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GERALD R. FORD PRESIDENTIAL MUSEUM Grand Rapids, Michigan Brendan J. Cullen Mechanical Option AE Senior Thesis Spring 2003 Presentation Outline PROJECT OVERVIEW EXISTING MECHANICAL CONDITIONS PROPOSED REDESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST ANALYSIS ACOUSTICAL ISSUES

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GERALD R. FORD PRESIDENTIAL MUSEUM

Grand Rapids, Michigan

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

AE Senior Thesis

Spring 2003


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Presentation Outline

PROJECT OVERVIEW

EXISTING MECHANICAL CONDITIONS

PROPOSED REDESIGN

SYSTEM DESIGN

SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION

COST ANALYSIS

ACOUSTICAL ISSUES

STRUCTURAL ISSUES

CONCLUSIONS

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Building Overview

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

PROJECT TEAM

56,000 ft2 two-story; triangular in shape

Architects – Peck Peck Assoc.

300-foot glass wall providing panoramic view

MEP – Leach Wallace Assoc.

Scored cast-in-place sandblasted concrete exterior façade

Structural – McMullan & Assoc., Inc.

Civil – Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr & Huber

Garden outlining front entrance to large pool and fountain

Fire Protection – Gage-Babcock &

Assoc., Inc.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

Renovation Space – 15,110 ft2

New Construction – 11,080 ft2

8 Step Phasing Plan

Total Construction Cost – $4,497,659

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Mechanical Systems Existing Conditions

DESIGN CRITERIA

NARA guidelines

Vibration isolation and fire retardant sound absorption

Air Filtration System

Automatic Temperature Control

Clean steam injection system

DESIGN CONDITIONS

Collection Storage

– 65°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH

Permanent/Temporary Exhibit

– 70°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH

Exhibit Prep

– 70°± 2° F / 30% - 45% RH

Public/Office Spaces/Theatre

– 70 - 76°± 5° F / 30% - 50% RH

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Mechanical Systems Existing Conditions

AIR SYSTEMS

WATER SYSTEMS

AHU 1 – Public Areas

Chilled Water

  • Modular VAV Air Handler

  • VAV Terminal Units

  • Air-cooled Chiller

  • 40% Glycol Solution

AHU 2 & 3 – Collection/Exhibit Prep

Hot Water Heating

  • Two DX units

  • Air-cooled Condensers

  • 5 Modular Boilers

AHU 5 – Temporary/Permanent Exhibit

  • Constant Volume

  • Individual Hot Water Reheat

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Proposed Redesign

DESIGN OBJECTIVES

Meet Established Design Criteria

Proper air conditioning, filtration and temperature control

Higher Life-Cycle Cost Savings

Reduce Energy Consumption

Environmentally Friendly Components

Reduce Toxic Emissions

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Proposed Redesign

Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System

Utilize Steady Temperatures Beneath the Earth

Series of Pipes Buried Up To 500 Below Surface

Heat Pump

Singly Packaged Unit

Heating and Cooling

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Proposed Redesign

Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System

System Types

Feasibility Issues

- Open-Loop

- Closed-Loop

Vertical Arrangement

Horizontal Arrangement

  • Available Land Area

  • Existing Water Sources

  • Budget

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Reduced Annual Energy

  • Consumption

  • Lower Maintenance Costs

  • Rebates

  • Higher Capital Cost

  • Extensive Drilling

  • Lack of Experienced

  • Installers

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Proposed Redesign

Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System

Ford Museum Site Characteristics

Multiple Parking Lots

600-ft. from Grand River

North to South Utilities

Load Requirements

150 Ton Max Cooling Load

Cooling Load Dominant

NORTH

LOGICAL LOOP SELECTION?

CLOSED-LOOP VERTICAL SYSTEM

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Scope of Redesign

Complete GCHP System

Unitary Heat Pumps

Ground-Loop

Water-to-air Heat Pumps

In Each of 33 Zones

28 Horizontal Units / 5 Vertical Units

Designed To Meet Total Cooling Load

Hybrid System

Unitary Heat Pumps

Ground-Loop

Same Requirements

Designed To Meet Total Heating Load

Supplemental Cooling Tower

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Scope of Redesign

Systems To Be Removed

202 Ton Air-Cooled Chiller

Heating Water and Chilled Water Pumps

5 Modular Boilers

Systems To Remain

VAV Terminals

Air-Handling Units

Filtrations Equipment

Air-Cooled Condensers

DDC Logic System

Ductwork and Appurtenances

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Design

Design Methods

Steady-State Heat Transfer – 1999 ASHRAE HVAC Applications

Heating Length:

Function of:

Building Load

Thermal Resistance

Liquid Temperatures

Cooling Length:

Load Factors

Power Input

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Design

Ground Characteristics

Average Ground Temperature – Grand Rapids, MI

50° F

Subsoil Conditions

  • 50 - ft. Light Sand

  • 200 - ft. Soft Clay

  • + 200 - ft. Shale and Gypsum

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Design

100 % Geothermal System

Entering Water Temperature

75° F

Exiting Water Temperature

85° F

Hybrid System

Total Cooling Length

Entering Water Temperature

41,758 - ft.

