Primary care management of latent tuberculosis infection in the foreign born
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Primary Care Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Foreign-Born. Investigators Carey Jackson MD, MPH University of Washington Jenny Pang MD, MPH, Seattle-King County Department of Public Health Nick DeLuca PhD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

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Primary care management of latent tuberculosis infection in the foreign born l.jpg
Primary Care Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infectionin the Foreign-Born

Investigators

  • Carey Jackson MD, MPH University of Washington

  • Jenny Pang MD, MPH, Seattle-King County Department of Public Health

  • Nick DeLuca PhD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

  • Stacey Bryant RN, Research Coordinator

Public HealthSeattle & King County


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Active TB Disease

  • Tubercle bacilli in the body

  • Usually positive skin test

  • Infectious (before treatment)

  • Symptoms of TB

  • Chest x-ray usually abnormal

  • Sputum smears and cultures usually positive

  • An active “case” of TB

Granuloma breaks down and tubercle escape and multiply



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Latent TB Infection (LTBI)

LTBI is the presence of M. tuberculosis organisms (tubercle bacilli) without symptoms or radiographic evidence of active TB disease


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Latent TB Infection (LTBI)

  • Tubercle bacilli in the body

  • Usually positive skin test

  • NOT infectious

  • No symptoms

  • Normal chest X-ray

  • Sputum smears and cultures are negative

  • Not a “case” of TB



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Active TB Incidence Worldwide, 2005

2 billion infected with LTBI!

(Active TB all forms [per 100,000 population per year])

Source: WHO Stop TB Department,

website: http://www.who.int/globalatlas/interactiveMapping/MainFrame2.asp


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TB Case Rates,* United States, 2006

D.C.

< 3.5 (year 2000 target)

15 million infected with LTBI!

3.6–4.6

> 4.6 (national average)

*Cases per 100,000.


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Trends in TB Cases in Foreign-born Persons, United States, 1986–2006*

No. of Cases

Percentage

57% of cases in 2006 were foreign-born

*Updated as of April 6, 2007.


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DC 1986–2006*

Percentage of TB Cases Among Foreign-born Persons, United States*

1996

2006

DC

>50%

25%–49%

<25%

*Updated as of April 6, 2007.


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TB Rates in Countries of Birth 1986–2006*2005

Per 100,000

Source: World Health Organization


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TB Case Rates by Age Group 1986–2006*and Sex, United States, 2006

Cases per 100,000

Highest Incidence is in 65+


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Percent of Foreign-born with TB by Time of Residence in U.S. Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

Over HALF of active TB cases in the Foreign-Born have been in the US more than 5 years!

*Data exclude foreign-born TB patients for when length of residence in the U.S. prior to diagnosis was unknown.


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Countries of Birth of Foreign-born Persons Reported with TB Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006United States, 2006

Mexico

(25%)

Other

Countries

(38%)

Philippines

(11%)

Guatemala

(3%)

Viet Nam

(8%)

Haiti

(3%)

India

(7%)

China

(5%)


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Latent TB Infection Testing Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006


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Flow Chart for Latent TB Infection (LTBI) in Primary Care Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

Patient with risk factors for LTBI

Note: Evaluate patient for LTBI testing and treatment regardless of BCG status

Rule out active TB disease before treatment for LTBI is started

TST (PPD)

Negative

Positive

No treatment; Document status in medical record

History/HIV risk,physical exam,chest x-ray

Normal

Abnormal

Refer to TB clinic for evaluation of active TB

Treatment ofactive TB by TB clinic

Positive

Candidate for

LTBI Treatment

Negative


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Who Should Be Tested Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

Know the TB status of your at risk patients.


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Other Groups At High Risk for TB Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006


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Medical Conditions that Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006Put People at High Risk for TB


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Who needs repeat LTBI testing? Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  • Healthcare workers

  • Close contacts to infectious TB cases

  • Frequent travelers to abroad

    • If baseline TST is negative, consider retesting your patients that have extended travel to high risk areas.

    • Do symptom review upon return and possibly retesting 8-10 week after return.


