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Housekeeping. Issues portfolios: 3 issues Due December 2. When Humans and Wildlife Collide Part I: Damage. Problems with white-tailed deer. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions. Fencing and repellents. Case Example: Whitetail Deer Potential Solutions.

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Housekeeping l.jpg
Housekeeping

Issues portfolios:

  • 3 issues

  • Due December 2




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Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fencing and repellents


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Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Fertility control agents: immunocontraception


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Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Food supplementation


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Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Sharpshooters

--Cost effective

--Safer than open season

--Socially acceptable?


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Case Example: Whitetail Deer

Potential Solutions

Reintroduce predators


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When Humans and Wildlife Collide

Part II: Disease

Principles of Fisheries & Wildlife Management FiW 2114

Lecture 25


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Objectives of Lecture

1. To explore different outcomes of human/wildlife interactions (in this context, disease)

2. To explore selected case studies involving white-tailed deer, bison, and mice

3. To evaluate feasible alternatives for control of disease transmission


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Negative interactions: Disease

Wildlife populations are vulnerable to diseases and parasites, some communicable to humans and agricultural species

  • deer - chronic wasting disease, bovine tuberculosis, Lyme disease

  • bison - brucellosis

  • raccoon, bobcat, fox, skunk, … - rabies

  • rodents - hantavirus, bubonic plague

  • crows, jays, other birds - West Nile virus


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Animal-to-animal transmission

  • Chronic wasting disease of cervids

  • Bovine tuberculosis

  • Brucellosis of bison


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Background: Prions

  • Prions = Proteinaceous infectious particles

  • Cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

  • Interact with normal protein, cause it to misfold

  • Stanley Prusiner won Nobel Prize for showing this

  • Ex: scrapie of sheep, mad cow disease, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease of humans, and…


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Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Affects cervids

  • Contagious and fatal in (deer and elk populations

  • Humans, livestock may be immune


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Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Prevention and management

    • Aggressive testing of cervids

    • Reductions of density in CWD areas

    • Restrictions on transport of deer, elk meat

    • Some states have banned importation of live cervids

    • Warnings to hunters about consumption of some parts of deer, notably CNS


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CWD – Actions taken

  • In 2001, USDA declared an animal emergency because of the epidemic of CWD in captive elk in Nebraska

  • In 2002, wild deer in Wisconsin were diagnosed with CWD

  • In Virginia in 2002, of 1114 deer tested, all were negative for CWD


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Bovine tuberculosis

  • Tuberculosis is a disease of the respiratory system caused by Mycobacterium bovis

  • Three types: human, avian, and bovine

  • Bovine TB transmissible to other mammals

  • Transmission to humans only through raw milk or respiratory exposure to infected cattle or carcasses


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Bovine tuberculosis

  • Bovine TB was once common in cattle in the U.S., but rare in deer

  • Concern regarding deer is transmission to livestock

  • Before 1994, only 8 cases in deer in North America


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Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan

  • 1994: Found in a white-tailed deer

  • To date, found in 228 deer of 30,000 tested

  • Also in 5 coyotes, 2 raccoons, one black bear, and one bobcat

  • Predators presumably contracted TB by eating lungs and lymph of infected deer


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Bovine tuberculosis: Management

  • 1997: Multi-agency committee recommended:

  • Survey of wildlife populations

  • Testing of livestock

  • Ban supplemental feeding of deer

  • Ban new deer or elk enclosures

  • Reduce deer density through hunting

  • Educate the public



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Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological


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Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological


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Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological

  • cultural


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Bison in Yellowstone

What is the value of a buffalo?

  • biological

  • ecological

  • cultural

  • aesthetic


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History of Bison

in Yellowstone

  • Yellowstone - only place in lower 48 states where buffalo were not extirpated

  • In 1902, 23 wild bison left in Yellowstone on bison ranch

  • Intensive management kept herd size down

  • Highest reported herd size was 1,477 (1954)

  • 397 bison in 1967


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Brucellosis and bison in Yellowstone

  • Bison a reservoir for bacterium, Brucella abortus

  • Contagious, caused by exposure to reproductive tissues or fluids (only females are infectious)

  • Causes spontaneous abortion in ~5th month

  • Hence, economic implications for cattle producers


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Can Brucellosis be transmitted from

bison to livestock?

  • Originally transmitted from livestock to bison

  • No documented case of transmission in wild from bison to livestock; only occurred under confined conditions

  • Antibody-based test;buffalo can test positive w/no incidence of disease

  • Testing revealed that <1% of buffalo were infected


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Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone

Bison tend to leave from north or west edges of park


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Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management or Massacre?

  • 3,500 buffalo in 1996

  • Severe winter (1996-97)

  • 1,084 buffalo shot while exiting the park

  • 2,000 total dead; others starved in park

  • Huge outcry by range of stakeholders


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Bringing Science to bear Massacre?on the controversy

  • USDI called for scientific study

  • Released report: Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area in 1997

  • Recommendations:

    • Establish disease surveillance and quarantine areas around Park

    • Vaccinate cattle around park and monitor frequently

    • Develop vaccine for bison (currently none exists)

    • Test and slaughter infected bison, elk, cattle

    • Collect better data on infected animals and risk of transmission


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Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone: Management planning Massacre?

