This week: FRIDAY, Noon to 1:30pm in Latzer Hall at the University YMCA Professor David Stovall, UIC " More of the Same: Arne Duncan, Barack Obama and the Conundrum of National Education Reform" Dave Stovall, Professor of Policy Studies and African American Studies
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"More of the Same: Arne Duncan, Barack Obama and the Conundrum of National Education Reform"Dave Stovall, Professor of Policy Studies and African American Studies
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has promised to roll out a national educational reform program based on the "turnaround" model developed in Chicago under the guise of Renaissance 2010, a policy aimed at closing new schools and re-opening them with new staff and curriculum. Absent from this "reform" model is the reality of mass-displacement of low-income families by way of free-market rationales centered in the rhetoric of "competition." As education remains high on the priority list of the Obama administration, those who are concerned with developing quality and equitable education still need to ask critical questions of these new "reforms."
Ph. D. from
What kind of society would we have if we could not TRUST our institutions to follow set rules?
Doctors 85% our institutions to follow set rules?
Police Officers 75%
Military Officers 72%
Ordinary person 66%
Civil Servants 62%
The President 48%
TV Newscasters 44%
Union Leaders 30%
Actors 26%Harris Poll harrisinteractive.comPolitical Economy InstitutionsHealth Education Research Religion Military etc.
John Locke (1632-1704) “Two Treatises on Government”
Outlines a liberal state (1690) JEFFERSON AGREES
LOCKE writes about:
1. Representative Government
2. Inalienable Rights “no one ought to harm
another in his life, health, liberty or possession”
3. “No man's knowledge here can go beyond his experience.”
4. Reasonable people would follow the laws of civil society, not everyone is as reasonable as needed, so the state is allowed some control over citizens.
What elements of classical liberalism inform this?
RELIGION in Schools our institutions to follow set rules?MAINSTREAM VIEW Dr. Benjamin Rush (PA) (see Tozer, 47-49) “changed government” now need to change “principles, opinions, and manners”
AIMS OF SCHOOLING
Benjamin Rush “A Christian cannot fail of being a republican.” (Tozer, 47-49) “without virtue there can be no liberty.”
Does not resolve which religions would
control the schools….Pan Protestantism
is intended, local control.
Jefferson (not majority view): post-revolutionary America inherited a
Believes that moral training is needed (family and community norms)
Don’t use Bible in schools
Stresses discipline and intellectual training in school.
If separation of church and state was part of
the move toward a modern state– what would the
first public schools (common schools do about the
religious character and use of the Bible as a central
text in the colonial schools?
Webster American Spelling Book Contained:
Law requires moment of silence in Illinois schools
Issue date: 10/22/07
Illinois public school students will be required to observe a moment of silence at the beginning of every school day under a new law.
In your view, why did Illinois recently pass a bill to require a moment of silence at the start of the school day?
Illinois “Moment of silence” law
How would you interpret this editorial cartoon? require a moment of silence at the start of the school day?
Supporters say the goal is to give students a bit of peace and quiet to reflect on the day ahead - "to listen to the rustling of leaves, to listen to the chirping of a bird, to listen to the tip-tap of a child walking,"
said state Rep. Monique Davis.
But critics called the measure an attempt to promote organized school prayer.
"It may not mandate prayer, but that's what it's about,"
said Rep. Lou Lang.
CHICAGO – 12-2007-When high school freshman Dawn Sherman learned that Illinois had a new law requiring public schools to provide a moment of silence each day for "reflection and student prayer," she was outraged.Not because the law meant lost learning time in her honors math class -- which would be 15 seconds shorter -- but because "it was clear that we're supposed to sit and pray, or sit and watch other people pray," said Dawn, who is an atheist.
“NOT BORN INTO SOCIAL POSITION”
“LAY THE AX TO THE PSEUDO ARISTOCRACY”
PROPOSAL The 4 interrelated tiers and their purpose:
1. Elementary for boys and girls (3 years, basic skills) 3 years of FREE elementary school for both boys and girls who were white
*2. Grammar for boys only, up to 6 years, advanced skills and languages) Model already existed as tuition schools for a small group able to afford it.
*3. University for some boys (study of science)
4. Self-Education and life-long learning (Libraries, newspapers)
“The people are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.”
Difference of opinion leads to inquiry, inquiry leads to truth.
Sorting Machine Model** Illinois.
Locating the Natural Aristocracy was a sorting function of Jefferson’s school plan.
