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Period One Final Exam Review. Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”. Leader of Young Italy(1).

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Period one final exam review l.jpg

Period One Final Exam Review

Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”


Leader of young italy 1 l.jpg

Leader of Young Italy(1)

Mazzini started the organization “Young Italy” to which he gave a sort of devout, religious spirit, and which was to prove one of the most efficient agencies for the diffusion of the principles of freedom and the idea of union


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2. Reason for end of Bismarck’s reign in Prussia

Bismarck had succeeded in unifying Germany, but Prussia’s dominance created political discontent. After Kaiser William I died in 1888, his son Frederick III succeeded him, but died very quickly. William II, a proponent of militarism, became the new emperor. His belief in the absolute authority of the emperor, brought him into conflict with Bismarck. In 1890, Bismarck offered his resignation, and the kaiser accepted it.


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#3- Definitions of Nationalism

  • na⋅tion⋅al⋅ism:

  • –noun

    • 1. national spirit or aspirations.

    • 2. devotion and loyalty to one's own nation. Nationalism was often expressed during World War I. Nations like Germany relied on nationalism to motivate their troops, and their citizens. Ironically, though, Germany lost World War I.

      A synonym for nationalism is patriotism.


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4. Garibaldi

  • Leader of Southern Italian Nationalists

  • 1860- Turned over all Southern Italy conquests to Victor Emmanuel II to unify Italy


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When the Germans were not united because religious, economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany.

Bismarck made a campaign against the church by expelling Jesuits in 1872. Then he passed the may laws to destroy catholic influence.

At the end of the 1800’s Germany became a major industrial power.

Bismarck banned all socialist movements because he thought that any socialist party was out to change the government. This didn’t last long however.

The ideas of divine right of kings clashed so Bismarck threatened to resign and William II accepted .

5.) Bismarck


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6. Triple Entente economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany.

  • Consisted of France, Great Britain, Russia.

  • Formed in 1907 because of the Russians fear of growth in the German Army


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7. Triple Alliance economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany.

In 1873, Otto Von Bismarck created the Three Emperor’s League, uniting Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. When this failed, Bismarck created the Triple Alliance in 1882, which included Italy, Germany, and Austria


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The economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany. Allied Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the United States. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire) Entered war in 1914 ( Many other countries joined later in the war)

8. Allied Powers


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9. Central Powers economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany.

  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

  • Previously called Triple Alliance

Central Powers in olive green


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Dedicated groups of Italians and Germans worked to unify their territories into one nation in the 1800s.

Nationalism became one of the most powerful forces at working Europe during the 1800s

Nationalism-The desire for national independents that inspires other beings.

10.) Nationalism


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The Schlieffen plan was a war plan, devised by the German army's chief of staff, Count Alfred von Schlieffen, which was put into effect by Germany in the First World War. It was designed to cope with the anticipated need for Germany to have to fight a war on two fronts, against France in the West and Russia in the East. The goal was to use the great bulk of Germany's armed forces against France in the early stages of the war, in the hope of defeating it quickly, and allowing German forces to then redeploy to meet the threat from the East. German strategists believed that the large but inefficient Russian army would be slow to mobilize, giving them a month or two in which to knock France out of the war before they would be forced to deal with the expected Russian attack

11. What Was The Schlieffen Plan?


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12 : Reasons for US Entry army's chief of staff, Count Alfred von Schlieffen, which was put into effect by Germany in the First World War. It was designed to cope with the anticipated need for Germany to have to fight a war on two fronts, against France in the West and Russia in the East. The goal was to use the great bulk of Germany's armed forces against France in the early stages of the war, in the hope of defeating it quickly, and allowing German forces to then redeploy to meet the threat from the East. German strategists believed that the large but inefficient Russian army would be slow to mobilize, giving them a month or two in which to knock France out of the war before they would be forced to deal with the expected Russian attack

  • The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increasedtensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, "America is too proud to fight"and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships.


