Securing gene conservation, adaptive and breeding potential of a model multipurpose tree species (
Download
1 / 44

Villani - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 325 Views
  • Updated On :

Securing gene conservation, adaptive and breeding potential of a model multipurpose tree species ( Castanea sativa ) in a dynamic environment. EU Environment Project No. EVK2-CT-1999-00006. P rogramme: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Villani' - Gabriel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Securing gene conservation, adaptive and breeding potential of a model multipurpose tree species (Castanea sativa) in a dynamic environment

EU Environment Project

No. EVK2-CT-1999-00006

Programme:Energy, Environment andSustainable Development

Key Action: Global Change, Climateand Biodiversity

Thematic Priority:Assessing and PreservingBiodiversity


BIOTA of a model multipurpose tree species (cluster: 23 projects

Aims

  • Assess and predict the impact of major drivers of biodiversity

  • Develop tools, such as biodiversity indicators, to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

  • Seek to identify and resolve conflicts between society, economy and biodiversity

  • Support the conservation of biodiversity by creating databases on the taxonomy, biology and ecology of Europe’s plants and animals

    EU Contact point: Karin Zaunberger Scientific Officer, Biodiversity and Ecosystems [email protected]

    Website coordinator: Juliette Joung, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology [email protected]


General context and mission statement of a model multipurpose tree species (

Context

Castanea sativa: a model multipurpose tree species important for Mediterranean landscape and rural diversification

Its biodiversity at risk due to:

  • domestication and silvicultural practices

  • fungal attacks

  • climatic changes

    Mission statement

  • to assess the genetic biodiversity of this model species in relation to major evolutionary factors and human impacts

  • to project its future response under the expected changes of environmental conditions

  • to develop optimized long-term strategies of conservation and sustainable management of forest tree resources

  • to develop a multidisciplinary study model (from gene level to sustainable management) to be extended to other multipurpose species


L of a model multipurpose tree species (egislative requirementsor society needs for information

Problems

- Rules for transfer of nuts for reforestation

- Gene conservation plan for the species

- Cost for a sustainable use and conservation of the species


Field Sites of a model multipurpose tree species (

Five countries

Spain, Italy, Greece, France, United Kingdom

Sites representative of three domestication levels

natural stands

coppices

grafted orchards


Fig.1 Chestnut sample sites. Drought stress indexes of a model multipurpose tree species (

Indexes

UK

FRANCE

ITALY

1,2

70, 71

SPAIN

68, 69

GREECE

WP1 – Distribution, autoecology, management

Stress index xi = 2TM-RR (2TM>RR).

Fig. 2. CASCADE sample sites represented on a Digital elevations map (DEM) of Europe

ELEVATION

0 – 200 m 200 – 300 m 300-550 m 550 – 750 m 750 –1000 >1000 m


WP1 Factorial map from the Principal Component Analysysis of the 38 CASCADE weather stands using 12 monthly rainfall and temperature standardized data


WP1 – Distribution, autoecology and management the 38 CASCADE weather stands using 12 monthly rainfall and temperature standardized data

Naturalised

Site level

Climate

Vegetation

Management

Tree level

Height

Diameter

Age (wood cores)

Coppice

Orchard


WP2 - Gene dispersal and genetic make up of populations the 38 CASCADE weather stands using 12 monthly rainfall and temperature standardized data(WP Leader: Phil Aravanopoulos)

  • Population genetics of 78 populations (over 2000 individuals) originating from 5 European countries, using isoenzymeand ISSR markers.

  • Gene flow & spatial genetic structure of 18 populations (over 4000 individuals) originating from 3 European countries, using isoenzyme and SSR markers.


WP2 – Gene dispersal and genetic make-up the 38 CASCADE weather stands using 12 monthly rainfall and temperature standardized data



Materials and methods
Materials and Methods sites

CASCADE Stands

Previous Dataset Stands

Lattice Points


Pca on kriged lattice points
PCA on Kriged Lattice Points sites

PC1 (var. acc. = 42.49%)

PC2 (var. acc. = 24.78%)

PC3 (var. acc. = 13.46%)

PC4 (var. acc. = 7.71%)


Pca on kriged lattice points pc1 to pc3 merged
PCA on Kriged Lattice Points –PC1 to PC3 Merged sites

PC1

PC2

PC3

?

