inside the music of the spheres
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Inside the music of the spheres

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 39

Inside the music of the spheres - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 391 Views
  • Uploaded on

Inside the music of the spheres. Sassone June 23, 2009. Enormous disclaimer. Overview. The Galilean revolution The Harmony of the Spheres The Quadrivium: Music, astronomy, mathematics, geometry Music without sound? A bridge between two worlds: Johannes Kepler

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Inside the music of the spheres' - Gideon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
enormous disclaimer
Enormous disclaimer

Music of the spheres

overview
Overview
  • The Galilean revolution
  • The Harmony of the Spheres
  • The Quadrivium: Music, astronomy, mathematics, geometry
  • Music without sound?
  • A bridge between two worlds: Johannes Kepler
  • Harmony of the spheres after Galileo and Newton
  • Digressions at various points:
    • problems of tuning an instrument
    • astronomical aspects of the bicycle
  • Common approach in music and science

Music of the spheres

the galilean revolution 1
The Galilean revolution (1)
  • Copernicus’ heliocentric model
  • New accurate measurements by Tycho Brahe
  • Kepler’s first two laws
  • Invention of the telescope

Music of the spheres

slide5

Invention of the telescope

  • September 25, 1608: the lensmaker Hans Lippershey from

Middelburg (the Netherlands) applies for patent for an

instrument “om verre te zien” (to look into the distance).

  • October 7, 1608: successful demonstration for the princes of

Orange: Lippershey receives an order for 6 instruments, for 1000

guilders each!.

  • within two weeks two other lensmakers (including Lippershey’s

neighbour!) apply for similar patents; as a result, patent is not

granted

  • a letter from 1634 mentions an earlier telescope from 1604, based

on an even earlier one from 1590

Music of the spheres

the galilean revolution 2
The Galilean revolution (2)
  • Copernicus’ heliocentric model
  • New accurate measurements by Tycho Brahe
  • Kepler’s first two laws
  • Invention of the telescope
  • Galileo’s discoveries
  • Kepler’s third law
  • Galileo’s trial

Music of the spheres

galileo galilei 1564 1642
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)
  • Born in a musical family: his father Vincenzo Galileo was a lutenist, composer, music theorist (author of “Dialogus” on two musical systems), and carried out acoustic experiments
  • Heard of Lippershey’s invention

and reconstructed it

  • First discoveries in 1609
  • Principal publication in 1632 (“Dialogus”

on two world systems), trial in 1633

  • Rehabilitation in 1980 (!)

Music of the spheres

the galilean revolution 3
The Galilean revolution (3)
  • Copernicus’ heliocentric model
  • New accurate measurements by Tycho Brahe
  • Kepler’s first two laws
  • Invention of the telescope
  • Galileo’s discoveries
  • Kepler’s third law
  • Galileo’s trial
  • Newton’s gravitational model of the solar system

This revolution overthrows a system that was in essence in place

for 2500 years. We can hardly imagine the impact on 17th century man.

Music of the spheres

foundation of the universe
Foundation of the universe
  • central to antique cosmology was the idea of

harmony as a foundation of the universe

  • this universal harmony was present everywhere:

in mathematics, astronomy, music…

  • therefore, the laws of music, of astronomy and of mathematics were closely related
  • in essence, this principle was the foundation of cosmology until the Galilean revolution

Music of the spheres

pythagoras 569 475 bc
Pythagoras (569 – 475 BC)
  • principle that complex phenomena must reduce to simple ones when properly explained
  • relation between frequencies and musical intervals
  • the distances between planets correspond to musical tones

Music of the spheres

pythagoras and the science of music
Pythagoras and the science of music

f0x 1 Prime

f0x9/8 Second e.g., God save the Queen

f0x5/4 Third e.g., Beethoven 5th

f0x4/3 Fourth e.g., Dutch, French anthem

f0x3/2 Fifth e.g., Blackbird (Beatles)

f0x5/3 Sixth

f0x15/8 Seventh

f0x2 Octave

Music of the spheres

now assign note names
Now assign note names

Name Interval

C 1/1 Start

D 9/8 Second

E 5/4 Third

F 4/3 Fourth

Name Interval

G 3/2 Fifth

A 5/3 Sixth

B 15/8 Seventh

C 2/1 Octave

Music of the spheres

map onto keys
Map onto Keys

C D E F G A B C

Music of the spheres

taking the fifth

This one doesn\'t work!

Taking the Fifth

Name Interval

C 1/1 Start

D 9/8 Second

E 5/4 Third

F 4/3 Fourth

Name Interval

G 3/2 Fifth

A 5/3 Sixth

B 15/8 Seventh

C 2/1 Octave

Corresponding notes in each row are perfect Fifths (C-G, D-A, E-B, F-C), and should be separated by a ratio of 3/2

Music of the spheres

pythagorean tuning

All whole step intervals are equal at 9/8

Pythagorean tuning

Name Interval

C 1/1 Start

D 9/8 Second

E 81/64 Third

F 4/3 Fourth

Name Interval

G 3/2 Fifth

A 27/16Sixth

B 243/128Seventh

C 2/1 Octave

All half step intervals are equal at 256/243

Thirds are too wide at 81/64  5/4!