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Reading the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  • Measure reaction in 48 to 72 hours

  • Measure induration, not erythema (redness)

  • Record reaction in millimeters, not “negative” or “positive”

  • Ensure trained health care professional measures and interprets the TST (PPD)


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Interpreting the TST (PPD) Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

A positive TST (PPD) is determined by

  • The size of the induration

  • The patient’s risk factors


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Interpreting Tuberculin Skin Test Reactions Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

(Note: the CDC discourages testing of people at low risk for infection.)


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Interpreting IGRA’s Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  • 1) Not entirely sensitive to detect TB--about 70% sensitive and >90% specific

  • 2) Cannot distinguish latent TB from active TB

  • 3)For LTBI---Useful because of specificity of assay to distinguish a false positive TST from a true positive in testing a foreign-born population where BCG vaccination is routinely used. 


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Interpreting IGRA’s Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  • 4)In low prevalence LTBI populations, such has health care workers born in the US--the jury is still out to whether using these assay is feasible and cost effective

  •     a) CDC is studying this question currently through TBESC     b)  preliminary data shows that there could be a reversion from QFN positive to QFN negative and vice versa with serial testing over time


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Interpreting IGRA’s Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  •  5) ? MAI distinction--maybe, but not well studied.

  •  6) Discordance in testing someone for LTBI----   TST negative and QFN positive-- No one knows what will happen to these patients.  A long term follow-up study needs to see if TB develops in these patients.

  • 7) Elispot is labor intensive and require processing the same day.  Current QuantiFERON -TB In Tube does not.  It requires an incubator, if specimen is not processed the same day.


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TB screening for those coming to US Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

  • Refugees and Immigrants

    In Country of Origin

    • Evaluated for active TB ONLY

      In the US

    • Those applying for an adjustment of status are evaluated for LTBI buttreatment is NOT mandated

  • Visitors, students, temporary workers, undocumented

    • Not evaluated

  • The Immigration Process does not take care of Latent TB Infection (LTBI) for you!


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    BCG Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006

    Should persons who have been vaccinatedwith BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) be tested for LTBI

    • According to CDC guidelines, persons who have received BCG should be tested for LTBI as otherwise indicated

      How should the results be interpreted?

    • Positive TST should be assumed to be due to TB infection, not BCG, and treatment should be recommended, unless contraindicated

    Source: CDC TB Fact Sheet “BCG Vaccine” 2006.


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    Literature Review on BCG Prior to Diagnosis,* 20062006

    • 1500 papers reviewed from 1980-2005

    • Data demonstrate that the TST (PPD) performs well on BCG vaccinated adult (15+) patients and on patients from high and intermediate incidence countries

    • The effect of the BCG vaccine on TST (PPD) reaction decreases with increasing time since vaccination.


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    Literature Review on BCG Prior to Diagnosis,* 20062006 (cont.)

    Conclusion:

    • “Adults (15+) from intermediate and high-incidence countries are at high risk for LTBI and the results of tuberculin testing can be interpreted in the same manner, regardless of vaccination status.”

    Source: Joos, TJ et al. 2006. “Tuberculin reactivity in bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccinated populations: a compilation

    of international data.” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Volume 10, Number 8, August 2006.


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    Treatment for Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI)


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    Who Should be Treated for Prior to Diagnosis,* 2006Latent TB Infection (LTBI)?

    Anyone who has been diagnosed with latent TB infection is a candidate for treatment, if they also fulfill the following criteria:

    • Willing and able to complete a full course of therapy

    • Available to be monitored during the full course of treatment

    • No medical contraindications such as active liver disease

      (Note: careful assessment to rule out the possibility of active TB disease is always necessary before treatment for LTBI is started.)


