Réèpúblikk Naìjírìà Republik Nijeriya جمهورية نيجيريا Republic nde Naigeria Republik Federaal bu Niiseriya Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria’s Federal Experience . Selected issues. Outline. Introductory remarks Selected issues
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Réèpúblikk NaìjírìàRepublik Nijeriyaجمهورية نيجيرياRepublic nde NaigeriaRepublik Federaal bu Niiseriya Federal Republic of Nigeria
Nigeria’s Federal Experience
An experiment in fragmentation
The impact of military rule
the failure of the Nigerian constitution at independence in 1960 to recognize the strong desires of the minorities and other communities for self-determination affected the balance of power at the centre, and that this deep-seated imbalance “plagued” the first Republic throughout its life’ (FMG 1967)
The distinctive desire of the people of Nigeria to promote national unity, foster national loyalty and give every citizen of Nigeria a sense of belonging to the nation.“
The composition of the Government of the federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner as to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty, thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that Government or in any of its agencies.
The composition of the Government of a State, a local government council, or any of the agencies of such government or council, and the conduct of the affairs of the government or council or such agencies shall be carried out in such manner as to recognize the diversity of peoples within its area of authority and the need to promote a sense of belonging and loyalty among all the peoples of the Federation.'
Vested the Federal state with “the entire ownership of all oil and gas within any land in Nigeria, as well as under its territorial waters and continental shelf”
Timeline: Nigeria (1)
1809 Single Islamic state - Sokoto caliphate - is founded in north.
1861-1914 Britain consolidates its hold over what it calls the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria, governs by "indirect rule" through local leaders.
1922 Part of former German colony Kamerun is added to Nigeria under League of Nations mandate.
1954Adoption of a federal constitution and the establishment of one central government and three
regional governments. The central government was under a British governor-general, while
each regional government had a Nigerian premier and a British governor
1957Eastern and Western regions become self-governing; the premier of each region assumed full
executive powers. A Nigerian, AbubakarTafawaBalewa, is appointed to head the national government; a British governor-general is maintained as head of state.
1959Northern region becomes self-governing
1960 Independence. A Nigerian, NnamdiAzikiwe, becomes governor-general.
1962-63 Controversial census fuels regional and ethnic tensions. The census is aborted in 1962. Repeat of censusexercise in 1963; compromise agreement over controversialcensus figures. Adoption
of a republican (federal) constitution: the British Queen ceases to be the formal head of state, and Azikiwe continued to serve as head of state with the new title, president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. A new region, the Mid-West Region, is created, making Nigeria a federation of four regional governments.
1966January - Balewa killed in coup. Major-General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi heads up military administration. In July, Ironsi is overthrown and Yakubu Gowon becomes head of the FederalMilitaryGovernment.
Timeline: Nigeria (2)
1967 Establishment of a twelve-state federal structure with the Northern Region reconstituted into
six states and the three southern regions also into six states. Three eastern states secede as the Republic of Biafra, sparking bloody civil war.
1970Biafran leaders surrender, former Biafran regions reintegrated into country.
1973Another controversial census exercise; the provisional results announced in 1974 were canceled in 1975.
1975Gowon overthrown, flees to Britain, replaced by Brigadier Murtala Ramat Mohammed.
1976Mohammed assassinated in failed coup attempt. Replaced by his deputy, Lieutenant-General OlusegunObasanjo, who helps introduce American-style presidential constitution. Local governments are formallyestablished as a third tier of government. Local government elections are held in December. Abuja is designated the new Federal Capital Territory.
1978Adoption of a new presidential (federal) constitution, to become operational in 1979, and
commonly referred to as the 1979 Constitution.
1979 Installation of civilian governments at the federal and state levels, following competitive
party elections involving five parties: the Great Nigeria People's Party; the Nigeria People's
Party; the National Party of Nigeria; the People's Redemption Party; and the Unity Party. Elections bring AlhajiShehuShagari to power.
1983Competitive party elections at the state and federal levels. Shagari is reelected president amid accusations of irregularities.
1983 December - Major-General Muhammad Buhari seizes power in bloodless coup.
1985 Ibrahim Babangida seizes power in bloodless coup, curtails political activity, and is the first military leader to assume the title of President.
1986Controversy over Nigeria's membership in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC).
Timeline: Nigeria (3)
1987Creation of two new states, one in the North and the other in the South.
1989Creation of 149 additional local governments, bringing the total to 453.
1990Abortive coup d'état. Coup-makers seek to play up ethnoreligious and regional differences
by purporting to temporarily excise five Muslim Northem states from the federation.
1991Creation of nine new states, four in the South, two in the Middle-Belt, and three in the far
North. 136 new local governments are also created. Nigeria becomes a thirty-state federation with 589 local governments.
1993 June - Military annuls elections; preliminary results show victory by Chief MoshoodAbiola.
1993 August - Power transferred to Interim National Government.
1993 November - General SaniAbachaseizes power, suppresses opposition.
1994Abiola arrested after proclaiming himself president.
1998Abachadies, succeeded by Major-General AbdulsalamiAbubakar. Chief Abiola dies in custody a month later.
1999 Parliamentary and presidential elections. OlusegunObasanjo sworn in as president.
2000 Adoption of Islamic, or Sharia, law by several northern states. Tension over the issue results in hundreds of deaths in clashes between Christians and Muslims.
2001Tribal war in Benue state, in eastern-central Nigeria, displaces thousands of people.
2002 February - Some 100 people are killed in Lagos in clashes between Hausas from mainly-Islamic north and ethnic Yorubas from predominantly-Christian southwest. City's governor suggests retired army officials stoked violence in attempt to restore military rule.
2002 November - More than 200 people die in four days of rioting stoked by Muslim fury over the planned Miss World beauty pageant in Kaduna in December.
Timeline: Nigeria (4)
2003 12 April - First legislative elections since end of military rule in 1999. Polling marked by delays, allegations of ballot-rigging. President Obasanjo's People's Democratic Party wins parliamentary majority.
2003 19 April - First civilian-run presidential elections since end of military rule. Olusegun Obasanjo elected for second term with more than 60% of vote. Opposition parties reject result. EU poll observers cite "serious irregularities".
2003 August - Inter-communal violence in the Niger Delta town of Warri kills about 100, injures 1,000.
2004 May - State of emergency is declared in the central Plateau State after more than 200 Muslims are killed in Yelwa in attacks by Christian militia; revenge attacks are launched by Muslim youths in Kano.
2004 August-September - Deadly clashes between gangs in oil city of Port Harcourt prompts strong crackdown by troops. Rights group Amnesty International cites death toll of 500.
2005 July - Paris Club of rich lenders agrees to write off two-thirds of Nigeria's $30bn foreign debt.
2006 January onwards - Militants in the Niger Delta attack pipelines and other oil facilities and kidnap foreign oil workers. The rebels demand more control over the region's oil wealth.
2006 February - More than 100 people are killed when religious violence flares in mainly-Muslim towns in the north and in the southern city of Onitsha.
2006 April - Helped by record oil prices, Nigeria becomes the first African nation to pay off its debt to the Paris Club of rich lenders.
2006 May - The Senate rejects proposed changes to the constitution which would have allowed President Obasanjo to stand for a third term in 2007.
2007 April - Umaru Yar'Adua of the ruling People's Democratic Party is proclaimed winner of the presidential election.