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Housekeeping. Issues portfolios: 3 issues Due December 2. When Humans and Wildlife Collide Part I: Damage. Problems with white-tailed deer. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions. Fencing and repellents. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions.

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Housekeeping

Issues portfolios:

  • 3 issues

  • Due December 2


When Humans and Wildlife CollidePart I: Damage


Problems with white-tailed deer


Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fencing and repellents


Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fertility control agents: immunocontraception


Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Food supplementation


Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Sharpshooters

--Cost effective

--Safer than open season

--Socially acceptable?


Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Reintroduce predators


When Humans and Wildlife Collide

Part II: Disease

Principles of Fisheries & Wildlife Management FiW 2114

Lecture 25


Objectives of Lecture

1. To explore different outcomes of human/wildlife interactions (in this context, disease)

2. To explore selected case studies involving white-tailed deer, bison, and mice

3. To evaluate feasible alternatives for control of disease transmission


Negative interactions: Disease

Wildlife populations are vulnerable to diseases and parasites, some communicable to humans and agricultural species

  • deer - chronic wasting disease, bovine tuberculosis, Lyme disease

  • bison - brucellosis

  • raccoon, bobcat, fox, skunk, … - rabies

  • rodents - hantavirus, bubonic plague

  • crows, jays, other birds - West Nile virus


Animal-to-animal transmission

  • Chronic wasting disease of cervids

  • Bovine tuberculosis

  • Brucellosis of bison


Background: Prions

  • Prions = Proteinaceous infectious particles

  • Cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

  • Interact with normal protein, cause it to misfold

  • Stanley Prusiner won Nobel Prize for showing this

  • Ex: scrapie of sheep, mad cow disease, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease of humans, and…


Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Affects cervids

  • Contagious and fatal in (deer and elk populations

  • Humans, livestock may be immune


Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Prevention and management

    • Aggressive testing of cervids

    • Reductions of density in CWD areas

    • Restrictions on transport of deer, elk meat

    • Some states have banned importation of live cervids

    • Warnings to hunters about consumption of some parts of deer, notably CNS


CWD – Actions taken

  • In 2001, USDA declared an animal emergency because of the epidemic of CWD in captive elk in Nebraska

  • In 2002, wild deer in Wisconsin were diagnosed with CWD

  • In Virginia in 2002, of 1114 deer tested, all were negative for CWD


Bovine tuberculosis

  • Tuberculosis is a disease of the respiratory system caused by Mycobacterium bovis

  • Three types: human, avian, and bovine

  • Bovine TB transmissible to other mammals

  • Transmission to humans only through raw milk or respiratory exposure to infected cattle or carcasses


Bovine tuberculosis

  • Bovine TB was once common in cattle in the U.S., but rare in deer

  • Concern regarding deer is transmission to livestock

  • Before 1994, only 8 cases in deer in North America


Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan

  • 1994: Found in a white-tailed deer

  • To date, found in 228 deer of 30,000 tested

  • Also in 5 coyotes, 2 raccoons, one black bear, and one bobcat

  • Predators presumably contracted TB by eating lungs and lymph of infected deer


Bovine tuberculosis: Management

  • 1997: Multi-agency committee recommended:

  • Survey of wildlife populations

  • Testing of livestock

  • Ban supplemental feeding of deer

  • Ban new deer or elk enclosures

  • Reduce deer density through hunting

  • Educate the public


Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone


Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological


Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological


Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological

  • cultural


Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological

  • cultural

  • aesthetic


History of Bison

in Yellowstone

  • Yellowstone - only place in lower 48 states where buffalo were not extirpated

  • In 1902, 23 wild bison left in Yellowstone on bison ranch

  • Intensive management kept herd size down

  • Highest reported herd size was 1,477 (1954)

  • 397 bison in 1967


Brucellosis and bison in Yellowstone

  • Bison a reservoir for bacterium, Brucella abortus

  • Contagious, caused by exposure to reproductive tissues or fluids (only females are infectious)

  • Causes spontaneous abortion in ~5th month

  • Hence, economic implications for cattle producers


Can Brucellosis be transmitted from

bison to livestock?

  • Originally transmitted from livestock to bison

  • No documented case of transmission in wild from bison to livestock; only occurred under confined conditions

  • Antibody-based test;buffalo can test positive w/no incidence of disease

  • Testing revealed that <1% of buffalo were infected


Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone

Bison tend to leave from north or west edges of park


Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management or Massacre?

