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Instructions. Please choose your own code number. Use the following combination: Your birth month – (begin with a 0 for any month from 1 to 9) Your middle initial Your street or house number For example: 04 H 286 or 12 L 4985. Instructions. This is your code number.

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Instructions

Please choose your own code number. Use the following combination:

  • Your birth month – (begin with a 0 for any month from 1 to 9)

  • Your middle initial

  • Your street or house number

  • For example: 04 H 286 or 12 L 4985


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Instructions

  • This is your code number.

  • Write your same code number on the top right corner of the first page of the questionnaire.

  • Thank you for your help in answering the questions.


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Cancer Education and Prevention

Educators: College Health Mentors from the Family Living and Women’s Health Courses


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1. Georgette Cintron

2. Gregory Epstein

3. Gloria Osabu

4. Candy Proano

5. Nicole Romer

6. Bryan Skokandich

7. Maria Zodiaco

8. RabiaAhmad

9. Tonya Johnson

10. Yamara Salazar

11. Retty George

12. Jennifer Amaya

13. Dawn Holmes

College Health Mentors


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College Mentor Contribution

  • The mentors researched the information on prostate, cervical, testicular, and breast cancers.

  • They developed materials, photos, and design of this presentation.

  • They presented this cancer information in their health classes and educated other college students in the process.


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Cancer

  • Question: How many people in this class know of someone who has cancer?


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Cancer

  • Cancer is a group of diseases in which body cells change and grow out of control.

  • Most types of cancer cells form a lump or mass called a tumor, and are named for the part of the body where the tumor starts.


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Understanding Cancer

  • Cancers begin as normal cells.

  • Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.

  • Sometimes, this orderly process goes wrong: New cells are formed that the body does not need; and do not die when they should.

  • These extra cells can form a tumor.


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Breast Cancer

  • Breast cancer begins in the breast tissue.

  • Most breast abnormalities are benign (not cancerous or capable of spreading)

  • Some breast cancers are called “in situ” (not capable of spreading beyond the area)

  • Other cancers are malignant (cancerous) and spread beyond the breast: Malignant tumors often must be removed.

  • Breast cancer is the most common type of nonskin cancer in women.


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Preventing Breast Cancer

  • Minimize alcohol

  • Avoid obesity and weight gain

  • Increase physical fitness

  • Mammogram screening starting at age 40

  • Monthly breast self-exam: The best time is after menstruation

  • Talk to a doctor about how to conduct a breast self exam.


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What is Prostate Cancer?

  • An abnormal growth of cells in a man’s prostate gland

  • Men ages 55-65 are most likely to develop prostate cancer

  • Only skin cancer is more common in men: Out of every three men diagnosed with cancer each year, one is diagnosed with prostate cancer.


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Prostate Cancer

  • Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin type of cancer in men.

  • When prostate cancer spreads, it is often found in nearby lymph nodes: If cancer reaches these nodes, it may also have spread to other lymph nodes, to bones, or to other organs.


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Causes of Prostate Cancer

  • Experts are unsure of the causes of prostate cancer: Researchers do know the following:

    Family history – Father, brother, grandfather with prostate cancer

    Race – More commonly found in African-American men

    Diet – Foods high in fats

    Age – Prostate cancer is most common in men 55-65 years of age


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Prostate Cancer Symptoms

  • Difficulty in starting a urine steam

  • Weaker-than-normal urine stream

  • Inability to urinate at all

  • Frequent need to urinate

  • Difficulty in achieving an erection

  • Blood in the urine or semen

  • Frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs



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Testicular Cancer

  • Testicular cancer is most common in white men, especially men of Scandinavian descent.

  • The rate of testicular cancer has more than doubled among white men in the past 40 years, but only recently began to increase among black men: The reason for racial differences in testicular cancer is unknown.


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Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

  • A painless lump or swelling in a testicle

  • An enlargement of a testicle or change in the way it feels

  • A dull ache in the lower abdomen, back, or groin

  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum

  • A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum

  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum


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Testicular Cancer

  • Testicular cancer occurs most often in men between the ages of 20 and 35.

  • Cancer of the testicles is highly treatable when caught early.


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What is Cervical Cancer

  • Cervical cancer is caused by a change in the cells on the surface of the cervix (the lower part of the womb which connects the uterus to the vagina or birth canal).


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What is Cervical Cancer?

  • Cervical cancer cells appear as lesions on the cervical wall: They later become cancerous.

  • Cervical cancer often shows no symptoms until it is severe.



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Human Papillomaviruses and Cervical Cancer

  • There are more than 100 types of Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV).

  • Many HPVs cause warts (papillomas), which are benign tumors.

  • HPVs that cause common warts on hands and feet are different from those that cause growths in the throat or genital area.

  • Carcinogenic or “high-risk" types of HPV are associated with cancers.



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Human Papillomavirus

  • 30 types of HPV can be passed from person-to-person through sexual contact.

  • HPVs are usually sexually transmitted: Doctors cannot say for certain when infection occurred.

  • Most HPV infections occur without any symptoms and go away without treatment over the course of a few years.

  • HPV is the common sexually transmitted disease caused by a virus in the US.


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Risk Factors for HPV

  • Having many sexual partners is a risk factor for HPV infection.

  • Infection by high-risk HPV increases the chance that mild abnormalities will progress to severe abnormalities or cervical cancer.

  • Only a small percentage of women with abnormal cell changes caused by high-risk HPV develop cervical cancer if the abnormal cells were not removed.

  • Smoking may increase the risk of cervical cancer in women with HPV infection.


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Prevention

  • The surest way to eliminate risk for genitalHPVinfection is to not have anygenital contact with another individual.

  • For those who choose to be sexually active, a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner is the best strategy to prevent HPV infection.

  • It is difficult to determine whether a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected.


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HPV and Cervical Prevention

  • A Pap test is used to detect abnormal cells in the cervix.

  • A Pap test involves the collection of cells from the cervix for examination under the microscope.

  • There is no medical cure for HPV: Antibiotics can not cure HPV.


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HPV Prevention

  • HPV infection occurs in male and female genital areas that are “protected” by a condom, as well as in areas that are not covered by a condom.

  • Condom use reduces the risk of cervical cancer.

  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a vaccine that protects against the HPVs that cause 70% of all cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts.

  • Ask a health practitioner about the HPV vaccine.


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Treatment of HPV

  • There is no medical cure for HPV infection, but lesions and warts can be treated.

  • Methods commonly used to treat HPV lesions include freezing of infected tissue, LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure, and conventional surgery.

  • Similar treatments may be used for external genital warts.

  • Some drugs are used on external genital warts.


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Cancer Prevention

  • Eat a variety of healthful foods with an emphasis on plant sources.

  • Adopt a physically active lifestyle.

  • Maintain a healthful weight throughout life.

  • Tell your family and friends: If they drink alcohol to limit consumption.


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