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Airline Scheduling. Airline Scheduling. Significance of airline scheduling Flight scheduling Aircraft scheduling Crew scheduling Facilities scheduling Coordinating the flight schedule Problems in executing the schedule. Significance of Airline Scheduling.

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airline scheduling2
Airline Scheduling
  • Significance of airline scheduling
  • Flight scheduling
  • Aircraft scheduling
  • Crew scheduling
  • Facilities scheduling
  • Coordinating the flight schedule
  • Problems in executing the schedule
significance of airline scheduling
Significance of Airline Scheduling
  • Over 2000 highly interconnected flights per day
  • Strategic (marketing) significance: profits
  • Operational challenge: safety & efficiency
flight scheduling5
Flight Scheduling
  • Basic elements: airports served, departure times, arrival times
  • Types of route structure: point-to-point, hub-&-spoke
  • Basic resources: aircraft, maintenance, crew, ground facilities
  • Flight schedule planning
  • Making flight schedule available (e.g. CRS)
  • Schedule Planning Division (Marketing Department)
types of route structure
Types of Route Structure
  • Point-to-point
  • Hub-and-spoke
flight schedule planning
Flight Schedule Planning
  • Internal factors
  • External factors
internal factors
Internal Factors
  • Aircraft routing and maintenance requirements
  • Crew scheduling and training requirements
  • Ground facilities constraints
  • Marketing factors
marketing factors
Marketing Factors
  • Marketing analysis
    • Passengers
    • Competition
    • Financial impact
  • Traffic flow
  • Schedule salability
    • Time of day
    • Type of flight: non-stop, direct, connecting
  • Schedule adjustments
    • Time-zones
    • Station personnel
    • Turn-around time
    • Chain reaction effect
  • Load factor leverage
    • Cost is independent of load factor
    • Revenue varies in direct proportion to changes in load factor
external factors
External Factors
  • Airport/runway constraints
  • ATC/airspace constraints
  • Seasonal weather patterns
  • Travel agents
  • Hotel operators
  • Local community
aircraft scheduling12
Aircraft Scheduling
  • Aircraft routing
  • Maintenance scheduling
  • Maintenance Operations Control (Maintenance Department)
aircraft maintenance
Aircraft Maintenance

Typical Maintenance Schedule for a Jet Aircraft

Check Description Interval Duration

En-route visual inspection each stop 30 min.

Overnight ad hoc repairs 8 hrs up to 8 hrs

A-check primary examination 125 hrs 8 hrs

B-check intermediate inspection 750 hrs overnight

C-check detailed inspection 3,000 hrs 5 days

D-check major overhaul 20,000 hrs 15-30 days

netjets 7 on 7 off
Netjets 7 on 7 off
  • 8-21 05
  • CMH – EUS 1.1
  • EUS – SUN 2.8
  • SUN- APC 1.4
  • APC – PHX 1.7
day two
Day two
  • PHX – ASE 1.3
  • ASE – SFO 2.2
  • SFO – TRM 1.2
  • TRM APA 1.7
day three
Day three
  • APA BFM 2.4
  • BFM – PDK 1.2
  • PDK – CYYZ 1.7
  • CYYZ – EWR 1.6
day four
Day four
  • EWR – CGF 1.4
  • CGF – ADS 2.3
  • ADS – MMU 3.0
  • MMU PHL .7
day five
Day five
  • PHL – SOP 1.3
  • SOP – PVD 1.7
  • PVD – SFO 5.3
  • SFO – SJC .7
day 6
Day 6
  • SJC – MEM 3.6
  • Airline home
  • I quit!
crew scheduling21
Crew Scheduling
  • Regular and reserve crews
  • Crew flight schedule
  • Crew training schedule
  • Crew Scheduling Division (Flight Operations Department)
  • Flight Attendants (Marketing Department)
crew flight schedule
Crew Flight Schedule
  • Line schedule
  • Bidding
  • Pairing
duty rest time regulations
Duty/Rest Time Regulations

FAR Part 121.481

  • Maximum 8 flight hours between required rest periods
  • Maximum 30 flight hours per week, 100 flight hours per month, 1000 flight hours per year
  • 9-11 hours rest per day (depending on flight duty)
  • Release from all duty 24 hours during each 7-consecutive-day period
crew training schedule
Crew Training Schedule
  • Base training
    • Flight academy
    • Initial, recurrent, transitional
    • Ground school, procedure trainer, flight simulator, aircraft
  • Line training
    • Revenue flights
    • Initial, recurrent, transitional
    • Check pilot on jump-seat
facilities scheduling26
Facilities Scheduling
  • Types of flight
    • Origin
    • Thru
    • Turn-around
    • Termination
  • Ground facilities
    • Passenger services: ticket counter, gate, baggage claim
    • Ramp services: baggage, food service, water, fuel
  • Ground Services Division (Marketing Department)
ramp services
Ramp Services

Chocks in: 11:04

Passengers out: 11:05

Baggage out: 11:08

Food service truck: 11:08

Fuel truck: 11:30

Water truck: 11:45

More baggage out: 11:45

Mail out: 12:00

Baggage in: 12:05

Mail in: 12:15

Copilot walks-around: 12:15

Passengers in: 12:20

Doors locked: 12:48

Chocks out: 12:49

Turn-around: 1 hr 45 min

schedule coordination29
Schedule Coordination
  • Flight Schedule
    • Marketing Department
  • Aircraft Routing and Maintenance Schedule
    • Maintenance Department
  • Flight Crew Schedule (pairing and training)
    • Flight Operations Department
  • Cabin Crew Schedule (pairing and training)
    • Marketing Department
  • Passenger Services Schedule (counters, gates, baggage claim)
    • Marketing Department
  • Ramp Services Schedule (gates, baggage, food, water, fuel)
    • Marketing Department
problems in the execution of schedule
Problems in the Execution of Schedule
  • Conflicts of interest
  • Schedule disruptions
  • Limited resources
  • Inherent limitations of hub-and-spoke system
conflicts of interest
Conflicts of Interest
  • Maintenance/service time versus aircraft utilization
  • Schedule efficiency (maximum resource utilization) versus schedule flexibility (slack use of resources and availability of spare resources)
  • Customer service versus economic/operational considerations
  • Solution:optimal balance (tradeoff) between conflicting factors
schedule disruptions
Schedule Disruptions
  • Can cost 2-3% of annual revenues
  • Role of SOC in disruption management & recovery
  • Types of disruption: delay, cancellation, diversion
  • Causes of disruption: weather, airport/airspace congestion, ATC equipment failure, aircraft problem, ground equipment problem
  • Chain reaction/multiplier effects
  • Impact of poor public relations/customer service
  • Solutions: optimal balance between schedule efficiency and schedule flexibility; collaborative decision making (CDM)
limited resources
Limited Resources
  • Aircraft limitations
  • Crew limitations
  • Facility limitations
  • Solution: slack use of resources and availability of spare resources
inherent limitations of hub and spoke system
Inherent Limitations of Hub-and-Spoke System
  • Uneven spoke length
  • Congestion at peak times
  • Idle between peak times
  • Multiplier effects of schedule disruptions
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