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14. Date of American Entry Into WWI army's chief of staff, Count Alfred von Schlieffen, which was put into effect by Germany in the First World War. It was designed to cope with the anticipated need for Germany to have to fight a war on two fronts, against France in the West and Russia in the East. The goal was to use the great bulk of Germany's armed forces against France in the early stages of the war, in the hope of defeating it quickly, and allowing German forces to then redeploy to meet the threat from the East. German strategists believed that the large but inefficient Russian army would be slow to mobilize, giving them a month or two in which to knock France out of the war before they would be forced to deal with the expected Russian attack

  • Wilson went to Congress to request declaration of war.

  • Passed on April 2, 1917


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27 nations gathered in Paris for the Paris peace conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)

15.) Peace Conference Following Armistice Day


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16. Treaty of Versailles Participants conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)

  • The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans.


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17 : Provisions of treaty of Versailles conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)

  • 1919

  • Kept Germany under blockade until they signed

  • Made Germany pay enormous war reparations (payment) and give territory to the victors.

  • Unable to pay, so she barrowed money from U.S.

  • Caused enormous bitterness in Germany

  • Nazi used the bitterness to start their movement

  • The debt caused Germany’s Economy to fail


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18. Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)

  • June 28th 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot dead in Sarajevo by an assassin from the black hand. This organization was against an alliance with Austria-Hungary.


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19. WWI Timeline of Events conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)

  • 6/28/1914: Archduke Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo/blame Serbia

  • 7/23/1914: Austria-Hungary gives Serbia ultimatum

  • 7/28/1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

  • 7/30/1914: Russia begins to mobilize troops

  • 8/1/1914: Germany declares war on Russia

  • 8/3/1914: Germany declares war on France

  • 8/4/1914: Britain declares war on Germany


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There was heavy warfare, it was France and the UK against Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

20.) Characteristics Of The Western Front


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21. Kellogg-Brian Pact Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928

it failed to halt aggression in the 1930s

was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War


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22. Militarism Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Militarism is defined as the glorification of war and the military. Prior to WWI, European countries compared militaries, and after 1870, all the powers except Great Britain introduced conscription, or the military draft.


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23. Goal of Serbian Nationalist Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • The goal of the Serbian Nationalist was to keep Serbia an independent nation.


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24. Reason for Russia’s Entry Into WWI Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and then Serbia asked Russia to create an alliance and step in to aid in their war effort.


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Purpose of Propaganda(26) Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation.

  • Propaganda ensured that the people only got to know what their governments wanted them to know.

Britain's portrayal of Germany


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# 28- War of Attrition Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • The war of attrition was a stand-still in the western front.

  • Trench warfare started.

  • WWI became a war of attrition because both sides started to use frequent attacksto wear down the other side.


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29. Reason for Russia’s Removal from WWI Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • In March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Bresttitovisk in losing much territory and 1/3 of the population.


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Lenin Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

30.) Leader Responsible For Russian Withdraw In WWI


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31. Sinking of the Lusitania Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Sunk by the German submarine U-20.

  • The United States was outraged and declared war on Germany!


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32. Zimmerman Note :] Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • The Zimmerman Note was a telegram sent by German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to his ambassador to Mexico. The note promised that Germany would help Mexico regain American territory. This created much tension between Germany and the US.


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# 33- The difference between Marxism and Russian Communism Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Marxism- The society is ruled by the people.

  • Soviet Communism- A strong government (a dictatorship-Lenin) controls society. It is more socialist than communist.


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34. Wilson’s 14 Points Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • A peace plan whose terms included international recognition of freedom of the seas and trade, limitation on arms, and end to all secret alliances.

  • Also called for just settlements of colonial claims


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The Treaty of Versailles limited Germany’s power. Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

Limited the arms of Germany.

Germany lost all of her colonies.

Reparations were to be paid by Germany to all the Allies for property damage and the cost of the Allies fighting the war.

