Period One Final Exam Review. Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”. Leader of Young Italy(1).
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Period One Final Exam Review
Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”
Leader of Young Italy(1)
Mazzini started the organization “Young Italy” to which he gave a sort of devout, religious spirit, and which was to prove one of the most efficient agencies for the diffusion of the principles of freedom and the idea of union
2. Reason for end of Bismarck’s reign in Prussia
Bismarck had succeeded in unifying Germany, but Prussia’s dominance created political discontent. After Kaiser William I died in 1888, his son Frederick III succeeded him, but died very quickly. William II, a proponent of militarism, became the new emperor. His belief in the absolute authority of the emperor, brought him into conflict with Bismarck. In 1890, Bismarck offered his resignation, and the kaiser accepted it.
A synonym for nationalism is patriotism.
When the Germans were not united because religious, economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany.
Bismarck made a campaign against the church by expelling Jesuits in 1872. Then he passed the may laws to destroy catholic influence.
At the end of the 1800’s Germany became a major industrial power.
Bismarck banned all socialist movements because he thought that any socialist party was out to change the government. This didn’t last long however.
The ideas of divine right of kings clashed so Bismarck threatened to resign and William II accepted .
In 1873, Otto Von Bismarck created the Three Emperor’s League, uniting Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. When this failed, Bismarck created the Triple Alliance in 1882, which included Italy, Germany, and Austria
The Allied Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the United States. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire) Entered war in 1914 ( Many other countries joined later in the war)
Central Powers in olive green
Dedicated groups of Italians and Germans worked to unify their territories into one nation in the 1800s.
Nationalism became one of the most powerful forces at working Europe during the 1800s
Nationalism-The desire for national independents that inspires other beings.
The Schlieffen plan was a war plan, devised by the German army's chief of staff, Count Alfred von Schlieffen, which was put into effect by Germany in the First World War. It was designed to cope with the anticipated need for Germany to have to fight a war on two fronts, against France in the West and Russia in the East. The goal was to use the great bulk of Germany's armed forces against France in the early stages of the war, in the hope of defeating it quickly, and allowing German forces to then redeploy to meet the threat from the East. German strategists believed that the large but inefficient Russian army would be slow to mobilize, giving them a month or two in which to knock France out of the war before they would be forced to deal with the expected Russian attack
27 nations gathered in Paris for the Paris peace conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four)
16. Treaty of Versailles Participants
There was heavy warfare, it was France and the UK against Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties.
agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928
it failed to halt aggression in the 1930s
was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War
Britain's portrayal of Germany
# 28- War of Attrition
# 33- The difference between Marxism and Russian Communism
The Treaty of Versailles limited Germany’s power.
Limited the arms of Germany.
Germany lost all of her colonies.
Reparations were to be paid by Germany to all the Allies for property damage and the cost of the Allies fighting the war.
A formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia on A-H, Germany on Russia, France on Germany, England on Germany
Because Russia, Britain and France had an alliance called the Triple Entente. When Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia following the assassination of the heir-apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) Russia joined in to help Serbia per a separate agreement. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, then declared war on Russia and France and began to move troops through the neutral sovereign state of Belgium to attack France. In order to protect France from being captured, and in order to fulfill the obligations of its alliance, Britain entered the War.
Advancements in technology changed warfare forever.
Submarines and airplanes moved combat from not only land but also to water and the air.
Newer weapons were used such as poisonous gas, machine guns etc. This created more fear.
Wars that don’t involve territorial defense should be avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration
Destroyer USS Shaw exploded after her forward magazine was detonated during the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Fascism is an aggressive, radical form of nationalism with an emphasis on the state rather than the individual.
Mussolini was the dictator of Italy and lead them into fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order.
53. Beginning of the Great Depression
The Great Depression was triggered by a sudden, total collapse in the stock market. (Massive bank failures too)
The stock market crash on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday.
The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries (1941 for U.S). It was the largest and most important economic depression in the 20th century.
Kim ll Sung
Meeting in Weimar, the assembly drafted a constitution for Germany establishing a democratic republic.
Lasted from 1919-1933.
An assembly in the League of Nations
A political philosophy based on nationalism and an all powerful state. Doing whatever it takes in order to benefit your country. (Nationalism on Steroids)
32nd president of the united states, was president through the great depression. Was president through all of world war 2. Worked with Winston Churchill to help end world war 2
argued that Britain and France should form of a military alliance with the Soviet Union.
Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union following Lenin’s death in 1924. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization.Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule. This launched the long period of antagonism known as the Cold War.
Number 73- Harry S. Truman
The 33rd President of the U.S.
Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt.
During World War I, he served as an artillery officer; making him the only president to have seen combat in World War I.
Truman's presidency was also eventful in:
The end of World War II and his decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan
The founding of the United Nations
The Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe
The Truman Doctrine to contain Communism
The beginning of the Cold War
The creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Korean War
The largest concentration camp during World War II. Jews were put to work, tortured and killed.