  • Interagency group organized to develop management plan: NPS, USFS, State of Montana, APHIS

  • June 1998: Interagency group proposed 7 alternatives in a draft Environmental Impact Statement:


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Bison in Yellowstone Massacre?Management Alternatives

  • 1: “No” action: continued capture/slaughter of bison leaving N or W boundaries of park

  • 2: Minimal management: changes in cattle operations; allow bison to range

  • 3: Management w/public hunting

  • 4: Interim plan, limited public hunting/quarantine

  • 5: Aggressive brucellosis control: 10 years of vaccination, then capture-test-removal

  • 6: Aggressive brucellosis control through vaccination

  • 7: Preferred alternative: manage for specific population range (1,700-2,500)


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Mediated negotiation among the parties…. Massacre?Final EIS and bison management plan for Yellowstone National Park

  • (December 2000)

  • National Park Service will:

  • Capture, test and possibly hold bison

  • Vaccinate wildlife

  • Limit population of bison to manage risk of disease

  • APHIS and Montana will:

  • Accept disease management, as opposed to disease eradication

  • All parties will participate in adaptive management program


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Today in Yellowstone Massacre?

  • 1,100 bison killed in winter-spring 2003

  • No testing for brucellosis

  • USFS transferred some grazing allotments to Idaho

  • Reduces risk of livestock contacting buffalo leaving park


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Bison in Yellowstone Massacre?

Management Alternatives

Do we view the bison issue the same as the white-tailed deer issues?

What features are similar

and which different?


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Animal-to-human transmission Massacre?

  • Bubonic plague

  • Rabies

  • Lyme disease

  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome


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Bubonic plague Massacre?

  • Bacterial illness transmitted by fleas on rats and other rodents and by contact with infected blood or tissue

  • Active in 15 states, mostly in the West

  • NM: two cases in 2002, 1 in 2001, one in 2000, six in 1999, nine in 1998, …

  • Last plague-related death in U.S. was in 1994


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Bubonic plague, historically Massacre?

  • Plague outbreaks have killed about 200 million people in the past 1500 years

  • “Black Death” started in 1347 and killed 25 million people in Europe and 13 million in the Middle East and China within 5 years


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Rabies Massacre?

  • Acute, contagious infection of central nervous system

  • Caused by virus, entry by animal bite

  • Incubation 21-120 days, virtually always fatal

  • Many different species variants

  • Currently epizootic in raccoons here in VA, throughout East

  • Nearly all human cases are bat rabies



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Ticks Massacre?

  • Ticks are vectors of:

  • Lyme disease

  • Babesiosis and Ehrlichiosis

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  • How does this relate to how wildlife and humans collide??


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Lyme disease Massacre?

  • Lyme spirochete enters ticks with blood meal

  • As deer and mice forage, they brush against plants, and ticks attach to them

  • Humans also brush against plants

  • Ticks, mice and deer don’t get Lyme disease; humans (and some domesticated animals) do



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How can managers minimize transmission of Lyme disease? Massacre?

  • Promote awareness and change in human behavior:

    • Keep clothing tightly fastened

    • inspect yourself for ticks

    • recognize symptoms

    • vaccine for those likely to be exposed

  • Control deer (and mouse) populations


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Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Massacre?

  • Etiological agent - a hantavirus

  • Sin nombre virus (in East)

  • Family Bunyaviridae (ssRNA)

  • Vertebrate hosts


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Vectors Massacre?

Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus

Cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus


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Transmission of hantavirus Massacre?

  • Chonically infected rodent

  • Horizontal transmission by intraspecific aggressive behavior

  • Virus present in aerosolized excreta

  • Transmission to humans by bite or by contact of aerosolized virus with mucus membranes


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Clinical presentation Massacre?

  • Most frequent: Fever, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, cough

  • Other symptoms: Dizziness, joint pain, shortness of breath late in course of disease

  • Rare: nasal discharge, sore throat

  • Case fatality 37%, most often due to respiratory failure


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HPS management Massacre?

  • Early aggressive intensive care

  • Early use of inotropic agents to stimulate heartbeat

  • Early ventilation

  • Careful monitoring:

  • Oxygenation

  • Fluid balance

  • Blood pressure


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Rodent exposure in 70 confirmed HPS cases Massacre?

  • Peridomestic exposure 69%

  • Peridomestic and occupational exposure 19%

  • Peridomestic and recreational exposure 9%

  • Occupational exposure 4%

  • Entering/cleaning rodent-infested structures 9%

  • Suggests methods for minimizing risk...


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Control mice inside Massacre?

  • Eliminate food sources:

  • Wash dishes and clean the floor and counters

  • Put pet food and water away at night

  • Store food and garbage in containers with tight lids


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Control mice inside Massacre?

