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This week: FRIDAY, Noon to 1:30pm in Latzer Hall at the University YMCA Professor David Stovall, UIC " More of the Same: Arne Duncan, Barack Obama and the Conundrum of National Education Reform" Dave Stovall, Professor of Policy Studies and African American Studies

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this week friday noon to 1 30pm in latzer hall at the university ymca professor david stovall uic
This week: FRIDAY, Noon to 1:30pm in Latzer Hall at the University YMCA Professor David Stovall, UIC

"More of the Same: Arne Duncan, Barack Obama and the Conundrum of National Education Reform"Dave Stovall, Professor of Policy Studies and African American Studies

Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has promised to roll out a national educational reform program based on the "turnaround" model developed in Chicago under the guise of Renaissance 2010, a policy aimed at closing new schools and re-opening them with new staff and curriculum.  Absent from this "reform" model is the reality of mass-displacement of low-income families by way of free-market rationales centered in the rhetoric of "competition."  As education remains high on the priority list of the Obama administration, those who are concerned with developing quality and equitable education still need to ask critical questions of these new "reforms."

Received his

Ph. D. from

EPS UIUC

slide2
What kind of society would we have if we could not TRUST our institutions to follow set rules?
slide4
Doctors 85%

Teachers 83%

Scientists 77%

Police Officers 75%

Professors 75%

Clergy 74%

Military Officers 72%

Judges 70%

Accountants 68%

Ordinary person 66%

Civil Servants 62%

Bankers 62%

The President 48%

TV Newscasters 44%

Athletes 43%

Journalists 39%

Congress 35%

Pollsters 34%

Union Leaders 30%

Stockbrokers 29%

Lawyer 27%

Actors 26%

Harris Poll harrisinteractive.comPolitical Economy InstitutionsHealth Education Research Religion Military etc.
slide5
Declaration of IndependenceHow do these ideas translate? Words into a state. What kind of school is needed?
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. --That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --……laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence.
slide6
British political philosopher JOHN LOCKE’S PART OF THE IDEOLOGY FOR REVOLUTION AND POST REVOLUTION NATION BUILDING

John Locke (1632-1704) “Two Treatises on Government”

Outlines a liberal state (1690) JEFFERSON AGREES

LOCKE writes about:

1. Representative Government

2. Inalienable Rights “no one ought to harm

another in his life, health, liberty or possession”

3. “No man\'s knowledge here can go beyond his experience.”

4. Reasonable people would follow the laws of civil society, not everyone is as reasonable as needed, so the state is allowed some control over citizens.

institutions that influence schools jefferson wanted to limit the influence of the church
INSTITUTIONS THAT INFLUENCE SCHOOLSJEFFERSON WANTED TO LIMIT THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH.

Why?

What elements of classical liberalism inform this?

slide8

RELIGION in Schools MAINSTREAM VIEW Dr. Benjamin Rush (PA) (see Tozer, 47-49) “changed government” now need to change “principles, opinions, and manners”

AIMS OF SCHOOLING

  • Create a more homogeneous population
  • To have freedom, one needs restraints internalized “BOUNDED LIBERTY”
  • Grounded in religion “humility, self-denial, and brotherly kindness”
    • PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR RELIGION IN SCHOOLS
from colonial puritan views about children and learning post revolutionary america inherited a
From colonial, Puritan views about children and learning, post-revolutionary America inherited a
  • Legacy of religious training

Benjamin Rush “A Christian cannot fail of being a republican.” (Tozer, 47-49) “without virtue there can be no liberty.”

  • Legacy of harsh discipline

Does not resolve which religions would

control the schools….Pan Protestantism

is intended, local control.

slide10
Jefferson (not majority view):

Believes that moral training is needed (family and community norms)

Don’t use Bible in schools

Stresses discipline and intellectual training in school.

slide11
INSTITUTIONS JEFFERSON WANTED TO LIMIT THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH. WHY?IDEOLOGYBELIEF IN REASON AND CONSENT

If separation of church and state was part of

the move toward a modern state– what would the

first public schools (common schools do about the

religious character and use of the Bible as a central

text in the colonial schools?

what kinds of books were used in the common schools noah webster s american spelling book
What kinds of books were used in the COMMON SCHOOLS?Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book**

http://www.merrycoz.org/books/spelling/SPELLING.HTM

Webster American Spelling Book Contained:

  • Protestant Catechism
  • Moral lessons
  • Politics
  • Americanization of spelling English words
class survey do you support this law yes or no give the most important reason for your response
Class survey: Do you supportthis law? Yes or No Give the most important reasonfor your response.