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    Risk Factors for Progression from Latent TB Infection (LTBI) to Active TB Disease

    Medical Conditions

    • Immunosuppression

    • Lymphoma, leukemia

    • Diabetes

    • Renal dialysis

    • Malnutrition

    Your patient’s TB infection may be latent now, but many factors could increase the risk of progression

    • Silicosis

    • Gastrectomy/ jejunoileal bypass

    • Head and neck cancer

    • HIV +


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    Risk Factors for Progression from Latent TB Infection (LTBI) to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    Drugs

    Immunosuppressive agents

    • Steroids (not inhaled) (prednisone >15 mg/day for 1 month or more)

    • Cancer chemotherapy

    • Cyclosporine

    • Anti-Rheumatics*

      • Etanercept (Enbrel)

      • Infliximab (Remicade)

      • Adalimumab (Humira TM)

      • Anakinra (Kineret)

    * Brassard, P. 2006. Antirheumatics Drugs and the Risk of Tuberculosis. CID 2006:43 (15 September).


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    Case Example of Progression from LTBI to Active TB to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    Case #1:

    • 68 yo Chinese man with latent TB untreated

    • Hx of Hepatitis B with low level activity

    • Family history of colon cancer

    • Developed adenocarcinoma of the colon and was receiving chemotherapy

    • Developed hemoptysis and was thought to have a lung metastasis

    • Bronchoscopy aspirate grew TB


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    Case Example of Progression from to Active TB Disease (cont.)LTBI to Active TB

    Case #2

    • 66 yo Vietnamese female with latent TB (untreated), diabetes inflammatory arthritis, and depression/PTSD

    • Developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and began to have bleeding

    • Treated with systemic high dose steroids in the hospital and developed milliary TB

    • Died of complications

      Source: from practice of PI, Carey Jackson, MD. Internal Medicine. International Clinic, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.


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    Current Treatment for LTBI to Active TB Disease (cont.)Preferred Regimen

    A minimum of 270 doses must be administered

    within 12 months


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    Alternative Regimens for LTBI to Active TB Disease (cont.)


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    No Longer Recommended to Active TB Disease (cont.)Regimen for LTBI

    Rifampin plus pyrazinamide x 2 months

    This regimen has been associated with increased risk of severe hepatic injuryand death

    Source: “Update: Adverse Event Data and Revised American Thoracic Society/CDC Recommendations Against the Use of Rifampin and Pyrazinamide for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection---United States, 2003”; MMWR, August 8, 2003 / 52(31);735-739.


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    Monitoring of Patients on to Active TB Disease (cont.)Treatment for LTBI

    • Baseline and monthly laboratory testing not needed except for patients with

      • HIV infection

      • Pregnancy or within 3 months post-partum

      • History of liver disease/heavy alcohol use

      • Patient on chemotherapy

    • Evaluate patients monthly for

      • Adherence to treatment

      • Symptoms of hepatitis (fatigue, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, jaundice)


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    Treatment of Patients to Active TB Disease (cont.)35 Years of Age and Older

    • The CDC changed its guideline in 2000 and now encourages treatment of LTBI in all age groups

    • Use clinical judgment in treating older patients

      *CDC/ATS Guidelines: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), “Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection.” June 9, 2000


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    Hepatic Adverse Drug Effects of Isoniazid (INH) to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    • Frequent (~5%): Liver Enzyme Elevations

    • Infrequent(~0.1%): Hepatitis

      Large Scale Study:

    • 11,141 treated with INH from 1989-1995

    • 11 had hepatitis, no deaths

    • Overall rate was 1 per 1000 (or 0.1%)

      (Nolan CM, Goldberg SV, Buskin SE. JAMA. 1999 Mar 17;281(11):1014-8.)


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    Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B to Active TB Disease (cont.)But No Active Liver Disease

    Yes, they can receive treatment for LTBI

    • Baseline liver function tests and at 1 month

    • If the tests are normal at 1 month, no further testing is necessary unless symptoms develop

    • If the tests are elevated at 1 month, continue monthly testing as long as levels are abnormal

    • If any one of the liver function tests exceeds 3-5 times the upper limit of normal at any time, strongly consider stopping therapy


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    Counseling a Patient with LTBI to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    Don’t Say:

    • “You’ve been “exposed” to TB so you need to betreated.”