  • Prevent mice from entering

  • Clear brush and grass from around foundation

  • Seal holes and use flashing around base of house

  • Practice trapping continuously


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Control mice outside Massacre?

  • Eliminate possible nesting sites

  • Elevate hay, woodpiles, and garbage cans

  • Locate them at least 100 feet from house

  • Eliminate junk and things that provide shelter to rodents


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Control mice outside Massacre?

  • Eliminate food sources

  • Store all animal feed in containers with lids

  • Discard excess feed in the evening into containers with lids

  • Take up water bowls in the evening


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Control mice outside Massacre?

  • Encourage natural predators

  • Non-poisonous snakes

  • Owls

  • Hawks


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Use safety precautions Massacre?

  • When cleaning in areas with rodents:

  • Wear rubber gloves

  • Don’t stir up and breathe dust

  • Wet contaminated areas with disinfectant

  • Dispose of dead animals properly

  • Disinfect used gloves


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Use safety precautions Massacre?

  • When enjoying outdoor activities:

  • Avoid contact with rodents

  • Stay away from rodent burrows or nests

  • Keep campsite clean and food tightly sealed

  • Open unused cabins and air out before entering or cleaning

  • Avoid sleeping on bare ground


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CDC survey results Massacre?

  • Julie Sinclair of CDC surveyed this class on knowledge and attitudes regarding HPS on September 14

  • What did she find?

  • Selected results…


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Have you participated in any labwork involving small mammals?

  • 15 yes

  • 92 no

  • Let’s focus on these 15 to see if they used personal protection while at work…


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Do you use gloves while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 3 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 4 most of the time

  • 5 always


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Do you use a fitted facemask while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 11 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 0 always


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Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 2 never

  • 2 sometimes

  • 2 most of the time

  • 9 always


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Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 7 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 2 always


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Do you use protective clothing while doing labwork involving small mammals?

  • 3 never

  • 6 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 3 always

  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing laboratory work with small mammals?


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Have you participated in any fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 12 yes

  • 94 no

  • Let’s focus on these 12 to see if they used personal protection while in the field…


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Do you use gloves while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 1 never

  • 6 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 3 always


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Do you use a fitted facemask while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 7 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 0 always


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Do you wash your hands or use alcohol-based disinfectants while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 0 never

  • 2 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 6 always


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Do you use goggles or eye protection while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 6 never

  • 3 sometimes

  • 1 most of the time

  • 1 always


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Do you use protective clothing while doing fieldwork involving small mammals?

  • 2 never

  • 5 sometimes

  • 3 most of the time

  • 0 always

  • So, then, what can we infer about laboratory practice for these people doing fieldwork with small mammals?


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Have you ever attempted to use personal protective equipment, but been limited due to lack of availability?

  • 17 yes

  • 87 no

  • Personal protective equipment will be supplied to all field workers in FiW, and use will be mandatory!


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Have you ever received any training on how to protect yourself from diseases transmitted by animals?

  • 27 yes

  • 80 no

  • Training will be provided from now on.


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Have you ever received rabies yourself from diseases transmitted by animals?pre-exposure vaccine?

  • 24 yes

  • 71 no

  • 24 don’t know

  • Have you ever received rabies post-exposure vaccine?

  • 3 yes

  • 93 no

  • 9 don’t know


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What do you think would keep people from using personal protective equipment?

Percent responding “yes”:

  • Lack of availability – 71%

  • Peer pressure – it’s not cool – 67%

  • Uncomfortable to wear – 86%

  • Slows you down – 55%

  • Limits visibility, dexterity - 79%

  • Don’t think it’s necessary – 60%

  • All VT respondents n = 203


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How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the lab?

  • 2 % None

  • 39% Gloves

  • 33% Fitted facemask and gloves

  • 17% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles

  • 11% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing

  • All VT respondents n = 203


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How much personal protection do you think a person will be willing to wear each time they work with small mammals in the field?

  • 1.5 % None

  • 43% Gloves

  • 36% Fitted facemask and gloves

  • 10% Fitted facemask, gloves, and goggles

  • 8.5% Fitted facemask, gloves, goggles and protective clothing

  • All VT respondents n = 203


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Do you think it would be helpful to receive further training about protecting yourself from animal-borne diseases?

  • 82% yes

  • 12% no

  • If so, how?:

  • 86% in classes

  • 67% in the field

  • 9% other

  • All VT respondents n = 203


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Do you know of any infection risks associated with handling small mammals and-or their excrement?

  • 57 yes

  • 46 no

  • Respondents from this class n = ~120


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If people know that contact with small mammals could be fatal, do you think they would be likely to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?

  • 98 yes

  • 6 no

  • Respondents from this class n = ~108


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Do you think people who work with small mammals should be REQUIRED to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?

  • 73 yes

  • 19 no

  • 12 don’t know

  • Why wasn’t this 100% yes???

  • Respondents from this class n = ~108


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Those seeking further reading, see me REQUIRED to follow the safety guidelines and wear personal protective equipment?


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