  • 3,500 buffalo in 1996

  • Severe winter (1996-97)

  • 1,084 buffalo shot while exiting the park

  • 2,000 total dead; others starved in park

  • Huge outcry by range of stakeholders


Bringing Science to bear on the controversy

  • USDI called for scientific study

  • Released report: Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area in 1997

  • Recommendations:

    • Establish disease surveillance and quarantine areas around Park

    • Vaccinate cattle around park and monitor frequently

    • Develop vaccine for bison (currently none exists)

    • Test and slaughter infected bison, elk, cattle

    • Collect better data on infected animals and risk of transmission


Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management planning

  • Interagency group organized to develop management plan: NPS, USFS, State of Montana, APHIS

  • June 1998: Interagency group proposed 7 alternatives in a draft Environmental Impact Statement:


Bison in YellowstoneManagement Alternatives

  • 1: “No” action: continued capture/slaughter of bison leaving N or W boundaries of park

  • 2: Minimal management: changes in cattle operations; allow bison to range

  • 3: Management w/public hunting

  • 4: Interim plan, limited public hunting/quarantine

  • 5: Aggressive brucellosis control: 10 years of vaccination, then capture-test-removal

  • 6: Aggressive brucellosis control through vaccination

  • 7: Preferred alternative: manage for specific population range (1,700-2,500)


Mediated negotiation among the parties….Final EIS and bison management plan for Yellowstone National Park

  • (December 2000)

  • National Park Service will:

  • Capture, test and possibly hold bison

  • Vaccinate wildlife

  • Limit population of bison to manage risk of disease

  • APHIS and Montana will:

  • Accept disease management, as opposed to disease eradication

  • All parties will participate in adaptive management program


Today in Yellowstone

  • 1,100 bison killed in winter-spring 2003

  • No testing for brucellosis

  • USFS transferred some grazing allotments to Idaho

  • Reduces risk of livestock contacting buffalo leaving park


Bison in Yellowstone

Management Alternatives

Do we view the bison issue the same as the white-tailed deer issues?

What features are similar

and which different?


Animal-to-human transmission

  • Bubonic plague

  • Rabies

  • Lyme disease

  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome


Bubonic plague

  • Bacterial illness transmitted by fleas on rats and other rodents and by contact with infected blood or tissue

  • Active in 15 states, mostly in the West

  • NM: two cases in 2002, 1 in 2001, one in 2000, six in 1999, nine in 1998, …

  • Last plague-related death in U.S. was in 1994


Bubonic plague, historically

  • Plague outbreaks have killed about 200 million people in the past 1500 years

  • “Black Death” started in 1347 and killed 25 million people in Europe and 13 million in the Middle East and China within 5 years


Rabies

  • Acute, contagious infection of central nervous system

  • Caused by virus, entry by animal bite

  • Incubation 21-120 days, virtually always fatal

  • Many different species variants

  • Currently epizootic in raccoons here in VA, throughout East

  • Nearly all human cases are bat rabies


Spread of raccoon rabies in East


Ticks

  • Ticks are vectors of:

  • Lyme disease

  • Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  • How does this relate to how wildlife and humans collide??


Lyme disease

  • Lyme spirochete enters ticks with blood meal

  • As deer and mice forage, they brush against plants, and ticks attach to them

  • Humans also brush against plants

  • Ticks, mice and deer don’t get Lyme disease; humans (and some domesticated animals) do


How can managers minimize transmission of Lyme disease?

  • ?

  • ?

  • ?

  • ?


How can managers minimize transmission of Lyme disease?

  • Promote awareness and change in human behavior:

    • Keep clothing tightly fastened

    • inspect yourself for ticks

    • recognize symptoms

    • vaccine for those likely to be exposed

  • Control deer (and mouse) populations


Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

  • Etiological agent - a hantavirus

  • Sin nombre virus (in East)

  • Family Bunyaviridae (ssRNA)

  • Vertebrate hosts


Vectors

Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus

Cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus


Transmission of hantavirus

  • Chonically infected rodent

  • Horizontal transmission by intraspecific aggressive behavior

  • Virus present in aerosolized excreta

  • Transmission to humans by bite or by contact of aerosolized virus with mucus membranes


Clinical presentation

  • Most frequent: Fever, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, cough

  • Other symptoms: Dizziness, joint pain, shortness of breath late in course of disease

  • Rare: nasal discharge, sore throat

  • Case fatality 37%, most often due to respiratory failure


HPS management

  • Early aggressive intensive care

  • Early use of inotropic agents to stimulate heartbeat

  • Early ventilation

  • Careful monitoring:

  • Oxygenation

  • Fluid balance

  • Blood pressure


Rodent exposure in 70 confirmed HPS cases

  • Peridomestic exposure 69%

  • Peridomestic and occupational exposure 19%

  • Peridomestic and recreational exposure 9%

  • Occupational exposure 4%

  • Entering/cleaning rodent-infested structures 9%

  • Suggests methods for minimizing risk...