      Say Instead:

    • “You have been exposed AND infected with the TB bacteria. But don’t worry…”


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    Counseling a Patient with LTBI (cont.) to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    Good news:

    • “You do not have the disease and youare not contagious to anyone.”

      Bad news:

    • “However, it is sleeping in your body and if you don’t treat it now it can wake up later and make you very ill and contagious to others.”


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    Counseling a Patient with LTBI (cont.) to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    Why get treated?

    • “Treatment will prevent future disease and protect you and those close to you.”

      Warning

    • “Taking medication for 9 months is a long time but it takes that long to kill all the TB germs.”

    • “ TB germs are ‘TOUGH bugs’ … so take your medicine correctly and completely.”


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    Summary to Active TB Disease (cont.)


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    Meeting the Challenge of LTBI to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    For every patient

    • Assess TB risk factors

    • If risk is present, perform TST (PPD)

    • If TST (PPD) is positive, rule out active TB disease

    • If active TB disease is ruled out, evaluate as candidate for LTBI treatment

    • If good candidate, initiate treatment for LTBI

    • If treatment is initiated, ensure completion


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    Meeting the Challenge of LTBI (cont.) to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    • Latent TB Infection should be treated as a condition in itself which is a precursor to a serious and potentially fatal disease

    • Much the same way we treat hypertension as a condition in itself because it significantly heightens risk of heart disease, renal failure, and stroke or place infants in car seats because of the significant risk of injury without them, so should we approach latent TB infection

    • While the condition in itself is asymptomatic, the risks assumed by ignoring it are substantial


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    Physicians Caring for to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    At Risk Populations

    • Always include TB in the DDX

    • “THINK TB” and “TB RISK”


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    Acknowledgements to Active TB Disease (cont.)

    The following individuals provided consultation and review of this presentation:

    • Masa Narita MD, TB Controller for Seattle-King County Public Health

    • John Bernardo, MD – Tuberculosis Control Officer, Massachusetts Department of Public Health

    • L. Masae Kawamura - MD, Director TB Control Section, San Francisco Department of Public Health

    • Stephen Weis, DO –Director of Tuberculosis and Refugee Services for Tarrant County Health Department, Texas


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    Without the help of the following individuals, this project would not have been possible:

    • Lan Nguyen

    • Ed Chow

    • Jessie Wing

    • Ximena Urrutia-Rojas

    • Jeff Caballero

    • Sharon Sharnprapai


    References l.jpg
    References would not have been possible:

    • CDC Fact Sheet. “BCG Vaccine”. 2006. In Division of TB Elimination Fact Sheets. Retrieved 11-22-06 from: www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250120.htm

    • DSHS/Public Health Service/CDC. 2006. “TB 101 for Healthcare Providers.” PPT.

    • DTBE/CDC. 2005. “Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection”. In Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Retrieved 9-16-06 from: www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/slidesets/slides.htm

    • DTBE/CDC. 2005. “Tuberculosis in the United States: National Surveillance System Highlights from 2004”. In Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Retrieved 9-16-06 from: www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/slidesets/surv/surv2004/default.htm


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    References (cont.) would not have been possible:

    • Hong, SW. 2001. “Preventing Nosocomial Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission in International Settings”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 7, No. 2, March-April 2001

    • Joos, TJ; Miller WC; Murdoch, DM. 2006. “Tuberculin reactivity in bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccinated populations: a compilation of international data.” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Volume 10, Number 8, August 2006, pp. 883-891.

    • Kawamura, L. Masae. 2006. “Targeted Testing and Treatment of Tuberculosis”. In Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center. Retrieved 9-16-06 from: www.nationaltbcenter.edu/testing_ltbi/presentation.cfm


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    References (cont.) would not have been possible:

    • World Health Organization. 2005. Global Health Atlas. Accessed 10-2-06 from: www.who.int/globalatlas/dataQuery/default.asp

    • Update: Adverse Event Data and Revised American Thoracic Society/CDC Recommendations Against the Use of Rifampin and Pyrazinamide for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection---United States, 2003 MMWR, August 8, 2003 / 52(31);735-739. Assessed 2-2-07 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5231a4.htm


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