35.) G.B and Frances Goal for Germany Following WWI


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36. Declarations of war that began WWI Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

A formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia on A-H, Germany on Russia, France on Germany, England on Germany


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37. Reason Why Britain entered WW1 Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

Because Russia, Britain and France had an alliance called the Triple Entente. When Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia following the assassination of the heir-apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) Russia joined in to help Serbia per a separate agreement. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, then declared war on Russia and France and began to move troops through the neutral sovereign state of Belgium to attack France. In order to protect France from being captured, and in order to fulfill the obligations of its alliance, Britain entered the War.


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38. Causes of WW1 Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • In Sarajevo, in 1914 the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serb, Gavrilo Princip.

  • Disputes over territory, especially Morocco and the Agadir crisis

  • The rise of Serbia, trouble in Bosnia-Herzegovina (a region heavily populated with Serbs)

  • Austria-Hungary's suspicions of Serbia.

  • Turmoil in The Ottoman Empire, Balkan crisis

  • Imperialism

  • Nationalism

  • Expansionism

  • Intense competition & power struggles among the European nations.


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39. Powder Keg of Europe Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Ottoman Empire began to fall and Greece became independent in 1829 which led to the protest of the treaty.


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Advancements in technology changed warfare forever. Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

Submarines and airplanes moved combat from not only land but also to water and the air.

Newer weapons were used such as poisonous gas, machine guns etc. This created more fear.

40.) Technological Advances


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41. Characteristics of the Eastern Front Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Flat

  • Moved around a lot while the Western front stayed still

  • Located in central-eastern Europe


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44. Total War Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.

  • Governments directed all people and resources to the war effort


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Wars that don’t involve territorial defense should be avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration

45.) Isolationism


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Causes of WWII(46) avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration

  • The culmination of events that led to WWII are generally understood to be the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the 1937 invasion of the Republic of China by the Empire of Japan. These military aggressions were the decisions made by authoritarian ruling elites in Germany and Japan. World War II started after these aggressive actions were met with an official declaration of war and armed resistance.

Destroyer USS Shaw exploded after her forward magazine was detonated during the Attack on Pearl Harbor


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47. Characteristics of Fascism avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration

Fascism is an aggressive, radical form of nationalism with an emphasis on the state rather than the individual.


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49) Weakness of the Weimar Republic avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration

  • Lasted in Germany from 1919 to 1933

  • Made Germany a democracy

  • It had political instability and a lot of violence


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Mussolini was the dictator of Italy and lead them into fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

50.) Rise Of Mussolini


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51. Countries Upset With Treaty of Versailles fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.


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52. Types of Governments in 1920s fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

  • Germany: fascist dictatorship under Hitler

  • Italy: fascist dictatorship under Mussolini

  • Japan: military ruled

  • USSR: a communist government was beginning to evolve under Stalin after the ousting of the Czar


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53. Beginning of the Great Depression fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

The Great Depression was triggered by a sudden, total collapse in the stock market. (Massive bank failures too)

The stock market crash on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday.

The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries (1941 for U.S). It was the largest and most important economic depression in the 20th century.


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54. Soviet Communism Under Lenin fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

  • Vladimir IIyich Ulyanov, also known as Lenin and the Bolsheviks introduced war communism in 1918

  • Under war communism the policy of nationalism was carried which brought state control under all major industries.

  • War communism implied that those who eat must work; the government required that everybody between the ages of 16 to 50 had to be working


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Mao Zedong fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

Jospeh Stalin

Kim ll Sung

55.) Communist Leaders


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56. Hitler’s Early Life fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.


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57 : Characteristics of Global Depression fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

  • Many countries in bankruptcy

  • GDP: Gross Domestic Product

  • If this number is low, then countries are loseing money.

  • Spending more than they are making.


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58. Reason Stalin Gained Control Of Russia fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

  • Russia was in a very bad state. It was weak from past conflicts so under Stalin it slowly began to rise up in power.


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59) Stalin’s Reforms fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.

