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The Healing Power of Food. by Sue Stone MD. "Der Mensch ist, was er isst.“ "Man is what he eats.“ Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872). Objectives. Describe the scientific foundations and principles of a healthy diet.

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The healing power of food l.jpg

The Healing Power of Food

by Sue Stone MD


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"Der Mensch ist, was er isst.“

"Man is what he eats.“

Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872)


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Objectives

  • Describe the scientific foundations and principles of a healthy diet.

  • Inspire you incorporate these principles into your practice and teach nutrition to your patients

  • Recognize how specific foods and dietary modifications can be used to treat specific diseases


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Why teach nutrition to our patients?

  • Essential to maintaining wellness

  • Most disease states respond, at least in part, to dietary manipulation

  • The over-enthusiastic prescribing of a single supplement, out of context, can lead to lack of, or negative effects; food provides a balanced, effective “team” approach to obtaining nutrients


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

  • Eat a plant-based predominantly vegetarian diet

  • Modify fat intake

  • Eliminate refined sugar

  • Reduce exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and added growth factors

  • Eliminate food additives and coloring agents


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

6. Keep salt intake low, potassium high

7. Drink 32-48 ounces of water daily

8. Identify and address food allergies (sensitivities)

9. Determine caloric need

10. Eat 25-35 gm of fiber daily


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Stick with the basics

  • 50% vegetables & fruit

  • Organic: pesticide, hormone & antibiotic free

  • 15-25% fat

  • 15-20% protein

  • 55%-65% carbohydrate

  • Low-fat vs types of fats

  • Include non-animal sources of protein

  • Types of carbs—glycemic index, fiber

  • Sugar: refined vs unrefined

  • 25-35 gm of fiber daily


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My Pyramid--USDA

  • Grains 6 oz

  • Vegetables 2.5 C

  • Fruits 2 C

  • Milk 3 C

  • Meat/beans 5.5 oz


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

  • Eat a plant-based predominantly vegetarian diet

  • Modify fat intake

  • Eliminate refined sugar

  • Reduce exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and added growth factors

  • Eliminate food additives and coloring agents


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Eat a predominantly plant-based diet

  • Evolutionary and anatomical evidence that only 1.5% of our diet should be animal-based foods, not 50%

  • Fat content of domesticated animals is 25-30%, primarily saturated; wild game is 4% w/ 5X more PUFA especially omega 3’s

  • Cardiovascular and chronic degenerative diseases

  • Fiber and phytochemicals


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Protein

  • RDA for protein: wt in lbs X .36gm

  • 150 lb person = 54gm = 2 oz of protein daily

  • Actually daily protein in US ranges from 63-92 gm—72% from animals


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Biological value of protein

  • Proportion of amino acids that are absorbed, retained and used

  • In order: whey, egg, milk, fish, beef, soybeans, rice, whole wheat, corn, dry beans

  • Complete (animal) vs complementary (grains/legumes)

  • Legumes: peas, beans, peanuts, soybeans, clover (hay) and alfalfa

  • Nuts: pine nuts, walnuts, seeds


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Vegetarian

1000 mmg B12 sublingual if vegan (no dairy, fish or eggs)

Monitor iron

Encourage soybeans, beans, lentils, chickpeas, cashews, molasses, pumpkin seeds, walnuts, whole grains, seaweed, green leafies, potatoes, sesame & sunflower seeds, apricots


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

  • Eat a plant-based predominantly vegetarian diet

  • Modify fat intake

  • Eliminate refined sugar

  • Reduce exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and added growth factors

  • Eliminate food additives and coloring agents


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A Fat primer

  • Structural components of cell membranes; alteration in cell membrane function (fluidity)

  • Backbone of eicosanoids: prostaglandins, leukotrines, thromboxanes; critical influence on inflammation and thrombosis

  • Preferred energy source @ 9 kcals/gm


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Types of Fats

  • Saturated fatty acids

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)= omega 3 & 6

  • Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)= omega 9

  • Trans fatty acids=hydrogenated oils; behave like saturated fat and interfere with the body’s ability to utilize unsaturated fatty acids


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Saturated fats

  • Meat and dairy

  • Inflammatory

  • Atherogenic


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MUFA

  • Avocado, nuts & seeds

  • Olives/ oil

  • Canola oil

  • Raises HDL even better than omega-3’s

  • Non-fattening


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Omega 6 fatty acids (a PUFA)

