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Negotiation. INTER-AMERICAN DEFENSE COLLEGE USIP -OAS WASHINGTON, DC MAY 20, 2008. KEY POINTS. WHAT IS NEGOTIATION? WHY NEGOTIATE? PRINCIPLES OF NEGOTIATION. What is negotiation?. REMEMBER…. Negotiation is not giving in or giving up Negotiation is a process, not an outcome

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Negotiation

INTER-AMERICAN DEFENSE COLLEGE

USIP -OAS

WASHINGTON, DC

MAY 20, 2008


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KEY POINTS

  • WHAT IS NEGOTIATION?

  • WHY NEGOTIATE?

  • PRINCIPLES OF NEGOTIATION



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REMEMBER…

  • Negotiation is not giving in or giving up

  • Negotiation is a process, not an outcome

  • Negotiation is another way to achieve your objective


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Draft GuidelinesUN Rules of Engagementalternatives to the use of force.Whenever the operational situation permits, every reasonable effort must be made to resolve a potential hostile confrontation or to prevent the commission of a crime or to prevent the escape of someone who has been apprehended by means other than the use of force (e.g. through negotiations or assistance from local authorities).


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War

Victory

Surprise

Combat

“Peace”

Both sides achieve some goals

Visibility

Negotiation

Why do you need it?


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Whomight you negotiate with?



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Purposes of Negotiation

  • Changing behaviour = end/limit violence, stabilize situation

  • Avoiding use of force = since parties often comply only as long as force is applied

  • Using communication = achieve cooperation voluntarily

  • Achieving goal = without putting your power to the test and at least cost


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Key Principles of Negotiation

  • Preparation

  • Relationships

  • Positions and interests

  • Best alternative to a negotiated outcome (BATNA)

  • Leverage


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Preparation

:

  • Pre-negotiate, when you can

  • Know history, culture and conflict

  • Use, build on experience of others

  • Collect information

  • Continue preparing, even while you are negotiating


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Focus on interests…rather than positions

  • Positions

    • What people say they want

    • Concrete demands on specific issues

  • Interests

    • What people need

    • Concerns and aspirations underlying positions

  • Focus on positions can lead to deadlock

  • Focus on interests can help you achieve solutions to problems which are not what the other side first demanded


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BATNA

YOUR BEST ALTERNATIVE TO A NEGOTIATED AGREEMENT


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Do you have leverage?

LEVERAGE IS ADVANTAGE

  • MILITARY

  • ECONOMIC

  • INFORMATION

  • OTHER


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Structure Three Stages of Negotiations

  • Stage 1: Introduction (start)

  • Stage 2: Substance (discussion)

  • Stage 3: Conclusion (end)


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Introduction (The Start)

Opening and welcome

  • Follow custom and protocol

  • Introductions

  • Agree on rules

  • Agree on what you are going to discuss (agenda)


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The Discussion Opening Statements

  • Let the others start

  • Give your view, if you think necessary

  • If you/your organization is criticized, do not take it personally

  • Identify issues parties want to discuss (agenda)


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Seek to understand before you try to persuade

  • Don’t think only about justifying your demands

  • Understand the other side’s point of view

    • ask questions

    • restate and clarify

    • empathize

  • Present your ideas in a way which can

    appeal to them

    • build on their proposals

    • ask for their thoughts

    • show the benefits to them


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WAYS TO GET WHAT YOU WANT

  • Reaching agreement is not only about identifying commonalities (common interests)

  • Sometimes the key is differences between what parties need and value

  • Take advantage of different priorities

  • Sometimes you can mix your common interests and your different interests to come up with a package deal.


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The Discussion Substance

  • Each side make statement

  • Consider use of breaks

  • Reduce number of options

  • Agreement

  • Consider implementation & monitoring


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The DiscussionConclusion (The End)

  • Summarize & next steps

  • Adoption/signing of agreement

  • Next meeting



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Key Points to Remember negotiate?

  • Preparation

  • Relationships

  • Positions and Interests

  • BATNA

  • Leverage


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