Eastern Turkish Gene Pool

(likely center of diffusion of chestnut)

Greek Gene Pool

Western Turkish Gene Pool


Delineation of gene zones in chestnut
Delineation of gene zones in Chestnut sites

UnitedKingdom

North-WesternItaly

North-EasternItaly

AtlanticFrance

CentralItaly

NorthernGreece

InnerFrance

IntermediateTurkey

EasternTurkey

InnerIberian

SouthernItaly

AtlanticIberian

MediterranenTurkey

SouthernGreece


Gene pools dendrogram on kriged grid points
Gene Pools Dendrogram on Kriged Grid Points sites

Data: Some 1255 regular grid points spread over the whole Europen chestnut range and Turkey. Kriged frequency for each point at 18 alleles from 9 isozyme loci were used.

Methods: PROC CLUSTER on pairwise distance matrix (1-Pearson r). PROC TREE using Ward method.

Inner France

Central Italy

North-Eastern Italy

Atlantic France

North Western Italy

United Kingdom

Southern Italy

Mediterranean Turkey

Inner Iberian

Atlantic Iberian

Northern Greece

Southern Greece

Eastern Turkey

Intermediate Turkey


Canonical discriminant analysis on kriged grid points
Canonical Discriminant Analysis on Kriged Grid Points sites

EasternTurkey

North-EasternItaly

IntermediateTurkey

InnerFrance

SouthernItaly

UnitedKingdom

MediterranenTurkey

AtlanticFrance

North-WesternItaly

CentralItaly

InnerIberian

AtlanticIberian

SouthernGreece

NorthernGreece


Outliers
Outliers sites

Naturalized Stands

Managed Coppices

Fruit Orchards

UnitedKingdom

North-WesternItaly

North-EasternItaly

AtlanticFrance

CentralItaly

NorthernGreece

InnerFrance

IntermediateTurkey

EasternTurkey

InnerIberian

SouthernItaly

AtlanticIberian

MediterranenTurkey

SouthernGreece



WP3 – Adaptive traits sites

Phytotron experiment

6 populations

x

8 trees

x

20 seedlings

4 treatments:

25°C Wet

25°C Dry

32°C Wet

32°C Dry


WP3 – Adaptive traits sites

Figure 3. Additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA%) of height of one year age progenies of Castanea sativa populations in climatic chambers with different temperature and watering treatments


WP3 – Adaptive traits sites

Figure 2. Additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA%) of total dry weight of one year age progenies of Castanea sativa populations in climatic chambers with different temperature and watering treatments


The phenotypic plasticity of a trait was estimated as the difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)


WP3 – Adaptive traits difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)

QTL Mapping

BURSA

X

HOPA

F1


Chestnut map difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)

CHROM.1

CHROM.4

CHROM.5

CHROM.6

CHROM.2

CHROM.3

Dist(cM)

Marker

Dist(cM)

Marker

Dist(cM)

Marker

Dist(cM)

Marker

Dist(cM)

Marker

Dist(cM)