Corn, safflower and soybean oils

egg yolk, organ meats, and other animal-based foods

Processed and packaged foods

Way too plentiful in diet

Pro-inflammatory

Vasoconstrictor

Increase platelet aggregation


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Omega 3 fatty acids (a PUFA)

wild salmon (15:1 ratio of 3’s to 6’s, compared to 3:1)

mackerel, herring, halibut, wild trout, swordfish (Hg), blue fin tuna (Hg), anchovies, sardines

walnuts, flax seeds, (soy)

Anti-inflammatory

Reduce platelet aggregation

Vasodilator

Numerous clinical applications


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Diseases linked to insufficient omega 3 fatty acids

Acne

Allergies

Asthma

CAD

ADD

Breast cancer

Dementia

Depression

Diabetes

Eczema

HTN

IBD

PMS

Cancer

Osteoarthritis

RA

CVD

PVD


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In a nutshell

  • Reduce fat to about 25% of diet

  • Reduce intake of meat and dairy (unless nonfat)

  • Increase cold water fish such as wild salmon, mackerel, herring, halibut, wild trout, swordfish (Hg), blue fin tuna; also walnuts, flax seeds, soy

  • Cook with olive, canola, macadamia, or coconut ( is saturated but medium and short-chain) oil

  • Eliminate trans fatty acids

  • Get most of your fat from nuts, seeds, legumes, fish and olive oil


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

  • Eat a plant-based predominantly vegetarian diet

  • Modify fat intake

  • Eliminate refined sugar

  • Reduce exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and added growth factors

  • Eliminate food additives and coloring agents



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High fructose corn syrup

Glucose + fructose (sugar) processed into a “super sugar”

Absorbed more quickly

Enters cells quickly without the aid of insulin

Fructose

Absorbed less than ½ as quickly by intestinal villi


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Glycemic Index

  • Glycemic index = the average blood sugar response over a 2 hour period (area under the curve) of a group of people given the same carbohydrate on more than one occasion

  • Correlates with insulin response

  • Glycemic load = GI X gms of CHO per serving

  • diabetics


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Rate of insulin rise

Sugar (61)

Brown sugar

High fructose corn syrup

Sucrose

Glucose (99)

() Glycemic index

Pure maple syrup or sugar

Molasses

Honey (40)

Rapadura

Cane juice

Brown rice syrup

Xylitol (8)

Fructose (19)


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The New Glucose Revolution

By Jennie Brand-Miller Ph.D.


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

  • Eat a plant-based predominantly vegetarian diet

  • Modify fat intake

  • Eliminate refined sugar

  • Reduce exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and added growth factors

  • Eliminate food additives and coloring agents


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Why Organic?

  • More nutritious

  • Free of known carcinogens and many other chemicals, which when acting synergistically cause cancer

  • Endocrine disruption

  • The EPA and the FDA do not protect us—we must protect ourselves

  • Children are particularly susceptible


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How important is it?

  • 110 pesticides used

  • 34 pesticide residues found by FDA

  • Organic about twice the $


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How important is it?

  • Generally not sprayed

  • Full of antioxidants

  • Organic about 4X the $


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EAT ORGANIC!!!

Best foods

Berries

US melon

Broccoli

Asparagus

Carrots

Romaine lettuce

Oranges

Bananas

Nectarines

Kiwi

Pears

US grapes

radishes

Worst foods

Strawberries

Apples

Bell peppers

Spinach

Cherries

Peaches

Melon (Mexican)

Apricots

Green beans

Chilean grapes

cucumbers


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

6. Keep salt intake low, potassium high

7. Drink 32-48 ounces of clean water daily

8. Identify and address food allergies (sensitivities)

9. Determine caloric need

10. Eat 25-35 gm of fiber daily


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IgG-mediated food sensitivity

Dairy

Gluten (wheat)

Peanuts

Soy

Eggs

Pork

Tomatoes

Corn

Citrus

chocolate

Autopsy: asthma, chronic rhinitis, chronic OM, eczema

Autoimmune disease

Autism

ADHD

Migraines

Arthralgias/myalgias

Psychiatric disturbance

Enuresis

insomnia


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Ten Principles of Good Nutrition

