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A. Atomic Mass. The average atomic mass is the number at the bottom of each square Found by averaging the natural abundances of its isotopes Atomic mass = # p + + n 0. Mass #. Atomic #. B. Isotopes. Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers. Nuclear symbol:.

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A. Atomic Mass

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A atomic mass l.jpg

A. Atomic Mass

  • The average atomic mass is the number at the bottom of each square

  • Found by averaging the natural abundances of its isotopes

  • Atomic mass = # p+ + n0


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Mass #

Atomic #

B. Isotopes

  • Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers.

  • Nuclear symbol:

  • Hyphen notation: carbon-12


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© Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

B. Isotopes


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B. Isotopes

  • Chlorine-37

    • atomic #:

    • mass #:

    • # of protons:

    • # of electrons:

    • # of neutrons:

17

37

17

17

20


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Ch. 3 - The Periodic Table

Organization

Metallic Character

Rows & Columns

Table Sections


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A. Metallic Character

  • Metals

  • Nonmetals

  • Metalloids


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Metals

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

  • Found in Groups 1 & 2, middle of table in 3-12 and some on right side of table

  • Have luster, are ductile and malleable


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Alkali Metals

  • Group 1

  • Very reactive

  • Form +1 ions

  • Cations

  • Examples: H, Li, Na


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Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Group 2

  • Reactive

  • Form 2+ ions

  • Cations

  • Examples: Be, Mg, Ca, etc


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Transition Metals

  • Groups 3-12 on the Periodic Table

  • Much less reactive than Alkali or Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Only 1 that is a liquid at room temp

    • Mercury – Hg

  • Examples: Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Ag, Au


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Nonmetals

  • Not good conductors

  • Found on right side of periodic table – AND hydrogen

  • Usually brittle solids or gases


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Halogens

  • Group 17

  • Very reactive

  • Form 1- ions

  • Anions

  • Examples: F, Cl, Br, etc


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Noble Gases

  • Group 18

  • Unreactive, inert, “noble”

  • Have a 0 charge, no ions

  • Examples: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, etc


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Metalloids

  • Sometimes called semiconductors

  • Form the “stairstep” between metals and nonmetals

  • Have properties of both metals and nonmetals

  • Examples: B, Si, Sb, Te, As, Ge


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State at Room Temperature

  • Most are solid

  • State changes with change in temperature


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B. Table Sections

  • Representative Elements

  • Transition Metals

  • Inner Transition Metals


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Lanthanides - part of period 6

Actinides - part of period 7

B. Table Sections

Overall Configuration


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C. Columns & Rows

  • Group (Family)

  • Period


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Ch. 3 - The Periodic Table

Periodic Trends

Terms

Periodic Trends

Dot Diagrams


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A. Terms

  • Periodic Law

  • Properties of elements repeat periodically when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number.


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A. Terms

  • Valence Electrons

    • e- in the outermost energy level

  • Atomic Radius

  • Measure of the size of an atom


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1A

8A

2A

3A 4A 5A 6A 7A

B. Periodic Trends

  • Group # = # of valence e- (except He)

    • Families have similar reactivity.

  • Period # = # of energy levels


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C. Lewis Diagrams

  • Dots represent the valence e-

  • EX: Sodium

  • EX: Chlorine


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