Marker

0

*I818-910-2

0

*PCAGMGCA318

0

*EAACMCAT191

0

*EAAGMCAT55d

0

*E4-600/2

0

*S4-779-1d

0.5

*F10-720/1

2.4

*SSR9A3

4.7

*I7-538/2i

4.4

*Q14-861-1i

6

*F20-1784/1id

8.5

*F3-369-1

10.1

*F10-1230/2

12.9

*EAACMCAT50

13.6

*I873-1046-1

15.2

*I824-677/2g

17.8

*B12-1199/1

17

*X20-984/2d

17

*T15-756-1

19.1

*P14-558-1

18.3

*F7-738-1

19.2

*K4-451/1d

21.4

*Z3-2214-2

20.5

*Q12-738-1

22.3

*EAACMCAT96di

20.8

*R8-1138-1

22.5

*D5-547-1

23.9

*I814-443/1i

21.3

*C9-820/1

23.3

*EAAGMCAT400

23.5

*S4-820/1

23.8

*I828-523/2

21.6

*G17-1784-1

25.9

*PGDH

23.8

*M15-1661/2

25.3

*Z3-633-1

26.5

*T17-1907/1

26.6

*EAACMCTT160

28.1

*N5-1181-1

27.3

*F12-425-1

28.1

*L17-1107/2i

28.6

*EAAGMCAT242

29.1

*B5-779/2

29.1

*N5-1156/2

29.8

*E6-943/2

29.9

*I820-1558/1d

30.3

*QrZAG20

29.6

*R2-738-1

29.4

*I844-580/1i

30.2

*F7-935/2i

30.4

*G11-1661/1d

30.3

*T8-707/2id

31.9

*N6-349-2

32.2

*I810-935/1

30.6

*I820-1661-1

31.6

*I5-1476-1

31.4

*I834-210/1d

31.7

*S4-406/2i

33.5

*I873-1722/1

34.2

*X5-1784-2

31.6

*I873-1907-1

32.9

*Z4-864-2

34.7

*I810-601-1d

34.8

*EAAGMCAT297

32.4

*G18-841-1

33.7

*QrZAG7

35.1

*F10-467/2d

35.6

*L8-492/1

36.3

*K9-959/1

32.5

*F20-1599/1

34.2

*Q6-1169/1

36.7

*G4-1722/1

37

*Q7-523/1

32.5

*I858-1435/1d

34.6

*I18-1169/2

37.9

*F5-523/1

37.5

*I843-1169-1

32.7

*SSR9C1

35.3

*G1-478/2d

37.6

*M4-455/1

38.7

*I843-1199/1id

32.9

*SSR9B8

36.1

*Z13-481/2d

39.5

*K4-615-1d

37.7

*L13-1968-2

33.7

*B4-533/2

36.1

*EAACMCTT103d

38.4

*N9-738/1

40.8

*R2-1476/2d

39.6

*EAAGMCTT251

34.7

*R5-1199/1i

36.3

*S16-1435/1

42.6

*T15-841/2

38.7

*R2-547/1i

39.7

*Z19-697-1d

41.6

*I18-1599-2

35

*I880-964/1d

36.4

*M7-1292/1

39.7

*EAACMCTT47

40.5

*R16-1722-1d

41.9

*I11-656/1

35

*E6-1107/2d

37.2

*I852-1132/1d

40

*G17-959/1

44.9

*EAACMCAT103

43.2

*K9-1230/1id

38.3

*EAACMCAT54

37.5

*I824-1138/1d

40.2

*K3-1435/1

43.7

*E4-1599/2

46.1

*L13-1230/1

38.3

*I818-1661-1

41.2

*I825-820/1

40.2

*G19-1169/2

44.6

*L4-492/2

39

*Q6-443-1

41.2

*B5-935-1

40.7

*M5-358-1

47.7

*N2-861/2

45.1

*DIA

39.2

*F20-738/1d

41.7

*I836-820/1

41.2

*I848-707/1

47.9

*Q14-1722/2

47.9

*QrZAG31B

45.6

*L12-297/1

40

*B4-560-2

42.1

*K20-580/1

41.2

*E4-1156-2

48.6

*G19-584/2

45.7

*X15-1845/1

49.2

*F17-738/1

41.2

*Z3-1261/2

42.7

*QpZAG36

41.7

*EAAGMCTT129

46

*I858-297-2id

48.7

*N5-943/1

43.4

*PEX

44.1

*A2-1169-2

42.2

*K6-720/2

50.6

*B12-1082/2d

48.9

*K9-2091-1

46.3

*I848-603/2

47.2

*N4-964-2

43.5

*Q1-338/1

42.7

*I7-1169/1d

49.3

*E1-588/1

46.3

*I858-720/1

51.7

*K12-935/2d

48.1

*G13-523/1

43.8

*R11-1199-1

43.8

*Z4-1199-1

46.8

*Z19-615/1

49.6

*F15-569/2d

53.1

*I828-1538/2d

50

*F10-554-2

44.4

*I844-1907/2

46.1

*EAACMCAT150

47.2

*E1-2337/1d

52.1

*I7-2030-1

52

*I834-246/1

44.9

*I12-443/1

46.2

*T17-633-2g

54.3

*A15-707/2d

52.6

*I841-230/2

47.3

*I11-492/1

52.4

*L17-1199/2

45.6

*EAAGMCAT102

46.6

*A16-418/2

55.9

*D13-425-1

53.4

*D1-1261-1

47.5

*B12-1558/1

46.8

*QpZAG119

48.9

*EAACMCTT97i

47.9

*M6-1476/1

54.7

*M6-886/2

57.2

*F10-1517/1d

47.5

*F19-685/1

49.2

*I836-661/1

54.7

*B12-697/1

48.3

*D12-1907/2

48.7

*Q4-1292-1

49.6

*I823-738/1

51.9

*EAAGMCAT82

54.7

*Q6-685/2

49.4

*EAACMCAT75

51.4

*EAACMCAT160

52.1

*R15-800-1d

54.9

*S12-1169/2

52.1

*L13-1476/1

52.9

*Q12-1046-2i

52.9

*I881-1784/1

55.1

*L4-547/1

53.4

*Z3-800/1

53.5

*I815-692/2

53.6

*I843-707-1d

55.5

*N9-1261-1

53.9

*D12-328/1

56.8

*D1-886/2d

62.5

*A16-1033-2

55.7

*X5-683/1

53.7

*F9-843/1d

55.4

*K7-277/1

63.5

*EAAGMCAT136d

54.3

*QrZAG5

55.7

*M2-492-1

64

*D13-779-1

55.6

*M15-1205/2

55.7

*I825-984-1

54.7

*N9-349-2di

65

*QpZAG9b

56.5

*A1-964-2

65

*K20-1076-1

56.3

*G1-984/1

56

*K20-2030/1

66