  • Ended Lenin’s New Economic Plan

  • Created the Five-Year Plans which brought al industrial and agricultural production under government control

  • Collective farms


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Meeting in Weimar, the assembly drafted a constitution for Germany establishing a democratic republic.

Lasted from 1919-1933.

60.) Weimar Republic


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League of Nations(61) Germany establishing a democratic republic.

  • The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world.

An assembly in the League of Nations


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63. Rhineland Germany establishing a democratic republic.

  • The Rhineland was taken from Germany by the allied powers.


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64. Appeasement Germany establishing a democratic republic.

  • Chamberlin thought a policy of appeasement, granting concessions to maintain peace, would stabilize Europe.


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A political philosophy based on nationalism and an all powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

65.) Fascism


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66.Mein Kampf powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • Hitler began the dictation of the book while imprisoned after his failed revolution in Munich in November 1923

  • Explains the military conquests later attempted by Hitler and the Germans

  • Explains Hitler’s plans for Germany future


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67 : Munich Conference powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • Agreement regarding Sudetenland

  • Held in Munich Germany

  • Among the major powers of Europe not including Chez.

  • Leaders; Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement.

  • Act of appeasement

  • The decion that allowed the annexation of Sudetenland by Germany


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Number 68- Spanish Civil War powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • From 1936-1939

  • Practice for the German Luftwaffe (air force)

  • War was between loyalists and the nationalists.


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69. Kristallnacht powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • On November 9th and 10th,1938, Nazis attacked Jews on the street and vandalized Jewish property. Hitler's secret police the Gestapo, arrested Jews and political opponents by the thousands.


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32 powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)nd president of the united states, was president through the great depression. Was president through all of world war 2. Worked with Winston Churchill to help end world war 2

70.) Franklin D. Roosevelt


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71. Churchill powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • supporter of social reform

argued that Britain and France should form of a military alliance with the Soviet Union.


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72. Stalin powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union following Lenin’s death in 1924. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization.Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule. This launched the long period of antagonism known as the Cold War.


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Number 73- Harry S. Truman powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

The 33rd President of the U.S.

Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt.

During World War I, he served as an artillery officer; making him the only president to have seen combat in World War I.

Truman's presidency was also eventful in:

foreign affairs

The end of World War II and his decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan

The founding of the United Nations

The Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe

The Truman Doctrine to contain Communism

The beginning of the Cold War

The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The Korean War


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74. Mussolini powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)

  • Benito Mussolini led Italian troops to invade Ethiopia in 1934

  • The League of Nations gives Italy sanctions but they didn’t do anything to stop Mussolini

  • Mussolini annexes Ethiopia in May 1936


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The largest concentration camp during World War II. Jews were put to work, tortured and killed.

75.) Auschwitz


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76. Eisenhower were put to work, tortured and killed.

  • During WWII he served as a commander of the allied forces in Europe.

  • Supervised the successful invasion of Germany in 1945


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77. Hiroshima were put to work, tortured and killed.

On Monday, August 6, 1945 at 8:15 AM, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the crew of the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000-140,000. Approximately 69% of the city's buildings were completely destroyed, and 6.6% severely damaged. Hiroshima was a major weapon stock hold.


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Blitzkrieg (lightning war) lived up to its name to be extremely fast war to help Germany conquer lands.

They caught the enemy by surprise.

Blitzkrieg was how the Nazi's conquered Poland.

Number 78- Advantages to Blitzkrieg


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79. Event that begins WWII extremely fast war to help

  • Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa which was a massive attack on Russia for land on June 2nd, 1941

  • Mussolini declares war on France and Great Britain on June 10th, 1940 during his attempt to build a Mediterranean empire


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The American strategy in the Pacific during World War II. It involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.

80.) Island-Hopping


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Scorched Earth Policy(81) involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.

  • The policy of devastating all land and buildings in the course of advancing or retreating troops so as to leave nothing salvageable to the enemy.

  • Also the Soviet-Union used this policy in The Operation Barbarossa.

