  • Currency

  • Logical association with practice demands



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Reflects Practice Demands

  • Application of knowledge to clinical situation

    • Question posed in context of clinical situation

    • Series of questions tied to clinical scenario

  • Extracting information from research

  • Integration of information

  • Working knowledge of law/regulations and their application


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Logistics

  • 120 questions

  • 2 hours in duration

  • Multiple-choice format

  • Item “clusters” tie multiple questions to a single reading passage


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Establishing Test Items

  • Every item reviewed for currency and accuracy

  • Large inventory of new items generated and extensively vetted


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This investigation was motivated by observations that when persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Watson & Hughes (2006) – The relationship of vocal loudness manipulation to prosodic F0 and durational variables in healthy adults. JSLHR, 49, 636-644.


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Question #1 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Which of the following represent the independent variable(s) used in the Watson and Hughes study?

(A) Prosody of dysarthric speech

(B) Gender of the speaker

(C) F0 declination and final-word lengthening

(D) Vocal loudness

(E) Speech intelligibility and communicative

effectiveness


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Question #1 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Which of the following represent the independent variable(s) used in the Watson and Hughes study?

(A) Prosody of dysarthric speech

(B) Gender of the speaker

(C) F0 declination and final-word lengthening

(D) Vocal loudness

(E) Speech intelligibility and communicative

effectiveness


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Answer to Question #1 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

An independent variable is manipulated or selected by the researcher to determine its effect on the dependent variable(s). Watson and Hughes manipulate vocal loudness to determine its effect on prosodic F0 and durational variables. Therefore, (D) is the correct answer. (A) and (E) are incorrect, as those variables were not part of the Watson and Hughes study. As only women were studies, the effect of speaker gender was not addressed, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is incorrect, as both F0 declination and final-word lengthening represent dependent variables that change as a consequence of vocal loudness.


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Question #2 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Watson and Hughes are cautious when suggesting that the speech of some persons with dysarthria improves due to the prosodic changes that result from increasing vocal loudness. Of the following, which is the most likely reason for this caution?

(A) Only women were studied.

(B) Several acoustic variables related to speech

prosody were not included.

(C) The prosody of persons with dysarthria may not

show similar loudness effects.

(D) The results were not statistically significant.

(E) Reciting a paragraph aloud is unlike spontaneous

speech.


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Question #2 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Watson and Hughes are cautious when suggesting that the speech of some persons with dysarthria improves due to the prosodic changes that result from increasing vocal loudness. Of the following, which is the most likely reason for this caution?

(A) Only women were studied.

(B) Several acoustic variables related to speech

prosody were not included.

(C) The prosody of persons with dysarthria may not show similar loudness effects.

(D) The results were not statistically significant.

(E) Reciting a paragraph aloud is unlike spontaneous

speech.


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Answer to Question #2 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

At the end of the abstract, Watson and Hughes suggest a relationship between increased vocal loudness and “improvement in communicative effectiveness” in some persons with dysarthria. This relationship is not directly supported by their study, as individuals with dysarthria were not tested, so (C) is the correct answer. (A), (B), and (E) are incorrect as they do not address the relationship of ddysarthria, vocal loudness, and improved communicative effectiveness. (D) is incorrect for the same reason and, furthermore, the results were statistically significant.


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Question #3 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Which of the following best describes the experimental design of the Watson and Hughes study?

(A) A longitudinal design

(B) A multiple-baseline design

(C) A between-subjects design

(D) A within-subjects design

(E) A mixed between- and within-subjects design


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Question #3 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Which of the following best describes the experimental design of the Watson and Hughes study?