Law requires moment of silence in Illinois schools

Issue date: 10/22/07

Illinois public school students will be required to observe a moment of silence at the beginning of every school day under a new law.

slide14
In your view, why did Illinois recently pass a bill to require a moment of silence at the start of the school day?

Illinois “Moment of silence” law

http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-silence24dec24,1,5677773.story

illinois sb 1463 the house and senate overrode the governor s veto
ILLINOIS SB 1463 – The House and Senate overrode the Governor’s veto.
  • Sec. 1. In each public school classroom the teacher in charge shall may observe a brief period of silence with the participation of all the pupils therein assembled at the opening of every school day. This period shall not be conducted as a religious exercise but shall be an opportunity for silent prayer or for silent reflection on the anticipated activities of the day.
slide18
Supporters say the goal is to give students a bit of peace and quiet to reflect on the day ahead - "to listen to the rustling of leaves, to listen to the chirping of a bird, to listen to the tip-tap of a child walking,"

said state Rep. Monique Davis.

slide19
But critics called the measure an attempt to promote organized school prayer.

"It may not mandate prayer, but that\'s what it\'s about,"

said Rep. Lou Lang.

already a lawsuit against the moment of silence law in illinois
Already a lawsuit against the Moment of Silence Law in Illinois.

CHICAGO – 12-2007-When high school freshman Dawn Sherman learned that Illinois had a new law requiring public schools to provide a moment of silence each day for "reflection and student prayer," she was outraged.Not because the law meant lost learning time in her honors math class -- which would be 15 seconds shorter -- but because "it was clear that we\'re supposed to sit and pray, or sit and watch other people pray," said Dawn, who is an atheist.

natural aristocracy
Natural Aristocracy

“NOT BORN INTO SOCIAL POSITION”

“LAY THE AX TO THE PSEUDO ARISTOCRACY”

slide22
SCHOOL Jefferson’s EducationPlan for Virginia See Tozer, 38-45Jefferson’s Ideal to EducateCitizens for a Republic

PROPOSAL The 4 interrelated tiers and their purpose:

1. Elementary for boys and girls (3 years, basic skills) 3 years of FREE elementary school for both boys and girls who were white

  • Subject matter: reading, writing, arithmetic, history (Greek, Roman, English, American-- to judge mistakes of the past)

*2. Grammar for boys only, up to 6 years, advanced skills and languages) Model already existed as tuition schools for a small group able to afford it.

  • Languages were at center of curriculum (Greek, Latin, English), advanced math, geometry, geography, and navigation

*3. University for some boys (study of science)

4. Self-Education and life-long learning (Libraries, newspapers)

“The people are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.”

Difference of opinion leads to inquiry, inquiry leads to truth.

slide23
Sorting Machine Model**

Locating the Natural Aristocracy was a sorting function of Jefferson’s school plan.

jefferson sought to break the hold of family privilege aristocracy and the power of wealth
Jefferson sought to break the hold of family privilege (aristocracy) and the power of wealth

“does not depend

on condition of life

in which chance

has placed them”

Aristocracy born to

hold power

slide25

Jefferson’s view of the natural aristocracy– elite should be based on virtue and talent (Tozer, 36-38)

John ADAMS’ OBJECTIONS

Is Jefferson’s educational system the best way to locate leaders?

At the time, John Adams argues NO

Agrees there are differences in men

  • BUT CAUTIONS
    • Many kinds of talents
    • We should have no aristocracy at all
    • Any concentration of power is bad.
slide26

Today, some talk about a Modern Democratic Theory that adds “Talk-centric” to “Vote-centric”Aim is: Less concentration of power…..

Institutions of

government

We the people….

slide27
A stronger democracy would focus on more than just voting. The most distinctive aspects of democracy are…..