Stalin used this strategy which eventually defeated Hitler.


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82. Manhattan Project involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.

The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II, primarily by the United States, to develop the first atomic bomb. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly $2 billion USD


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Number 83- Hitler’s plan for the Jews involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.

  • Adolf Hitler’s original plan for Jews was to literally ship them off to Madagascar. But it was too expensive and took too much time.

  • To defeat the time issue, Hitler built concentration death camps and shipped Jews to them. Conditions were terrible, and they were made to exterminate the Jewish race, and to make supplies for the German Army.


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84. Reasons for Hitler’s Decision to Invade USSR involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.

  • His decision was for the reason of the need for a swiftly ending war, and they felt this was a better alternative than invading the British


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When congress failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

With out the U.S., the League was significantly weakened.

85.) Weaknesses Of The League Of Nations


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86.Reason for U.S. Entering the War 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • Reason: Bombing of Pearl Harbor

  • Occurred Sunday December 7, 1941

  • Surprise Attack

  • Used Japanese Suicide bombers


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87. Last German Offensive 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

The Battle of the Bulge or The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains region of Belgium. Germany’s planned goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp, Belgium, and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers’ favor.


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Number 88- D-Day 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • June 6, 1944

  • When Allied forces launched the Invasion of Normandy.


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89. “Final Solution” 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • A shortened translation of what we know as Hitler’s Holocaust, to eliminate the “problem” AKA Jews


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Reason for the “Cold War”(91) 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • In the 1980’s there were war tensions between the U.S and the soviets (2 super powers).

  • The U.S was losing its dominance in the “global market”

  • Also the U.S had changed from a lending nation to a borrowing nation (Regan & Bush).

Pictures of the ICBM


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92. Reasons for “Cold War” vs. “Hot War” 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

A cold war is a war that is fought politically by diplomacy with no actual shot being fired while a hot war is a war where military action is used. The Cold War takes its name because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. made threatening moves, and created conflict in lesser countries, but never actually came into physical conflict themselves.


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Number 93- Differences in Cold War ideologies and economies 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • Beginning in the 1950’s

  • Political philosophies- democratic U.S. & Communist Soviet Union

  • Economic philosophies- Capitalist U.S. & Command economy for Soviet Union


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94. Iron Curtain 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.

  • A metaphoric curtain that stretches from Stettin to Trieste and behind the line lies all the countries that the Soviet Union has taken over, they are now cut off from Western Europe.

The red portion is the countries contained in the iron curtain.


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The U.N. was created after world war 2 in an attempt to stop world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

95.) Goal OF UN


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96. Advantage of UN Over League of Nations world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.


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Number 98- How USSR influence Eastern Europe world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

  • The USSR had complete control over Eastern Europe because of the Warsaw Pact.

  • With the Brezhnev Doctrine, the USSR could also invade a country and use force to keep countries like Hungary and Czechoslovakia under communist control.

  • The USSR also destroyed any threat against it.


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99. Marshall Plan world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

  • A plan to provide funding for the rebuilding of countries in Europe if they promised to purchased American goods.


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101. Reasons for Berlin Blockade world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

  • Occurred June 1948 to May 1949

  • USSR cut off supplies in West Berlin because of currency issues.

  • U.S then flew in food, etc. for the people in W. Berlin.


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103. NATO Countries world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization which was formed mainly by the US to oppose the USSR’s Warsaw Pact. Member during the cold war were Sloovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland Portugal, Romania, Norway , Mexico, yourmom


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104. Warsaw Pact world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.

  • Military treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union that bound its participants to come to help the others, if any one of them become the victim of foreign aggression.