6. Keep salt intake low, potassium high

7. Drink 32-48 ounces of clean water daily

8. Identify and address food allergies (sensitivities)

9. Determine caloric need

10. Eat 25-35 gm of fiber daily


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Fiber has many health benefits

  • Soluble fiber (oats, Metamucil, apples, legumes) lowers glycemic index by delaying gut emptying

  • Aids detoxification by increasing transit time and solubility of bile

  • Decreases blood levels of fats

  • Improves balance of colonic bacteria

  • More nutrients for cells in colon (SCFA’s)

  • Increases secretion of digestive enzymes


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A word about caffeine

  • Raises cholesterol (esp decaf)

  • Glycogen released from liver causes hypoglycemia and blood sugar instability

  • Promotes excretion of calcium, potassium, iron, and trace minerals

  • Elevates cortisol!!!

  • Irritates urinary tract

  • Aggravates HTN, insomnia, PMS, IBS., etc………….


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And fast food……… Supersize it!!

McDonalds supersize fries have 610 calories and 29 gms of fat

  • Carl’s Jr: CrissCut Fries + double Western Bacon Cheeseburger = 73 gm fat (657 fat calories)

  • In 40 yrs per capita consumption of sodas has quadrupled

  • 32 oz coke (‘large’) = 310 calories

  • Bad quality food with no fiber, bad fats, bad sugars and too much of both

  • Subway best choice


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Nutrient loss due to food preparation and storage

  • Boiling : 66% loss

  • Pressure cooking: 47%

  • Microwaving 70-97%

  • Blanching/Freezing: 30% (fiber and minerals not affected)

  • Steaming: minimal impact


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Food as Medicine



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Cruciferous Vegetables

  • Cabbage

  • Broccoli

  • Brussels sprouts

  • Cauliflower

  • Kale

  • Turnips

  • Collard greens


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Cruciferous Vegetables

  • help to shift hormone metabolism. Estradiol has a metabolite called 16aOHE1 which has been implicated in breast, cervical and prostate cancer. Even if estrogen levels are normal or high, if the metabolism is shifted in the wrong direction patients maybe at risk. Cruciferous vegetables contain diindolymethane (DIM),indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and Glucaric acid which shift the metabolism towards the 2OHE metabolite of estradiol.


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Medicinal Mushrooms

  • Maitake

  • Shitake

  • Reishi

  • Activity: enhance natural killer cells and other immune cells; reverse chemotherapy-induced neutropenia; anti-tumor; anti-viral; increase interferon levels and tumor necrosis factor; improves macrophage activity


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Nutrition and cancer risk

Vitamin C, veggies:

Fiber & veggies:

Lycopene:

Green tea:

Folic acid:

Selenium:

Bladder Ca in men

Colon CA

GI tract & prostate

Esophageal CA

Colon CA

Colon & prostate

Ca, and ?melanoma


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Liver foods

  • Beets

  • Leafy green vegetables

  • Artichokes

  • Asparagus

  • Apples

  • Pears

  • Radishes

  • Cabbage

  • Dandelion greens


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Quercetin

  • oranges, apples and onions

  • anti-inflammatory (mast-cell, prostaglandin, lipid peroxidation)

  • anti-histamine (inhibits release from mast cells & basophils)

  • potent antioxidant (prevents production of free-radicals and inflammatory leukotrenes)

  • inhibits inflammatory eicosanoid metabolism (asthma, PMS, psoriasis, eczema, gout, ulcerative colitis)

  • helps prevent diabetic complications by inhibiting the enzyme that converts glucose to sorbitol (delays cataracts)

  • Anti-viral (herpes, RSV, etc.)

  • may inhibit tumor formation

  • may protect the brain from the type of damage that triggers such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s Disease. Studies show that additional apple consumption not only may help reduce the risk of cancer, as previous studies have shown, but also that an apple a day may supply major bioactive compounds, which may play an important role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders.


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Weight Loss

All calories are not created equal


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Secrets to weight loss

  • Plenty of fiber

  • Eat smaller quantities in the beginning of the day and smaller quantities at the end

  • Eat plenty of good fat

  • Eat low GI carbs

  • Eat regular meals at roughly the same time each day


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What to tell patients

  • 50% of food should be produce (salad is not the only vegetable)

  • Restructure meals around produce, not meat

  • All carbs contain at least 3 gms of fiber/serving

  • Avoid sugar, caffeine and fast food




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