VIRTUES that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and,

to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise) and then make changes in the arrangements of life.

most distinctive feature of liberal democracy
Most distinctive feature of liberal democracy:

Citizens need to have virtues that combine to create the ability and willingness to question political authority and to engage in public debate (public reasonableness rather than self-interest, persuasion, compromise).

“unalienable rights” “consent of the governed”

deliberative democracy voice rather than vote is the vehicle of empowerment
Deliberative Democracy“Voice rather than vote is the vehicle of empowerment.”

Free and open debate.

Who is at the table?

19th Century??

21st Century??

slide30

Right to disagree

But can we work

out compromises?

jefferson s natural aristocracy most talented reason virtue educated in grammar and university
Will the “Natural Aristocracy” SERVE THE PUBLIC OR develop SELF-INTERESTS and want to preserve their power and influence?

What fights against corruption in a representative government?

Disclosure/Transparency

Voting the bums out

Jefferson’s Natural AristocracyMost Talented—Reason & VirtueEducated…in grammar and university
slide34
EDUCABILITY

PLASTICITY

POTENTIAL

PROGRESS

slide35
What was the psychology of learning of Jefferson’s day? Faculty Psychology comes out of colonial school model (Tozer, 42).

Mind as a muscle, needs "exercise" and discipline.

  • Idleness ruins the mind

“Don’t be intellectual girly men.”

“You’ve got to pump it up”

Hans and Frans

locke s most famous concept about human nature and learning
Locke’s most famous concept about human nature and learning

Not born ready

for self-governance.

Need EXPERIENCES

and

EDUCATION.

slide37

IDEOLOGY Classical Liberals

Like Jefferson adopt John Locke’s view of human nature(Tozer, 30)

Humans have the capacity for REASON

The idea is that life is not predetermined, but allows for opportunities for balance and hard work based on acting with virtue..

Need EXPERIENCES

and

EDUCATION.

slide38

Why was education limited for women in the Colonial period? IDEOLOGY shaped WOMEN’S position in society and views about education. (Tozer, Chapter 2)

  • BELIEFS of SCIENCE AND RELIGION WOMEN’S NATURE more emotion, less reason (physically smaller brains, weaker)
  • BELIEF RELIGIONProtestant view that Adam formed first, and women were responsible for original sin.
  • BELIEF WOMEN’S ROLE IN PRIVATE SPHERE--duties as wives, mothers, and some role in home production
women s education colonial to 1776
WOMEN’S EDUCATIONColonial to 1776
  • Colonial --Idea of college education would be dismissed. PLACE (family, society PE) AND ABILITIES (views about reason I). Women lower literacy rates than men, 1770, fewer women could write or sign their name (50% of women, 80% of men).
  • Post Revolution –EDUCATION SEEN AS MORE VITAL for the Republic. Abigail Adams and others sought “a place for learned women” A new democratic ideal which changed society, created divisiveness about slavery, but not about the status of women. New constitution gave some men more rights.
abigail adams writes to post revolution john adams 1776
Abigail Adams writes to POST REVOLUTION John Adams, 1776
  • Educate girls and women “for the Benefits of the rising Generation”
  • Distinguish the “new constitution” for its value of “learning and virtue”
  • Heroes should include learned women
  • Early education is critical and children’s “first principles” are learned from a mother.

(FOR MORE SEE Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)

ideas social changes inspired in post revolution america
IDEAS SOCIAL CHANGES INSPIRED IN POST REVOLUTION AMERICA

Led a few educated women to engage with classical liberal ideas outside of their traditional role.

  • 1776 Prompted Abigail Adams to urge protection for women under the new Constitution.
  • Outcome: left to STATES, and no vote.
    • States controlled property rights,

marriage, divorce, contracts, etc.

jefferson and the education of his own daughter martha
Jefferson and the Education of his own daughter Martha
  • Reading best literature
  • Sciences
  • Equipped to head her own family if needed

John Adams told his daughter to study French rather than Latin and Greek typical for boys, would not be reputable for a girl to study Latin and Greek.