“does not depend
on condition of life
in which chance
has placed them”
Aristocracy born to
Jefferson’s view of the natural aristocracy– elite should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38)
John ADAMS’ OBJECTIONS
Is Jefferson’s educational system the best way to locate leaders?
At the time, John Adams argues NO
Agrees there are differences in men
Today, some talk about a Modern should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38) Democratic Theory that adds “Talk-centric” to “Vote-centric”Aim is: Less concentration of power…..
We the people….
VIRTUES that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and,
to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise) and then make changes in the arrangements of life.
Citizens need to have virtues that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise).
“unalienable rights” “consent of the governed”
Free and open debate.
Who is at the table?
Right to disagree The most distinctive aspects of democracy are…..
But can we work
Will the “Natural Aristocracy” SERVE THE PUBLIC OR develop SELF-INTERESTS and want to preserve their power and influence?
What fights against corruption in a representative government?
Voting the bums outJefferson’s Natural AristocracyMost Talented—Reason & VirtueEducated…in grammar and university
Mind as a muscle, needs "exercise" and discipline.
“Don’t be intellectual girly men.”
“You’ve got to pump it up”
Hans and Frans
Not born ready
IDEOLOGY Classical Liberals concept about human
Like Jefferson adopt John Locke’s view of human nature(Tozer, 30)
Humans have the capacity for REASON
The idea is that life is not predetermined, but allows for opportunities for balance and hard work based on acting with virtue..
Why was education limited for women in the Colonial period? concept about human IDEOLOGY shaped WOMEN’S position in society and views about education. (Tozer, Chapter 2)
(FOR MORE SEE Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)
Led a few educated women to engage with classical liberal ideas outside of their traditional role.
marriage, divorce, contracts, etc.
John Adams told his daughter to study French rather than Latin and Greek typical for boys, would not be reputable for a girl to study Latin and Greek.
(If you want to read more—see Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)
WOMEN TO CHALLENGE SOME
OF THE BARRIERS TO THEIR EQUALITY
Some women gained a more liberal education through their families, and some spoke out.
Shifts in religion, science, economy made female education more important in upper class colonial society.
God was at a distance, humans greater responsibility for their lives.
**John Locke’s view of rationality, no distinction based on sex (different from Classical Liberal view)
Presence of a few educated women who spoke out
“The Vindication of the Rights of Women” demanded the same rights as men
“How could women advance
without education?” When was this equality achieved in US?
In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational success), the highest ranked public institution in the state?
In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational triumph) the highest ranked public institution in the state?
B) 1954 (Jefferson’s educational success), the highest ranked public institution in the state?
1971 (Jefferson’s educational success), the highest ranked public institution in the state?
Court orders University of Virginia to admit womenBefore 1975, how did women fare regarding access to higher education? Key court case and legislation.
Like cracks in the wall.
Examples of Regress in History today?1826 SCHOOLING OPPORTUNITIESBoston opened a Classical High School for GirlsDesire for education among women…..
Directed by Ebenezer Bailey
1. REASON (overcame original sin, proof of human capacity was Enlightenment thought)
2. VIRTUE (humans could be good or evil)
Both were needed for Republican government
VIRTUES WERE Duty, piety, love of country, austere living, strict observance of the moral code, work ethic, sacrifice for the public good
COMMUNITY, STATE, FEDERAL Levels
What was needed? The right education.
BELIEFS --ROOTS OF A STRONG DEMOCRACY “education for all” became more important.Jefferson argued for some of the elements of democratic empowerment of each citizen that would be part of our modern sensibilities.
1783 first spelling book
Changed British system
colour = color
Stressed moral development
Webster American Spelling Book Contained:
Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:
Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:
“A wise child loves to learn his book; but the fool would choose to play with toys.”
“Sloth keeps such a hold of some clowns, that they lie in bed when they should go to school; but a boy that wants to be wise will drive sleep far from him.”
Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:
“Love him that loves his book, and speaks good words and does no harm; for such a friend may do thee good all the days of thy life.”
Aim: Humble, devout, and law abiding citizens
What curriculum? Reading, writing, math, history, and Christian morality
Need a copy of Exam 1? See me upfront “education for all” became more important.
No lecture next Tuesday, use
this time to work on Exam 1.
Today Quick Write #4
You will respond as the class
Why or why not?
Raises questions about role of citizen
If so, what were you told?
Why do you think that this story was important?