(A) A longitudinal design

(B) A multiple-baseline design

(C) A between-subjects design

(D) A within-subjects design

(E) A mixed between- and within-subjects design


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Answer to Question #3 persons with dysarthria increase loudness, their speech improves. Some studies have indicated that this improvement may be related to an increase of prosodic variation. Studies have reported an increase of fundamental frequency (F0) variation with increased loudness, but there has been no examination of the relation of loudness manipulation to specific prosodic variables that are known to aid a listener in parsing out meaningful information. This study examined the relation of vocal loudness production to selected acoustic variables known to inform listeners of phrase and sentence boundaries: specifically, F0 declination and final-word lengthening. Ten young, health women were audio-recorded while they read aloud a paragraph at what each considered normal loudness, twice-normal loudness, and half-normal loudness. Results showed that there was a statistically significant increase of F0 declination, brought about by a higher resetting of F0 at the beginning of a sentence and an increase of final-word lengthening from the half-normal loudness condition to the twice-normal loudness condition. These results suggest that when some persons with dysarthria increase loudness, variables related to prosody may change, which in turn contributes to improvement in communicative effectiveness. However, until this procedure is tested with individuals who have dysarthria, it is uncertain whether a similar effect would be observed.

Watson and Hughes use the same group of subjects, who recite a paragraph under 3 conditions: at “normal,” “twice-normal,” and “half-normal” loudness. This is an example of a within-subjects design, in which the dependent variables (in this case, prosodic F0 and durational variables) are measured repeatedly in the same subjects under different task conditions (in this case, vocal loudness). Therefore, (D) is the correct answer. (A) is incorrect because a longitudinal design would require tracking change in the dependent variables over time. (B) is incorrect, as the study included no baseline measures. (C) and (E) are incorrect because there was only a single group of subjects.


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Interpretation of PRAXIS Results in the Preparation of Students:The Audiology PRAXIS

Janet Koehnke, Ph.D.

ETS Consultant & Member of ASHA National Advisory Committee on the PRAXIS


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Agenda Students:

  • The New Face of the Audiology PRAXIS

    • Number of questions

    • Types of questions

  • Preparing Audiology students for the PRAXIS

    • Common areas of difficulty

  • When to take the PRAXIS


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The Students:“New” Audiology PRAXIS

  • In 2004 we began the process of reviewing the test

  • Determined areas needing updating and revising

  • Decided to make some changes to the format of the questions

  • New questions and new question types have been developed


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The Students:“New” Audiology PRAXIS

  • Note: The Foundation remains the same!!

    • 2 hour test

    • Multiple-choice format

    • Breakdown of question content areas

      • From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf


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The Students:“New” Audiology PRAXIS

  • The Changes:

    • More applied questions

    • Less rote memorization

      • From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf


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The Students:“New” Audiology PRAXIS

  • Other changes

    • New audiogram form used throughout test

    • Some questions use the entire form

    • Other questions may use only the audiogram or only the tympanograms, etc.



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The Students:“New” Audiology PRAXIS

  • A sample question using the audiogram form


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Case Description Students:




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For More Examples… Students:

  • Go to http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf

  • OR


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Preparing students for the PRAXIS Students:

  • Question content areas have not changed

  • Question formats have, in some cases, changed

  • Test results from the “New” PRAXIS over the past 2 years indicate certain areas where students seem to be having difficulty


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Preparing students for the PRAXIS Students:

  • Standards, Laws, Regulations

    • HIPAA

    • ANSI

    • IDEA

    • WHO

    • FDA

    • FERPA


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Preparing students for the PRAXIS Students:

  • Screening

    • ASHA versus state guidelines

  • Medical audiology

  • Research & statistics

    • Correlation

  • Interpretation of acoustic reflexes

  • Industrial audiology

    • Hearing protection

  • Psychoacoustics

    • Temporal integration


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Time to take the PRAXIS? Students:

  • In light of

    • Changes in degree requirements

    • Changes in test format

  • It is recommended that students take the Audiology PRAXIS in the Fall of their last year in the program

  • WHY?

    • Majority of coursework completed

    • Considerable clinical experience completed


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Time to take the PRAXIS? Students:

  • Why not take it earlier to “get it out of the way”?

    • Applied nature of the test

    • Test is designed to be taken near the end of the doctoral program

    • Test is presently offered 7 times/year

    • We should encourage students to take the PRAXIS in November or January of their last year

    • If for some reason they do not pass, they can take it again in March, April or June


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Thanks for your attention! Students:QUESTIONS?


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Answer to sample question #1 Students:

From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf


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Answer to Audiogram Q #1 Students:

From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf


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Answer to Audiogram Q #2 Students:

From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf



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Answers to Audiogram Q. 3 & 4 Students:

From http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/0340.pdf


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