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Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Chapter 4 Learning Objectives Define the term telecommunications and identify and describe the function of the components of a telecommunications system.

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Telecommunications, the Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

Chapter 4

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Learning Objectives

  • Define the term telecommunications and identify and describe the function of the components of a telecommunications system.

  • Identify and briefly describe three basic data processing strategies, including their advantages and disadvantages.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Learning Objectives

  • Briefly describe how the Internet works, including alternatives for connecting to it and the role of Internet service providers.

  • Identify and briefly describe common Internet services.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Learning Objectives

  • Describe the World Wide Web and the way it works, including the use of Web browsers, search engines, Java, and other Web tools.

  • Define the terms intranet and extranet and discuss how organizations are using them.

  • Identify several control and management issues associated with the use of networks.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Telecommunication

  • Electronic transmission of signals for communications

  • Telecommunications device is a hardware component that allows electronic communication to occur

  • Telecommunications medium carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Elements of a Telecommunications System

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Media Types (1)

  • Twisted-pair wire cable: Twisted pairs of copper wire

    • Used in telephone service

    • Slow transmission

  • Coaxial cable: Conductor wire is insulated

    • Faster than twisted-pair

  • Fiber-optic cable: Thin strands of glass bound together

    • Uses light beams

    • Faster than coaxial cable

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Media Types (2)

  • Microwave transmission: High-frequency radio signal

    • Must have unobstructed line of sight between sender and receiver

    • Possible to intervene

  • Cellular transmission: Divide area into cells

    • Each cell has a mobile telephone subscriber unit

    • Possible to intervene

  • Infrared transmission: Signals as light waves

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Common Wiring and Cabling Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Common Telecommunications Devices

  • Modem: Translates data from digital form into analog form (for ordinary phones) and back

    • MOdulation and DEModulation

  • Fax modem: Facsimile device but also a modem

  • Multiplexer: Allow several signals to be transmitted over the same line

  • PBX: Manages both voice and data transfer

    • Switching equipment routes phone calls and messages within the building

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Carriers and Services

  • Common carriers: Turk Telecom, AT&T

  • Switched lines

    • Use switching equipment to connect one phone to another

    • Switch: Special purpose circuit that directs messages in certain directions

  • Digital subscriber lines (DSL)

    • Use existing lines to transmit signals over 500Kbps

    • Faster Internet access

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Costs, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Several Line and Service Types

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Networks and Distributed Processing

  • Computer network - communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems.

  • Centralized processing - processing occurs in a single location or facility.

  • Decentralized processing - processing devices are placed at various locations.

  • Distributed processing - computers are placed at remote locations but are connected to each other via telecommunications devices.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Terminal-to-Host Connection

  • Host computer has the data and the processing power

  • Dumb terminal contacts host computer for jobs

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


File Server Connection

  • The application and database reside in host computer.

  • Files transferred as a whole and processed by the user

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Client/Server Connection

  • Servers have special functionalities (database server, program execution, etc.)

  • Clients request services from servers

  • Clients process service results

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Network Types

  • Local area network (LAN)

    • Same geographic area

    • Wired into office buildings (unshielded twisted-pair)

  • Wide area network (WAN)

    • Microwave and satellite transmission

    • Long-distance calls

  • International network

    • Transborder data flow

    • International laws

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


A Typical LAN

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


A Wide Area Network

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Connecting Computing Devices Using a Home Network

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Communications Software and Protocols

  • Communications software - provides a number of important functions in a network

  • Network operating system - controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other

  • Network management software - a manager can monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware

  • Communications protocol - rules and standards that make communications possible

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Common Communications Protocols

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Use and Functioning of the Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Routing Messages Over the Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


How the Internet Works

  • Internet Protocol (IP): Set of rules to pass packets from one computer to another

  • Transport Control Protocol (TCP): Set of rules to establish and break connections

  • Internet Protocol Address: Unique address for each computer on the Internet

  • Static vs. dynamic

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


U.S. Top-Level Domain Affiliations

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Three Ways to Access the Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Internet Service Providers

  • Organizations that provide access to the Internet

  • Choose based on price, reliability, other features (e-mail address)

  • Examples: Superonline, E-kolay

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Internet and Telecommunications Services

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Summary of Internet Services (1)

  • E-mail

  • Instant messaging

  • Telnet/SSH

  • FTP

  • Chat rooms

  • Internet phone

  • Internet video conferencing

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Summary of Internet Services (2)

  • Shop on the Web:

  • Auctions: http://www.gittigidiyor.com/

  • Distance learning

  • Music, radio on the Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Common Abbreviations Used in Personal E-Mail

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Two Approaches to Electronic Data Interchange

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Public Network and Specialized Services

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


The World Wide Web

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


The World Wide Web

An Internet service comprising tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one.

  • Home page: Cover page with text and graphics

  • Hypertext markup language (HTML): Standard language to describe Web pages

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Several Interesting Web Sites

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Sample HTML

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Search Engine

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Intranets and Extranets

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Intranets and Extranets

  • Intranet – an internal corporate network built using Internet and WWW standards and products

  • Extranet - a network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners

  • Virtual private network - a secure connection between two points across the Internet

  • Firewall - a device that sits between your internal network and the outside Internet

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Summary of Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Users

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Virtual Private Network

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Net Issues

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Privacy and Security

  • Cookie: Text that is put on user computer to track Web site usage

  • Cryptography: Converting a message into a secret code and then back into the message

  • Encryption

  • Digital Signature: Who sent the message, did the message change on the way?

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Cryptography

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


Summary

  • Networks - used to share hardware, programs, and databases across the organization.

  • Internet - transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another.

  • The Web - a collection of tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one in an Internet service.

Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition


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