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1-2 Types of Data
1-3 Critical Thinking
1-4 Design of Experiments
A common goal of studies and surveys and other data collecting tools is to collect data from a small part of a larger group so we can learn something about the larger group.
In this section we will look at some of the ways to describe data.
The subject of statistics is largely about using sample data to make inferences (or generalizations) about an entire population. It is essential to know and understand the definitions that follow.
Quantitative data can further be described by distinguishing between discrete and continuous types.
result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps
The following are the finishing positions of a sample of drivers in a NASCAR race: 3, 8, 12, 15, 27 (3rd place, 8th place, etc.)
Please complete the survey and submit. Do not sign your name.
If yes, how many hours do you work each week?
13) During the past 12 months, have you been the driver of a car that was involved in a crash? YES/NO
14) Do you smoke? YES/NO
15) Are you: Left-handed Right-handed Ambidextrous
One in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included.
In this case, valid conclusions can be made only about the specific group of people who agree to participate.
2) Small sample
Conclusions should not be based on samples that are far too small.
To correctly interpret a graph, you must analyze the numerical information given in the graph, so as not to be misled by the graph’s shape.
Part (b) is designed to exaggerate the difference by increasing each dimension in proportion to the actual amounts of oil consumption.
Misleading or unclear percentages are sometimes used. For example, if you take 100% of a quantity, you take it all. 110% of an effort does not make sense.
During a broadcast of a show on MTV, the host asks viewers to call in and vote for or against a new song, with the result that 74% of 12, 335 viewers favor it. Given that the sample is so large and the percentage is so far above 50%, is it valid to conclude that the majority of Americans favor the song? Why or why not?