40° F

Exiting Water Temperature

34° F

Total Heating Length

18,993 - ft.

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Typical Piping Layout

Objectives

Materials

Internal Distribution

Minimal Capital Costs

External Distribution

- PVC Sch. 40 Pipe

6-in. Ø or Less

- Necessary Valves

- Reverse-Return

- HDPE Pipe

- 1-in. U-tubes

- 6-in. Boreholes

- Thermally Enhanced Grout

- Reverse-Return

Feasible Configuration

Orderly Timeframe

Equipment

- Purge Charts

- Pressure Test Units

- Geothermal Drilling Unit

- Geothermal Grouting Unit

- Butt and Socket Fusion Unit

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

Purpose:

Most Cost Effective Ground-Loop Design

Driving Cost Factor:

Cost to Drill Vertical Boreholes

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

Assumptions :

Drill Rig #1- below 200 - ft.

- $8,000 per week

- 15 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore

Grouting output is 1000 linear feet per day

Length of 3-in. & 4-in. HDPE depends on number of circuits

Drill Rig #2- between 200 & 350 - ft.

- $10,000 per week

- 30 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore

Annual pumping power present value cost

Drill Rig #3- above 350 - ft.

- $12,000 per week

- 45 min. set-up and dismantle for each bore

Therefore Optimize:

Number of Boreholes vs. Borehole Depth

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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LBOREHOLE (ft)

Total Cost ($)

NBOREHOLES

Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

100% Geothermal System:

41,758-ft.

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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LBOREHOLE (ft)

Total Cost ($)

NBOREHOLES

Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

Hybrid System:

18,993-ft.

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

100% Geothermal System Resulting Layout:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

Hybrid System Resulting Layout:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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$ 294,121

-

$ 132,397

Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

System Comparison:

$ 161,724

100% Geothermal System

Loop Construction Cost:

$ 294,121

Drill Time:

8.5 Weeks

Hybrid System

Loop Construction Cost:

$ 132,397

Drill Time:

3.0 Weeks

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Phasing Sequence

100% Geothermal System

2 – Shop Drawings; Mobilize

2.1 – Test Bore

2.2 – Pavement Removal

2.3 – Site Survey & Borefield Set-up

2.4 – Drilling and Trenching

2.5 – Piping & Grouting

2.6 – Internal Piping & Equipment

2.7 – Connections & Backfill

2.8 – Flush and Test System

3 – Relocate Staff to Addition

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Phasing Sequence

Hybrid System

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Cost Analysis

Capital Costs

Existing Mechanical System

Equipment/Materials:

$ 252,760

$ 429,096

100% Geothermal System

$ 334,169

Equipment:

$ 178,627

$ 252,760

Drilling:

$ 93,056

Pipe and Grouting:

$ 124,770

Site Costs:

$ 32,643

Hybrid System

Equipment:

$ 229,278

Drilling:

$ 26,767

Pipe and Grouting:

$ 64,433

Site Costs:

$ 13,691

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Cost Analysis

Annual Energy Costs

Existing Mechanical System

Cost per kWh

Off-Peak:

Cooling Season:

10.54 ¢

401,611 kWh

$ 95,465

On-Peak:

Heating Season:

9.94 ¢

116,949 kWh / 12,039 therms

$ 74,458

$ 69,920

100% Geothermal System

Cost per therm

Cooling Season:

37.86 ¢

228,948 kWh

Heating Season:

162,525 kWh

Hybrid System

Cooling Season:

243,122 kWh

Heating Season:

174,250 kWh

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Cost Analysis

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

System Comparison:

Total Present Value Life-Cycle Cost

($)

Simple

Payback

Period

(years)

Net

Savings

($)

System Type

Base Case - Existing System

1,822,246

-

-

100% Geothermal System

1,088,443

304,717

6

Hybrid System

1,510,027

312,219

4

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Cost Analysis

System Emissions

Emissions Summary:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acoustical Analysis

Objectives

Heat Pump Placement

Minimize Added Cost for Attenuation

RC 30 – 40

Methods

Find Critical Supply Air Paths

Combine SPL From AHU & Heat Pump

Determine Insertion Losses in Duct Run

RC Mark II Room Criteria Rating

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acoustical Analysis

Critical Path #1 - Curator 120

Without Sound Attenuation

RC 43

X

With Sound Attenuating Device

RC 31

?