Control mice inside

  • Eliminate food sources:

  • Wash dishes and clean the floor and counters

  • Put pet food and water away at night

  • Store food and garbage in containers with tight lids


Control mice inside

  • Prevent mice from entering

  • Clear brush and grass from around foundation

  • Seal holes and use flashing around base of house

  • Practice trapping continuously


Control mice outside

  • Eliminate possible nesting sites

  • Elevate hay, woodpiles, and garbage cans

  • Locate them at least 100 feet from house

  • Eliminate junk and things that provide shelter to rodents


Control mice outside

  • Eliminate food sources

  • Store all animal feed in containers with lids

  • Discard excess feed in the evening into containers with lids

  • Take up water bowls in the evening


Control mice outside

  • Encourage natural predators

  • Non-poisonous snakes

  • Owls

  • Hawks


Use safety precautions

  • When cleaning in areas with rodents:

  • Wear rubber gloves

  • Don’t stir up and breathe dust

  • Wet contaminated areas with disinfectant

  • Dispose of dead animals properly

  • Disinfect used gloves


Use safety precautions

  • When enjoying outdoor activities:

  • Avoid contact with rodents

  • Stay away from rodent burrows or nests

  • Keep campsite clean and food tightly sealed

  • Open unused cabins and air out before entering or cleaning

  • Avoid sleeping on bare ground


  • These findings and recommendations are not abstract!

  • HPS took a graduate student from our midst…


CDC survey results

  • Julie Sinclair of CDC surveyed this class on knowledge and attitudes regarding HPS on September 14

  • What did she find?

  • Selected results…


Have you participated in any labwork involving small mammals?

  • 15 yes

  • 92 no

  • Let’s focus on these 15 to see if they used personal protection while at work…


Do you use gloves while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 3 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 4 most of the time

  • 5 always


Do you use a fitted facemask while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 11 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 0 always


Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 2 never

  • 2 sometimes

  • 2 most of the time

  • 9 always


Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 7 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 2 always


Do you use protective clothing while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 3 never

  • 6 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 3 always

  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing laboratory work with small mammals?


Have you participated in any fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 12 yes

  • 94 no

  • Let’s focus on these 12 to see if they used personal protection while in the field…


Do you use gloves while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 1 never

  • 6 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 3 always


Do you use a fitted facemask while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 7 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 0 always


Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 0 never

  • 2 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 6 always


Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 6 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 1 always


Do you use protective clothing while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 2 never

  • 5 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 0 always

  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing fieldwork with small mammals?


Have you ever attempted to use personal protective equipment, but been limited due to lack of availability?

  • 17 yes

  • 87 no

  • Personal protective equipment will be supplied to all field workers in FiW, and use will be mandatory!


Have you ever received any training on how to protect yourself from diseases transmitted by animals?

  • 27 yes

  • 80 no

  • Training will be provided from now on.


Have you ever received rabies pre-exposure vaccine?

  • 24 yes

  • 71 no

  • 24 don’t know

  • Have you ever received rabies post-exposure vaccine?

  • 3 yes

  • 93 no

  • 9 don’t know


What do you think would keep people from using personal protective equipment?

Percent responding “yes”:

  • Lack of availability – 71%

  • Peer pressure – it’s not cool – 67%

  • Uncomfortable to wear – 86%

  • Slows you down – 55%

  • Limits visibility, dexterity - 79%

  • Don’t think it’s necessary – 60%

  • All VT respondents n = 203


How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the lab?

  • 2 % None

  • 39% Gloves

  • 33% Fitted facemask and gloves

  • 17% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles

  • 11% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing

  • All VT respondents n = 203


How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the field?

  • 1.5 % None

  • 43% Gloves

  • 36% Fitted facemask and gloves

  • 10% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles

  • 8.5% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing

  • All VT respondents n = 203


Do you think it would be helpful to receive further training about protecting yourself from animal-borne diseases?

  • 82% yes

  • 12% no

  • If so, how?:

  • 86% in classes

  • 67% in the field

  • 9% other

  • All VT respondents n = 203


Do you know of any infection risks associated with handling small mammals and-or their excrement?

  • 57 yes

  • 46 no

  • Respondents from this class n = ~120


If people know that contact with small mammals could be fatal, do you think they would be likely to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?

  • 98 yes

  • 6 no

  • Respondents from this class n = ~108


Do you think people who work with small mammals should be REQUIRED to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?

  • 73 yes

  • 19 no

  • 12 don’t know

  • Why wasn’t this 100% yes???

  • Respondents from this class n = ~108


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