*I18-861/1

57.2

*D13-278/1

66

*A12-984-2

57

*C9-1784/1d

56.2

*D1-1722/1

58.4

*Z3-1322/2i

66.4

*Z18-1046/1

58.7

*S12-467-1d

56.7

*F7-1784/1

59.7

*PGI

59.3

*S12-584-2id

57.5

*Q9-1169/2

61

*I845-226-1

62.1

*T15-480-2

57.7

*A2-723/1

63.6

*S11-703-1

67

*E7-554/2d

58.7

*EAACMCTT173di

72.5

*I814-1476-2

67.2

*Z19-1476-1

59.1

*I814-507/2i

69.4

*B10-1599/1d

59.5

*A2-1009-2

72

*A1-1558-2

59.8

*G17-1076/1

60.7

*EAAGMCAT158

73

*D7-650-1

61.1

*R4-2153/2

61.8

*F5-1907-1

79

*N1-600-2

61.9

*I810-341/2i

64.3

*S13-787-1

79.5

*X20-492-2

69.9

*E20-424/1

80.9

*N12-685/1

70

*R15-465/1

70.2

*Z7-1046-1

71.2

*I814-935-1

74.5

*K6-1681-1

77.5

*I881-394/2id

85.9

*F10-1558/1

91.5

*Z19-538/2

92.9

*I11-836-2

92.7

*Q10-1907-1

WP3 – Adaptive traits


WP3 – Adaptive traits difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)


WP3 – Adaptive traits difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)

Comparative field trials


WP3 – Adaptive traits difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)

Field trials: 6 (Spain, Italy, Greece)

Each site: 6 provenances x 26 trees x 20 progenies

Site plantation description:

Physiography, Soil, Climate

Variables recorded:

Survival, Vigour, Branching habit, Bud set,

Leaf fall, Bud burst, Carbon Isotope Discr.


WP4 – Variation in disease resistance difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)(WP Leader Andrea Vannini)

Field survey

78 selected sites

Resistance tests

Seedlings

9 pops x 3 DL x 8 trees x 20 seedlings

Adults

9 pops x3 DLx 26 trees


WP4 – Variation in disease resistance difference between the highest and lowest mean in a population divided by the trait mean value for this population according to Schlichting and Levin ( 1986)

Phytophora distribution


Table 6: Annual household willingness to pay for policies to promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)

Table 6: Annual household willingness to pay for policies to promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)

WP5 – Socio Economic evaluation

Specific actions

use general public surveys (1025 questionnaires) in Italy, Greece and France to examine at consumption of chestnut related goods for food, timber and recreation;

estimate production costs and revenue in Italy;.

investigate local preferences for possible policy solutions that can support development;

use choice experiments to investigate the costs and benefitsof maintaining the species.


WP5 – Socio Economic Evaluation promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)


WP5 – Socio Economic Evaluation promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)


WP5 – Socio Economic Evaluation promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)

Conclusions

in some areas the species can play an important role in promoting local identity and social cohesion as well as helping to maintain landscape character;

where cultivation of the species is well established, it has the potential to form the basis of initiatives that can be developed for the benefit of local communities;

public initiatives related to tourism, origin certification and restoration of traditional forest types are preferred by those members of the public sampled in our surveys;

in general, there is the potential for greater economic exploitation of the species and its products (e.g. timber, food products);

to promote rural development more should be done at a regional or national level to encourage a more complete exploitation of the species at the local level;

to encourage improved exploitation there is a need for businesses to have access to improved information, better marketing channels and greater inward investment;

· the estimated Willingness To Pay of local communities suggests that funding of programmes to support chestnut cultivation could yield substantial local benefits.