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A United States policy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to limit the spread of Communism

105.) Containment


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107. Purpose of “de-Stalinization” by Khrushchev diplomatic strategies to limit the spread of Communism

De-Stalinization refers to the process of eliminating the cult of personality and Stalinist political system created by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. At a speech On the Personality Cult and its Consequences to the closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress of the CPSU, February 25, 1956, Khrushchev shocked his listeners by denouncing Stalin's dictatorial rule and cult of personality. Khrushchev understood that many Soviet citizens wanted a relaxation of government controls and improved standard of living. Also, he wanted increased trade to boost USSR’s economy.


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Number 108- Events that increased tensions between the USSR and the US

  • During the Cold War, a lot of events increased tensions between the two superpowers of the world- the US, and the USSR.

  • One event was when the US placed missiles in nearby Turkey, to stop the possible USSR invasion of Turkey. The USSR considered that an act of war.

  • Another event was when the USSR placed missiles in Cuba, because of the US placing missiles in Turkey. This caused the Cuban Missile Crisis.


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109. Soviet Reaction to Protests in Hungary, Czech, E. Germany during ’50s and ’60s

  • Brezhnev Doctrine was signed to keep all the satellites under their control using military force.


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Strategic Arm Limitation Talks (SALT) treaty. Germany during ’50s and ’60s

The Brezhnev –Nixon summit led to the signing of SALT.

Under the treaty, both sides afreed to limit the number of nuclear warheads and missiles each country could maintain.

SALT did not reduce the number of weapons or end the arms race; it did slow it significantly.

110.) Purpose Of SALT Treaties


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112. Resolution to the Missile Crisis Germany during ’50s and ’60s

The missile crisis was generally referred to the closest moment to nuclear war in the cold war. After much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in Turkey on the border of the Soviet Union in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba. The compromise was a particularly sharp embarrassment for Khrushchev and the Soviet Union because the withdrawal of U.S. missiles from Turkey was not made public .


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Number 113- Josip Broz Tito Germany during ’50s and ’60s

Founded Titoism - an adaptation of Communism

He was Secretary-General (later President) of the Communist Party (League of Communists) of Yugoslavia

Lead the WWII Yugoslav resistance movement, the Yugoslav Partisans

After the war, he was the Prime Minister and later President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

He was one of the main founders and promoters of the Non-Aligned Movement


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114) Red Guard and Little Red Book Germany during ’50s and ’60s

  • Mao began the cultural revolution and in response, people formed groups of Red Guards.

  • They were waving a book of Mao’s sayings called the “Little Red Book” and attacked anyone betraying Mao and the revolution


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116. Reaction by Chinese Government to Tiananmen Square Massacre

Government crackdown on Natural Rights such as freedom of speech and assembly

Tank-man


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Number 118- Division of North and South Korea today Massacre

  • When the Korean War ended in 1953, North and South Korea’s boundary remained at the 38th parallel, which is where it was after World War II.

  • The USSR controlled the northern half, while the US controlled the southern half.

  • Today, the boundary still remains along the 38th parallel, although both countries are independent nations. North Korea is still Communist, while South Korea is a democratic nation.


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119) Domino Theory Massacre

  • If one Southeast Asian country falls to communism, its neighbors will fall as well.

  • U.S. feared this because they would loose trade partners in Southeast Asia.

  • Vietnam was the first country to fall to communism.


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120.) Purpose Of Gulf Tonkin Resolution Massacre

It gave the U.S. reason to invade vietnam and attempt to stop the spread of communism in Asia.


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121. 5 Permanent Members of the United Nations Massacre

  • Included: United States, Russia, Great Britain, France and China

  • Only on Security Council

  • Were only nuclear powered countries


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123. US Decision to end Cuban Missile Crisis Massacre

  • The missile crisis was when the USSR thought it would be wise to place nuclear weapons in Cuba. The US ended this crisis by agreeing to taking missiles out of Turkey.