(If you want to read more—see Barbara Solomon, “Chapter 1: Forbidden World” pages 1-13. In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Solomon, 13)

slide43

WOEMN were not equal, but Enlightenment Thinking OPENED THE DOOR FOR

WOMEN TO CHALLENGE SOME

OF THE BARRIERS TO THEIR EQUALITY

Some women gained a more liberal education through their families, and some spoke out.

Shifts in religion, science, economy made female education more important in upper class colonial society.

God was at a distance, humans greater responsibility for their lives.

**John Locke’s view of rationality, no distinction based on sex (different from Classical Liberal view)

Presence of a few educated women who spoke out

slide44
Mary Wollstonecraft wrote The Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 Read by John and Abigail Adams

“The Vindication of the Rights of Women” demanded the same rights as men

  • Educate boys and girls the same
  • Give women the right to vote
  • Open the professions to women

“How could women advance

without education?” When was this equality achieved in US?

slide45
In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational success), the highest ranked public institution in the state?
million dollar question
Million dollar question

In what year could women attend the University of Virginia (Jefferson’s educational triumph) the highest ranked public institution in the state?

  • A) 1966 B) 1954
  • C) 1971 D) 1870
slide47
B) 1954

C) 1971

before 1975 how did women fare regarding access to higher education key court case and legislation
1971

Court orders University of Virginia to admit women

Before 1975, how did women fare regarding access to higher education? Key court case and legislation.
1972 congress passes title ix
1972 Congress passes Title IX
  • Which prohibits institutions that receive federal funding from gender discrimination in educational programs or activities
    • Because almost all schools receive federal funds, Title IX applies to nearly everyone.
examples of regress in history post revolution crack in the barrier to rights
Examples of Regress in HistoryPost RevolutionCrack in the barrier to rights.
  • 75 women in Elizabeth NJ seized the opportunity, some continued to vote until 1807, new act “free white male citizens over 21, worth 50 pounds, clear estate.”

Like cracks in the wall.

slide53

Examples of Regress in History1826 SCHOOLING OPPORTUNITIESBoston opened a Classical High School for GirlsDesire for education among women…..

Directed by Ebenezer Bailey

  • So successful, long waiting list of applicants
  • Closed school after 3 years
  • Not another high school in Boston for girls until 1852, Girls High School opened as part of the Normal School
no accident that in the post revolution period that education for all became more important
No accident that in the Post-Revolution Period that “education for all” became more important.
  • Education of sons in preparation for citizenship
  • Some literacy needed for family responsibilities
  • Changing roles for women new role as teachers after 1840s
key takeaways ideology 2 key elements of classical liberal thought human nature held possibilities
Key Takeaways IDEOLOGY 2 KEY ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL LIBERAL THOUGHTHUMAN NATURE HELD POSSIBILITIES

1. REASON (overcame original sin, proof of human capacity was Enlightenment thought)

2. VIRTUE (humans could be good or evil)

Both were needed for Republican government

VIRTUES WERE Duty, piety, love of country, austere living, strict observance of the moral code, work ethic, sacrifice for the public good

  • Women’s virtues were different from men: piety, submissiveness, purity, domesticity
slide56
CLASSICAL LIBERALISM CONCERNS….Balance between INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS and the protection and stability of a STATE

COMMUNITY, STATE, FEDERAL Levels

Government….

  • Could infringe upon civil liberties by government only for important reasons.
  • Fear of too much governmental control.
  • Fear of control by the church.
  • Fear about corruption of elected officials.
  • Human nature such that a need to control appetites of individuals, tempered by reason.

What was needed? The right education.

slide57

BELIEFS --ROOTS OF A STRONG DEMOCRACYJefferson argued for some of the elements of democratic empowerment of each citizen that would be part of our modern sensibilities.