WP6 – Strategy for Integrated conservation and utilization promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)

Computation of the conservation values for the Italian stands, based on intrinsic biodiversity (h), extrinsic biodiversity (g) and biodiversity dynamics (r) components. Stand conservation value (Vc) is calculated as the distance of the stand position in the space of the above components from the origin of axes in the corresponding 3­dimensional graph (red line).


Castanea sativa gene conservation promote chestnut cultivation in Italy and France (EU, 2002)


WP3-MPBS means that the combined breeding and gene resource population is split into appoximately 20 subpopulation each with a Ne of 50 genetic entries.The loss of additive variance in each subpopulation will be 1% per generation


Multiple population breeding system population is split into appoximately 20 subpopulation each with a Ne of 50 genetic entries.The loss of additive variance in each subpopulation will be 1% per generation


Skills and contact details population is split into appoximately 20 subpopulation each with a Ne of 50 genetic entries.The loss of additive variance in each subpopulation will be 1% per generation

PARTNERS and COLLABORATORS:

1. IAS - Fiorella Villani – [email protected]

2. UTUSCIA – Andrea Vannini - [email protected]

3. SLU – Gösta Eriksson – [email protected]

4. HRI – Karen Russell - [email protected]

5. DCAUNITO – Roberto Botta – [email protected]

6. UNEW – Guy Garrod – [email protected]

7. CNRS 13E CEFE – Francois Romane [email protected]

8. INRA – Cecil Robin [email protected]

9. CIFL – Josefa Fernandez Lopez - [email protected]

10. AUTH – Phil Aravanoupoulos - [email protected]

11. NAGREF – Stephanos Diamandis - [email protected]

EC OFFICERS: Martin Sharman, Karin Zaunberger


Contribution of CASCADE to BAP population is split into appoximately 20 subpopulation each with a Ne of 50 genetic entries.The loss of additive variance in each subpopulation will be 1% per generation

1. establishing a network between European centres of excellence in biodiversity research in order to foster basic research into the importance and functioning of biodiversity on all levels.

2. promoting the implementation of appropriate research activities concerning the functional mechanisms of the natural evolution of biodiversity, including tools and methods needed to implement the biodiversity policy objectives.

3. increasing knowledge about how to safeguard biodiversity in nature, agriculture, forestry and fisheries and its wider role in life-support systems.

4. increasing the understanding of how the biosphere functions at different spatial scales: global, regional and local level and understanding of the effect of human activities on life-support systems.

5. assisting in identifying the necessary changes in legislation, programmes and political actions for the conservation and sustainable use and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of biodiversity. This should include addressing the policy, organisational and management factors affecting the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in Third Countries, in the context of economic globalization.

6. promoting research activities using molecular methods in biodiversity measurement and validation of these technologies.

7. promoting the creation of tools and choices for partners in the conservation and utilisation of biodiversity, including research on clean technologies and on ex-situ conservation technologies.

8. promoting the evaluation of the various forms of biodiversity from the perspective of all societal actors.


9. supporting the development of a global interface with Third Countries, addressing in particular the sustainable use and management of biodiversity in transition economies, as well as in emerging ones and developing countries. 10. develop a baseline study to identify and catalogue important components of biodiversity that exist -in situ or ex situ-, or that have become extinct in the last 50 years.11. identify the conservation status and trends of components of biodiversity. 12. identify relevant pressures and threats, together with their causes, on components of biodiversity. 13. apply modern taxonomy to build scientific tools for policy on conservation and sustainable use, aiming , inter alia, to fulfil gaps in taxonomy knowledge. 14. promote the development of a system of indicators based on a species and ecosystems approach. 15. identify a set of indicators to assess how components of biodiversity are affected by [each economic] sector and assess progress on the implementation of the strategy. 16. develop mechanisms for monitoring the evolution of the indicators having regard, inter alia, to activities causing habitat degradation, unsustainable harvesting, emission of pollutants and release or spread into the environment of alien species and genetically or living modified organisms.

Contribution of CASCADE to BAP