With Duct Alterations

- Remove Hard Duct

- Extend Flex Duct 3-ft.

RC 37

Subjective Rating

Perception :

Occupant Rating :

(HF) Hiss

Marginal

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acoustical Analysis

Critical Path #2 - Collection Storage 111

Without Sound Attenuation

RC 47

X

With Sound Attenuating Device

RC 32

Subjective Rating

Perception :

Occupant Rating :

(HF) Hiss

Acceptable

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acoustical Analysis

Critical Path #3 - Permanent Exhibit 207

With Original Sound Attenuator

RC 43

X

With New Attenuating Device and Location

RC 37

Subjective Rating

Perception :

Occupant Rating :

(HF) Hiss

Marginal

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acoustical Analysis

Critical Path #4 - Temporary Exhibit 219

Attenuator Location

Without Sound Attenuation

From AHU Outlet To

Heat Pump Outlet

RC 44

X

With Sound Attenuating Device

RC 32

RC 39

Subjective Rating

Subjective Rating

Perception :

Occupant Rating :

(HF) Hiss

Unacceptable

Perception :

Occupant Rating :

(HF) Hiss

Unacceptable

Additional Design

Considerations

  • Addition of Elbows

  • AHU Fan Selection

  • Acoustical Duct Lining

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Structural Analysis

Purpose

Determine Impact of Cooling Tower on Roof

Existing Conditions

3000 lb Cooling Tower

28K7 Open Web Steel Joists(297 plf max service load)

(203 allowable live load)

40-ft. Span at 5-ft. O.C.

35 psf Snow Load (IBC 2000 for Grand Rapids, Michigan)

15 psf Superimposed Dead Load

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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1’

6’

750 psf (typ.)

wl

V =

40’

2

RA

RB

Structural Analysis

Calculations

Equivalent Distributed Load

Based on Shear

RA = 6350 lb

RB = 5150 lb

w = 317 lb/ft

317 lb/ft > 297 lb/ft

NOT ADEQUATE

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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6100 ft·lb

6350 ft·lb

5350 ft·lb

3850 ft·lb

3100 ft·lb

5150 ft·lb

5150 · (20.6’)

MMAX =

wl2

M =

2

8

Structural Analysis

Solution

Use 2 – 28K7 SP Open Web Joists

Equivalent Distributed Load

Based on Bending

w = 265.2 lb/ft

265 lb/ft < 297 lb/ft

Solution OK

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Conclusions

Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System

100% Geothermal System

Feasible Design of 120 Total Boreholes at 350-ft. Deep

Significantly High Capital Cost

6 Year Payback

Large Emissions Reduction

Hybrid System

Lower Impact on Surrounding Site

Lowered Capital Cost

4 Year Payback

Slightly Higher Emissions

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Conclusions

Comparison to Existing Mechanical System

Cost Concerns:

Original Mechanical Budget of $1.18 million

14.9% Increase For 100% Geothermal System

6.9% Increase For Hybrid System

Sound Attenuation and Structural Support Costs

Other Concerns:

Additional Internal Space For Vertical Heat Pumps

Experienced Local Installers

Most Practical Solution:

HYBRID SYSTEM

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Acknowledgements

Special Thanks to the AE Faculty

Dr. Bahnfleth

Prof. Burroughs

Also Thanks to Aryln Grube of Enviro-Tech, Inc. and Nick Nucci of Leach Wallace and Associates

To the AE 5th- Year Class of 2002 - 2003

Family & Friends

Including

Erin Falconer &

Residents of 242 South Atherton

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Questions

?

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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CostTOTAL ($)

CostTOTAL ($)

NBOREHOLES

LBOREHOLE (ft)

Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

100% Geothermal System:

41,758-ft.

Cost vs. Length of Bore

Cost vs. # of Boreholes

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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RC-II Method

For Critical Path #1:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Optimization Study

EES Input Parameters:

Head loss for various size HDPE pipe

Total length of pipe, # of boreholes and borehole depth

Pump power requirements for longest run

Grouting costs including labor and equipment

Pipe costs including labor, fusion equipment, and fittings

Site costs, including trenching and pavement

and dirt removal

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Construction

Life-Cycle Emission Reduction

Emissions Summary:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Ground-Loop Design

Building Loads

28 Horizontal Units / 5 Vertical Units

150 Ton Block Cooling Load

70 Ton Block Heating Load

Design Objectives

Incorporate Efficient / Cost Effective System

Meeting Building Load Requirements

Minimal Disruption To Surroundings

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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100% Geothermal System

Mechanical Room Schematic:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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Hybrid System

Mechanical Room Schematic:

Gerald R. Ford Museum

Brendan J. Cullen

Mechanical Option

Grand Rapids, MI


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