Lecture 3 phases of the moon
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Lecture 3 Phases of the Moon. Moon. Phases of the Moon. The Moon orbits the Earth ~ every month. The Moon appears to have different phases because we see more or less of the lighted side of the Moon depending on where it is with respect to the Sun. First Quarter. Waxing Gibbous. Waxing

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Lecture 3 Phases of the Moon

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Lecture 3 phases of the moon l.jpg
Lecture 3Phases of the Moon



Phases of the moon l.jpg
Phases of the Moon

  • The Moon orbits the Earth ~ every month.

  • The Moon appears to have different phases because we see more or less of the lighted side of the Moon depending on where it is with respect to the Sun.


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First Quarter

Waxing

Gibbous

Waxing

Crescent

Full Moon

New Moon

Waning

Gibbous

Waning

Crescent

Last Quarter

Phases of the Moon



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Rotation of the Moon

  • We only see one side of the moon

  • Moon rotates at the same rate as it orbits the Earth

  • When spin and orbital periods are correlated = synchronous orbit




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Orbit of the Moon – Lunar Month

  • Sidereal Month = amount of time for the moon to come to same spot with respect to the celestial sphere. (27.3 days)

  • Solar Month = amount of time for the moon to come to same position with respect to the sun (29.5 days)

    • One Lunar phase cycle



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Umbra

Sun

E

Penumbra

Eclipses

  • Umbra = darkest shadow of and object.

    • Sun completely blocked in umbra

  • Penumbra = lighter shadow

    • Sun only partially blocked


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Eclipses

  • Solar eclipse = when the Earth passes through the shadow of the moon

  • Lunar eclipse = when the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth


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Umbra

View from the Earth

Sun

E

Penumbra

Total Solar Eclipse

  • Sun completely covered by the moon -- seen only in the umbra


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Umbra

View from the Earth

Sun

E

Penumbra

Partial Solar Eclipse

  • Partial Eclipse: Part of Sun is blocked by the Moon -- only seen in penumbra


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Umbra

Sun

E

Penumbra

Umbra does not touch the Earth

View from the Earth

Annular Solar Eclipse

  • Moon too far from Earth to cover Sun completely -- umbra does not reach the Earth




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Umbra

Total Eclipse

Sun

E

View from Earth

Penumbra

Total Lunar Eclipse

  • Moon pases through umbra of the Earth.


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Penumbral Eclipse

View from Earth

Penumbral Eclipse

  • Moon only passes through penumbra.

Umbra

Total Eclipse

Sun

E

Penumbra


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Partial Eclipse

Umbra

Total Eclipse

Sun

E

Penumbral Eclipse

Penumbra

View from Earth

Partial Lunar Eclipse

  • Moon partially passes through umbra.



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Why are there few eclipses?

  • Orbit of moon is tilted with respect to Earth’s orbital plane by 5°

  • Line of Nodes = position where moon and earth’s orbital planes intersect


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Line of Nodes

  • When the moon is on the line of nodes it is crossing the Earth’s orbital plane

  • At other times moon is slightly above or below the Earth’s orbital plane

  • If moon crosses the line of nodes near a new or full phase an eclipse will occur



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