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In 1945 Germany had been divided into four zones controlled by great Britain, France, the united states and the soviet union. The zones of the western allies included the western part of Germany, while the soviet zone encompassed eastern Germany. The western soviets could not reach agreement on a final peace treaty for germany

124. Reason for Division of Germany after WWII


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Characteristics of Japan after WWII(126) by great Britain, France, the united states and the soviet union. The zones of the western allies included the western part of Germany, while the soviet zone encompassed eastern Germany. The western soviets could not reach agreement on a final peace treaty for germany

  • Agreements at Potsdam and Yalta left the fallen Japan under the control of the US who took on a procedure of democratizing and demilitarizing the state. Senator Joe McCarthy was overseeing this and also broke japans financial strength by dissolving Japanese businesses.

B-29 raids devastating Okinawa, Japan


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127. Leader of Communist China in 1976 by great Britain, France, the united states and the soviet union. The zones of the western allies included the western part of Germany, while the soviet zone encompassed eastern Germany. The western soviets could not reach agreement on a final peace treaty for germany

Mao Zedong led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Critics blame many of Mao's socio-political programs, such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, for causing severe damage to the culture, society, economy, and foreign relations of China, as well as a probable death toll in the tens of millions. His adoption of Marxism ideals applied to a largely agricultural society ultimately failed.


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Number 128- The Great Leap Forward by great Britain, France, the united states and the soviet union. The zones of the western allies included the western part of Germany, while the soviet zone encompassed eastern Germany. The western soviets could not reach agreement on a final peace treaty for germany

It was an economic and social plan created by Mao Zedong.

Used from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform China from a primarily agrarian economy by peasant farmers into a modern communist society through the process of agriculture and industrialization.

It ended in catastrophe as it triggered a widespread famine that resulted in millions of deaths.


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Follows Mao as leader of China and institutes the “Four Modernizations” to modernize the economy of China.

129. Deng Xiaoping


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North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was in the mist of becoming communist.

Vietnam was cut by the 17th parallel.

The U.S. was afraid the domino effect of communism would effect South Vietnam, and other countries around Vietnam.

Eventually, the U.S. pulled out, and South Vietnam fell to Communism.

130.) History Of Vietnam


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132. Event starting Korean War mist of becoming communist.

In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese. US troops stayed in Korea until 1946. The country was split in half at the 38th parallel: North Korea was communist while South Korea was capitalist. The north was led by Kim il Sung, backed by the USSR, and the south, led by Syngman Rhee, was backed by the US. The conflict, in 1950, arose from the attempts of the two Korean powers to re-unify Korea under their own respective governments.


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Number 133- Perestroika mist of becoming communist.

  • The restructuring of the USSR’s economy

  • Gorbachev’s philosophy.


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134. GLASTNOST mist of becoming communist.

  • WAS THE POLICY OF THE MAXIMAL

  • OPENNESS AND THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE ACTIVITES OF THE GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS IN THE SOVIET UNION

y


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A reform-minded leader, he came to power in the soviet union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

135.) Mikhail Gorbachev


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136. Reasons for Fall of Berlin Wall union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

Glasnost and Perestroika coupled with a lack of Brezhnev Doctrine


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Number 138- Rwanda Genocide union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

  • Happened in 1994, in Rwanda.

  • An estimated 800,000 to 1,000,000 people were killed.

  • If the estimation is true, that would be about 20% of the total population.


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139. WHY THE UN CREATED ISREAL union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

  • THE UN CREATED ISREAL SO THE JEWS WOULD HAVE THEIR OWN PLACE AND NO ONE WOULD DOMINATE THEM


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Justification for Israel claiming the right to a Nation(140) union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

  • The Jews went through harsh times during the Holocaust.

  • The Jews wanted a homeland. The Zionist Jews wanted to rebuild a Jewish state on the same land- land their ancestors had claimed since biblical time.


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Number 143- Reasons for problems between India and Pakistan union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.

  • The split between the two countries, as well as modern violence between them, is mainly a battle of religion.

  • Most Indians are Hindu and most Pakistanis are Muslim.

  • They are also fighting over the Kashmir region near the India-Pakistan border.

  • Today, both countries are nuclear powered, and could blow each other up if violence gets out of hand.


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