  • Believing in the individual’s right and responsibility to participate publicly. [Influenced by specific social role, class, and gender, limited voting rights (white males with property]
  • Having a sense of political efficacy—that YOU can make a difference. [Especially at local level]
  • Coming to value the principles of democratic life—equality, community, and liberty.
  • Knowing that alternative social arrangements to the status quo exist and are worthwhile[How to get change?]
  • Gaining the requisite intellectual skills to participate in deliberation---public debate. [Education was critical]
textbooks 1783 noah webster s american spelling book
TEXTBOOKS 1783Noah Webster’s**American Spelling Book

1783 first spelling book

Americanize language

(Nationalism)

Changed British system

colour = color

Stressed moral development

what kinds of books were used in schools noah webster s american spelling book
What kinds of books were used in schools?Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book**

http://www.merrycoz.org/books/spelling/SPELLING.HTM

Webster American Spelling Book Contained:

  • Protestant Catechism
  • Moral lessons
  • Politics
  • Americanization of spelling English words
how did children learn virtues one way in school noah webster s american spelling book
How did children learn virtues??One way, in school.Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book

Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:

  • “Be kind to all as far as you can; you know not how soon you may want their help; and he that has the good will of all that know him, shall not want a friend in the time of need.”
noah webster s american spelling book 1783 first spelling book
Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book1783 first spelling book

Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:

“A wise child loves to learn his book; but the fool would choose to play with toys.”

“Sloth keeps such a hold of some clowns, that they lie in bed when they should go to school; but a boy that wants to be wise will drive sleep far from him.”

noah webster s american spelling book 1783 first spelling book62
Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book1783 first spelling book

Sayings in Webster’s spelling book:

“Love him that loves his book, and speaks good words and does no harm; for such a friend may do thee good all the days of thy life.”

Aim: Humble, devout, and law abiding citizens

What curriculum? Reading, writing, math, history, and Christian morality

slide63

Need a copy of Exam 1? See me upfront

Massachusetts

No lecture next Tuesday, use

this time to work on Exam 1.

Today Quick Write #4

You will respond as the class

progresses.

noah webster s political training limits of liberalism american spelling book on voting
Noah Webster’s Political Training LIMITS of LiberalismAmerican Spelling Bookon Voting
  • Q. Can every an [sic “man”] in the states vote for delegates to Congress?
  • A. By no mans [sic]. In almost every state some property is necessary to give a man a right to vote. In general, men who have no estate, pay no taxes, and who have no settled habitation, are not permitted to vote for rulers, because they have no interest to secure, they may be vagabonds or dishonest men, and may be bribed by the rich.
noah webster s speller politics federal catechism speaks against direct democracy
Noah Webster’s SpellerPOLITICS Federal Catechism Speaks against Direct Democracy
  • Q. What are the defects ofdemocracy? A. In a democracy, where the people meet for the purpose of making laws, there are commonly tumults and disorders. A small city may sometimes be governed in this manner; but if the citizens are numerous, their assemblies make a crowd or mob, where the debates cannot be carried on with coolness or candour, nor can arguments he heard: Therefore a pure democracy is generally a very bad government. It is often the most tyrannical government on earth; for a multitude is often rash, and will not hear reason.
noah webster s american spelling book politics representative government is best
Noah Webster’s American Spelling Book Politics Representative Government is best.
  • Q. Is there another and better form of government than any of these?
  • A. There is. A REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC[,] in which the people freely choose deputies to make laws for them, is much the best form of government hitherto invented.

Raises questions about role of citizen

q what are the peculiar advantages of representative governments does this work think of our state
Q. What are the peculiar advantages of representative governments?Does this work? Think of our state….
  • A. When deputies or representatives are chosen to make laws, they will commonly consult the interest of the people who choose them; and if they do not, the people can choose others in their place.[sic] Besides, the deputies coming from all parts of a state, bring together all the knowledge and information necessary to show the true interest of the whole state; at the same time, being few in number, they can hear arguments and debate peaceable on a subject. But the great security of such governments is, that the men who make laws are to be governed by them; so that they are not apt to do wrong wilfully. When men make laws for themselves, as well as for their neighbours, they are led by their own interest to make GOOD laws.
were you ever told the story of washington and the cherry tree
Were you ever told the story of Washington and the cherry tree?

If so, what were you told?

Why do you think that this story was important?

why was the chopping down the cherry tree story created about george washington nationalism
Why was the “chopping down the cherry tree story created” about George Washington?Nationalism
  • More about America’s morality than the man himself.
  • Story invented by Parson Mason Weems in a biography of Washington (1806)
  • Leaders had to embody honesty and virtue
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