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Persuasion. Dale Walker University of Wyoming College of Arts & Sciences ALADN 2005 – New Orleans. Persuasion. Social Psychology Ethos Myth. Persuasion. Q: What about logic and reason?

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Persuasion

Dale Walker

University of Wyoming

College of Arts & Sciences

ALADN 2005 – New Orleans


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Persuasion

  • Social Psychology

  • Ethos

  • Myth


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Persuasion

Q: What about logic and reason?

A: That’s what you studied in college, and you know that’s only a small part. So let’s look at other things.


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Persuasion

  • Social Psychology

  • Ethos

  • Myth


I social psychology l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity

  • Consistency

  • Social proof

  • Authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


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Robert B. Cialdini,Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion(revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


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1. Reciprocity

One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance:

We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

Cialdini


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1. Reciprocity

One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance:

We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

Cialdini


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1. Reciprocity

I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what

another person has provided us

E.g:

  • give a flower then ask for a donation

  • LBJ called in favors; Carter had none to call in; political patronage

  • send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter

  • small gifts and comped meals

Cialdini


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1. Reciprocity

  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession

  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

Cialdini


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1. Reciprocity

  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession

  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

Cialdini


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1. Reciprocity

  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession

  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

  • Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; or present the undesirable option first

Cialdini


1 reciprocity13 l.jpg
1. Reciprocity

  • I.e.: We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession

  • Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution

  • Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

  • Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency

  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments

  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency

  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments

  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Technique 1: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency

  • Technique 2: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments

  • Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments begin to shape a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound

  • Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

  • Outcome 1: Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound

  • Outcome 2: Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs

Cialdini


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2. Consistency

Examples:

  • negotiating a car price

  • “Hi, how are you?”

  • Howard Dean’s campaign (meet ups and volunteers writing letters)

  • have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements

  • testimonials

  • campaign leadership

Cialdini


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3. Social Proof

  • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.

  • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.

  • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong

  • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us

Cialdini


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3. Social Proof

  • One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.

  • The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.

  • Pluralistic ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong

  • Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us

Cialdini


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3. Social Proof

Examples:

  • laugh tracks

  • faith communities

  • mob behavior

  • inaction toward crime or emergency

  • Jonestown

  • applause

  • testimonials

Cialdini


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4. Authority

  • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure

Cialdini


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4. Authority

  • We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure

Cialdini


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4. Authority

  • Titles

  • Uniforms

  • Clothes

  • Trappings of status

Cialdini


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5. Likeability

We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like

Cialdini


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5. Likeability

We prefer to say yes to someone we know and like

Cialdini


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5. Likeability

Compliance factors:

  • similarity of opinion, life-style, background, personality traits

  • familiarity and contact

  • cooperation in shared goals

Cialdini


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5. Likeability

Compliance factors:

  • physical attractiveness

  • compliments

  • association with positive things (beauty, what’s hip, food)

  • success

  • smile

Cialdini


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5. Likeability

Examples:

  • Tupperware parties

  • peer solicitation

  • good cop / bad cop

  • eating together

  • celebrity endorsements

Cialdini


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6. Scarcity

  • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited

  • We want it even more when we are in competition for it

  • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week

Cialdini


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6. Scarcity

  • Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited

  • We want it even more when we are in competition for it

  • E.g.: final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week

Cialdini


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I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity

  • Consistency

  • Social proof

  • Authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology36 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency

  • Social proof

  • Authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology37 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof

  • Authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology38 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

  • Authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology39 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Likeability

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology40 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like

  • Scarcity

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology41 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like

  • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


I social psychology42 l.jpg
I. Social Psychology

  • Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

  • Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

  • Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

  • Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

  • Likeability: we say yes to someone we like

  • Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

Robert B. Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (revised; New York: Quill, 1993)


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Persuasion

  • Social Psychology

  • Ethos

  • Myth


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Ethos

  • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.

  • Goal = credibility

  • Personae: expert, friend, genuine


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Ethos

  • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects

  • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech


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Ethos

  • Definition: the type of person that a writer or speaker projects

  • Aristotle: demonstrate trustworthiness within one’s speech


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Ethos

  • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.

  • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker

  • E.g., the simple rustic


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Ethos

  • Definition: The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.

  • Lysias: provide words appropriate to the speaker

  • E.g., the simple rustic






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Ethos

  • the absentminded professor

  • the overbearing school principal

  • the precocious child

  • the immature father

  • the rich snob

  • the bimbo

Comedy thrives onpersonalitytypes.


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Ethos

  • simplicity or sophistication

  • elitism or egalitarianism

  • emphasis on faculty or students, research or teaching

  • careers and professionalism or the liberal arts

  • athletics or academics

  • regional or national or global

Variable elements of institutional ethos:



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Ethos

  • diversity, tolerance, and openness

  • inquiry and discovery

  • heritage and history

  • location, region and campus

  • community

  • sports

Common elements of institutional ethos:


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Ethos

  • The type of person that a writer or speaker projects.

  • What is the ethos of your school? It’s defining characteristics and values?

  • What is the ethos you bring to your writing and speaking?

  • What is the ethos you wish to project?


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Persuasion

  • Social Psychology

  • Ethos

  • Myth


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Myth

  • Popular meaning = lies

  • Greek muqo (mythos) = story

  • Greek muqo (mythos) opposes λογος (logos), i.e., reason

  • Goal: frame or define a situation to create common ground

  • Benefit: enliven rhetoric


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Myth

  • some myths / stories explain why and how we do the things we do (the first Thanksgiving);

  • some reinforce the values we share in common (Horatio Alger);

  • some frame the way we view the world (manifest destiny)


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What is your story?

  • Help your donors see themselves in a story, especially a meaningful story

  • Touch big ideas

  • Make the story sensory

  • Fill it with shared values (ethos)

  • Provide meaning to your donors’ lives and their philanthropy

  • Create their self-image as donors


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Persuasion

  • Social Psychology

  • Ethos

  • Myth



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