On Monday, August 6, 1945 at 8:15 AM, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the crew of the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the year, injury and radiation brought total casualties to 90,000-140,000. Approximately 69% of the city's buildings were completely destroyed, and 6.6% severely damaged. Hiroshima was a major weapon stock hold.
Blitzkrieg (lightning war) lived up to its name to be extremely fast war to help Germany conquer lands.
They caught the enemy by surprise.
Blitzkrieg was how the Nazi's conquered Poland.
The American strategy in the Pacific during World War II. It involved a leapfrogging movement of American forces from one strategic island to the next until American forces were in control of the Pacific and prepared to invade Japan.
Stalin used this strategy which eventually defeated Hitler.
The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II, primarily by the United States, to develop the first atomic bomb. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly $2 billion USD
When congress failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, it also rejected American membership in the League.
With out the U.S., the League was significantly weakened.
87. Last German Offensive
The Battle of the Bulge or The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains region of Belgium. Germany’s planned goal for these operations was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp, Belgium, and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis Powers’ favor.
Pictures of the ICBM
A cold war is a war that is fought politically by diplomacy with no actual shot being fired while a hot war is a war where military action is used. The Cold War takes its name because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. made threatening moves, and created conflict in lesser countries, but never actually came into physical conflict themselves.
The red portion is the countries contained in the iron curtain.
The U.N. was created after world war 2 in an attempt to stop world conflicts. It is centered in Manhattan in international territory. Made up of the General assembly and the Security Council.
A United States policy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to limit the spread of Communism
De-Stalinization refers to the process of eliminating the cult of personality and Stalinist political system created by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. At a speech On the Personality Cult and its Consequences to the closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress of the CPSU, February 25, 1956, Khrushchev shocked his listeners by denouncing Stalin's dictatorial rule and cult of personality. Khrushchev understood that many Soviet citizens wanted a relaxation of government controls and improved standard of living. Also, he wanted increased trade to boost USSR’s economy.
Strategic Arm Limitation Talks (SALT) treaty.
The Brezhnev –Nixon summit led to the signing of SALT.
Under the treaty, both sides afreed to limit the number of nuclear warheads and missiles each country could maintain.
SALT did not reduce the number of weapons or end the arms race; it did slow it significantly.
112. Resolution to the Missile Crisis
The missile crisis was generally referred to the closest moment to nuclear war in the cold war. After much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in Turkey on the border of the Soviet Union in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba. The compromise was a particularly sharp embarrassment for Khrushchev and the Soviet Union because the withdrawal of U.S. missiles from Turkey was not made public .
Number 113- Josip Broz Tito
Founded Titoism - an adaptation of Communism
He was Secretary-General (later President) of the Communist Party (League of Communists) of Yugoslavia
Lead the WWII Yugoslav resistance movement, the Yugoslav Partisans
After the war, he was the Prime Minister and later President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
He was one of the main founders and promoters of the Non-Aligned Movement
Government crackdown on Natural Rights such as freedom of speech and assembly
It gave the U.S. reason to invade vietnam and attempt to stop the spread of communism in Asia.
In 1945 Germany had been divided into four zones controlled by great Britain, France, the united states and the soviet union. The zones of the western allies included the western part of Germany, while the soviet zone encompassed eastern Germany. The western soviets could not reach agreement on a final peace treaty for germany
B-29 raids devastating Okinawa, Japan
Mao Zedong led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Critics blame many of Mao's socio-political programs, such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, for causing severe damage to the culture, society, economy, and foreign relations of China, as well as a probable death toll in the tens of millions. His adoption of Marxism ideals applied to a largely agricultural society ultimately failed.
Number 128- The Great Leap Forward
It was an economic and social plan created by Mao Zedong.
Used from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform China from a primarily agrarian economy by peasant farmers into a modern communist society through the process of agriculture and industrialization.
It ended in catastrophe as it triggered a widespread famine that resulted in millions of deaths.
Follows Mao as leader of China and institutes the “Four Modernizations” to modernize the economy of China.
North Vietnam was communist and South Vietnam was in the mist of becoming communist.
Vietnam was cut by the 17th parallel.
The U.S. was afraid the domino effect of communism would effect South Vietnam, and other countries around Vietnam.
Eventually, the U.S. pulled out, and South Vietnam fell to Communism.
In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese. US troops stayed in Korea until 1946. The country was split in half at the 38th parallel: North Korea was communist while South Korea was capitalist. The north was led by Kim il Sung, backed by the USSR, and the south, led by Syngman Rhee, was backed by the US. The conflict, in 1950, arose from the attempts of the two Korean powers to re-unify Korea under their own respective governments.
A reform-minded leader, he came to power in the soviet union. He created a policy of glasnost and perestroika.
Glasnost and Perestroika coupled with a lack of Brezhnev Doctrine