Music of the spheres

johannes kepler 1571 1630
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

Music of the spheres

plato 427 347 bc
Plato (427 – 347 BC)
  • In his Politeia Plato tells the Myth of Er
  • First written account of

Harmony of the Spheres

  • A later version is given

by Cicero in his

Somnium Scipionis

Music of the spheres

later development
Later development
  • many different systems were used to assign tones to planetary distances – no standard model
  • different opinions on whether the Music of the Spheres could actually be heard
  • influence of Christian doctrine
  • macrocosmos – microcosmos correspondence

Music of the spheres

boethius ca 480 526
Boethius (ca. 480 - 526)

Trivium:

  • logic
  • grammar
  • rhetoric

Quadrivium:

  • mathematics
  • music
  • geometry
  • astronomy

Music of the spheres

music according to boethius
Music according to Boethius
  • musica mundana
    • harmony of the spheres
    • harmony of the elements
    • harmony of the seasons
  • musica humana
    • harmony of soul and body
    • harmony of the parts of the soul
    • harmony of the parts of the body
  • musica in instrumentis constituta
    • harmony of string instruments
    • harmony of wind instruments
    • harmony of percussion instruments
  • The making/performing of music is by far the least important of these! But this will now begin to gain in importance.

Music of the spheres

influence of musical advances and christian doctrine
Influence of musical advances and Christian doctrine
  • from the 11th century onwards, there is an enormous development in the composition of music
    • musical notation
    • advances in music theory (Guido of Arezzo)
    • early polyphony
  • Christian doctrine had great influence on the development of sacred music
    • sacred music was in the first place a reflection of the perfection of heaven and of the creator
    • the 9 spheres of heaven became the homes of 9 different kinds of angels
    • theories of the music of angels developed

Music of the spheres

the choirs of the angels
The choirs of the angels
  • Hildegard von Bingen (1098 – 1179):

O vos angeli

Music of the spheres

slide23

Range more than

2.5 octaves!

Unique in music

history and

not (humanly)

singable

Full vocal range

of angel choirs

according to

contemporary

theories

Music of the spheres

kepler s mysterium cosmographicum 1596
Kepler’s Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596)

relating the sizes of the planetary orbits via the five Platonic solids.

Music of the spheres

how well does this work
How well does this work?

actual model

  • Saturn aphelion 9.727 --> 10.588 => +9%
  • Jupiter 5.492 --> 5.403 => -2%
  • Mars 1.648 --> 1.639 => -1%
  • Earth 1.042 --> 1.102 => 0%
  • Venus 0.721 --> 0.714 => -1%
  • Mercury 0.481 --> 0.502 => +4%

Music of the spheres

kepler s music of the spheres
Kepler’s Music of the Spheres
  • In his Harmonices Mundi Libri V Kepler assigns tones to the planets according to their orbital velocities
  • Since these are variable, the planets now have melodies which sound together in cosmic counterpoint

Music of the spheres

musical example given by kepler
Musical example given by Kepler
  • Earth has melody mi – fa (meaning miseria et fames)
  • This is the characteristic interval of the Phrygian church mode
  • As an example he quotes a motet by Roland de Lassus, whom he knew personally: In me transierunt irae tuae

Music of the spheres

what is the phrygian mode

semitone

semitone

semitone

semitone

semitone

semitone

What is the Phrygian mode?

To create a mode, simply start a major scale on a different pitch.

ut re mi fa sol la si ut

C Major Scale (Ionian Mode)

C Major Scale starting on D (Dorian Mode)

mi fa

C Major Scale starting on E (Phrygian Mode)

hexachord

Music of the spheres

phrygian mode today
Phrygian mode today
  • Jefferson Airplane: White Rabbit
  • Björk: Hunter
  • Theme music from the TV-series Doctor Who
  • Megadeth: Symphony of Destruction
  • Iron Maiden: Remember Tomorrow
  • Pink Floyd: Matilda Mother

and: Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun

  • Robert Plant: Calling to You
  • Gordon Duncan: The Belly Dancer
  • Theme from the movie Predator
  • Jamiroquai: Deeper Underground
  • The Doors: Not to touch the Earth
  • Britney Spears: If U Seek Amy

Music of the spheres

modal music appears at unexpected places
Modal music appears at unexpected places
  • The above tune is in the Dorian church mode
  • Quiz question: which Beatles song is this?

Music of the spheres

kepler s heavenly motet
Kepler’s heavenly motet

Music of the spheres

after kepler galileo newton
After Kepler, Galileo & Newton
  • Universal harmony as underlying principle removed
  • End of the Harmony of the Spheres
  • Founding principle of astrology removed
  • Harmony of the Spheres occasionally returns

as a poetic theme or esoteric idea

  • Examples:
    • Mozart: Il Sogno di Scipione
    • Haydn: Die Schöpfung
    • Mahler: 8th Symphony

Music of the spheres

deutsche bl serphilharmonie
Deutsche Bläserphilharmonie

Music of the spheres

music of the spheres www spectrummuse com
“Music of the Spheres” www.spectrummuse.com

“The Science of Harmonic Energy and Spirit

unification of the harmonic languages of color, music, numbers and waves”, etc. etc….

Music of the spheres

amazing results
Amazing results!

Mass of Proton Mass of Electron

  • P2 * ( L B )1/2 = 1823 =
  • P4 * W2 = 137.0 = Fine Structure Constant
  • P-5 * ( L / WB )1/3 = 6.67*10-8 = Gravitational Constant
  • P1/2* B1/3/ L = 1.496 = Distance to Sun (108 km)
  • W * P2 * L1/3 * B5 = 2.999*105 ~ Speed of Light (km/s)

2.998 measured(so measurements probably wrong)

Music of the spheres

slide38

Modern musical analogies

WMAP CMB temperature power spectrum

Musical analogies are still possible, but as results, not as the principle

Music of the spheres

approach to music and science
Approach to music and science
  • modesty
    • playing someone else’s composition is bold
    • understanding the universe is a very ambitious goal
  • honesty
    • play only what you think is right
    • say only what you think is right

Music of the spheres

ad